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^N^^ AND OF <^ 


€ommmml, Inkstrial m)i ^mMc: 








VOL. V. 


1 873 . 


9.0L i 5 



'.> ^. 

<: r J '1 w • 


o, the 19Uj lutter ul tlio Knglitih luu^uii^f, 
IS a libitaot catiB0URiil> atul Itaa a tiissiiifj 
aouttd. It liiis two uftvs, oiiu gcuevally at tliu 
begiiiuinp or ettd of woi-Jp, lu pronuutico fi 
mere hittitig as io iBliUatb, eailc, b'la, &c.~ 
^^ the oilier a vorul hissjuf;^ ptBci^c'ly like Uiat 
^Bnf ty tut iu ninse, tnusic, v/'tsv, but its bouikI 
^■ju tbe tniildlu ami vad of words caii nnly be 
HieanteU lijr prnctico. lu n few wnrds it is 
^ silent M in isle, Tlacounl. The sinipld silji- 
luit of Europe occurs iu AvhMc. Stiusciit 

Ptbd ID all Ltidiau al|thnbet9. Th« palaul S 
ofllio Nn^aii nlplinlit;), in use iti n-ortls of 
Si«ucrit ui'ij;iD, is commoDly prououiiced u& 
|4 MWienliat softenal. The' Ainbic nlpliabet 
&ks two letters to whicli iii Indiu 19 given ihv 
swind of f. Ono of lliesc cnlU'd iu Indiu i'&d 
or iwad, haSt nmoitg^l iIih Atiibs, tbt- souud of 
di«l or dhnd, llie oUier Arnbii; Ictur is cntled 
Lin Araibi*, soy or thay, hut in Indiu it has aiily 
[the uLiUut iiOQiid of i. Tbe Fer^inn letter 
ktD, hai the eimpla fiound of the Eiiglifth letter 
The Kn^ari luitcr iA, has Oio ^niiid ol'«A 
the Ku(!tiah nlptiAhet. On the Wt!at«rn 
Idistrictfi oi' Hrilish ludio, uud alan^ tlio lirio 
] of tbe III Jus river the leti«re A aitd f arc iti- 
CSKbtDge&ble, »u that Siiul becomes Hint), 
MhI AlBiE'b a liuu, h rlmugiid into bing, garlic- 
SA, TtllBKTAN, Sftlt, 

SAAD KOFI, Hind. Cyponis langn».C. 
ro(ao(Iu», &L\ 

SAADI. a poet of Iho Fei-sians. Hi* lived 

above an buudrod years, aod died in a.i>.\ '2U'2. 

lafiSt anoiber Pi-iviAn poet, die^l in TUl, of 

bo Hijerab, or a li. I3HB, not 1340, a.% 

igb Bome iniatakn, Kntnpfer aiid otber.i 

calciilaleil.— .InirFii., £set, p. 370 ; 

r/ry** Travels, I'ol. it, p. 3. 

SAAK, Lei'CIii. HiniAtnyMi) laid). 

SAB, Arid. Cypenis Iiexasuwliyus, HotiK 

SABA, an anitient towa in tb« district of 

7i*Iad-ul-Ju)iaf, iu Yemwu, and ibo mpiUil of 

t ^ibt! MDcitiut Sabeaiis. and to llits day thr' ditt- 

^ftrict i* termed llrd'tts-Shnba— or, " Und v( 

^Bb«W It is doubtte-is id'Micical with tbe 

realm whence* the Queen of the East niDie, 

rbu undertook a pilgriniago to J<.'ruial«in to 

nit Solouioo, iil&reb, tbe prmtent capital 

Uie district, t» built on tlie fiite of the 

:ieiit Saba. It coatatn* about tiir^e bun- 

, jmnll liotuc" and Mveral ruiuB, which 

arc nllnitutcd (o <juc4-u IIuUccah. A dyk« or 
diitu of luaiwury Sail-el-Arim or ^odd Moveb, 
fiiiiioui* in Anili bi^Ioiy, wiu draivti Huroeii tbe 
vulley, butwvcn two hills callt-d llalak, i»i\ 
huiidrml pacc« itsuiidBT. Tbu IIiir»ni Uallcees, 
ihv pnhicv of the Queen of Shcliu, is west of 
tho town of Marob. About ooe-foiirtb of tiiu 
wall U pUU flandiiip and uoveied with Ilimy- 
aritiu iiiscriptious. The oiicicui residouce of 
t]i« Queen of Stu-bu, which foniied the eity. 
is ubitut H mile and H half in diiunelvr. At 
tbe limoof tbo Puriplus of tbo d7t[u'oau 
Slii, the Sn^»enll« iiioiwpolixcd tbe uoiiimerce 
of Indi», and acted as intcrmcdintL- iigcuta 
betWL-on tbe meridiiinLA of ludiu und R;;ypl. 
tu the luigD of l*(ohiny I'liiUner (a. k 177) 
tbe Ui-e«k .'iOvorci|.'D^ in k^ypt had uot traded 
directly to Judia, but imported their Indian 
coramodiiica tbruugU Halio, tlio capital of 
Ai-abiu FeliK. Tbe port uf Bei'enico was uot 
used for that commerce, but Myo» Hormos ov 
Araenoc] was still tbe omgmritim, auJ tho only 
trade down the const of Afi icn, was for olc- 
pliaiit'et (eotli. The trade to tko East had 
beun monopolized by iJio niercbauts of Salifea, 
n-oin tlie piiii-iai'cbul days of Job. The period 
(It which the kingdom of Saba or Ilamyor 
tlouvi^bed. was tbo guidon age of Arabic poe- 
try. The religiou of the ilamyarites, in tbeir 
devotion, vtmi directed toa innltitude of deities 
of which tho princii»»l wcro represented by 
the tun, moon and planets. SuIja, gurnnmett 
Hebfi', WAA tlwi father of Kublun (tloq- 
tau), father of Yoomb, father of Yabsab, 
father of Alid-us-SJiams. Abiil Feda aacrilMJs 
tho cottflU-uction of the Mareb-doia to Abd- 
iis-Sbanis, but oUier lii;storiftns ascribe it 
toLoqnuiu, king of iljntreoinantof tbo Adile» 
W'hn reiiouiic^tl idolatry on iJio preacbiog of 
tbo prophet Hud, and who are usually styled 
the second Aditos. Sabi, was also a name 
applied (u Abid-u^Slmmf<f founder of Ma riaba. 
AinotifTst \m t^oTia were Hamyar, Ami-u, Kab* 
lau and Afdjuar. — Flar/fair's Adtn ; ^rty 
Chrittinuitif. Sec Abid-us-Shanift, March. 

SABA.'iaid to signify a hoiat, particulaily 
tlie host of benven, or ihe colcftliol bodiee, 
in tbe adoratioo of which the Stbnin litunl is 
liotiuveil to have coneiated : the e&lodtial 
bodies, ibe ptaucts and conslellalioits were 
l>ersotiified io tbe Genii ui Good autl Kvil. 



Sftbcigm, was formally re- introduced in Ku- 
seem, by Darim, alKtut the year 1200, and 
prevailed till tbe Wahabi revi¥al. lu the 
Vedic SabfeuDlBm ouly tbe elemental powers 
are iavokcd. Sabean woithip, once extensive- 
ly previled in South America. There is a 
curious passage ia Taveniier conceming the 
aversion of the Sabauius to blue ; and there 
eziats a similar antipathy among the Kurdish 
aeut of the Yezidi (who appear to have been 

death. Then they ciy onto the Lord in their 
trouble, and he tsaveth them out of their dis- 
tresses. He aendeth his word, and healetli 
them, and deHvereth them from their destruc- 
tion. Oh, that men would praise tbe Lord 
for his goodness, and for bis wonderful works 
to the children of men.' (Psalm, cvii.) ' If 
there be for bim an angel, an intercessor, one 
among a thousand, to show uuto man bis 
uprightness ; then he is gracious unto him, 

once christiBUH) for that colour, grounded on ' and faith. Deliver him from going down to 
a different, although not less absurd reason, the pit ; I have found a ransom.' (Job. xxxii, 
Taveruier makes mention of another pecu- 23.) Whilst moving the atonement round 
liarity of the Sabaeaus and calls it the cere- i his head, he says : ' This is my substitute, 
mony of the fowl, which their priests alone | this is my commuration, this is my atonement, 
have the right to kill ; but be does not er- ; This cock goeth to death ; but may I 1<e 
plain in what this ceremony consists, so that gathered and enter into a long and happy life, 
we cannot now judge whether it has any con- : and into peace.* He then bt^itis again ut tbe 
nexion with a custom prevalent among the words, 'The <:bildrea of men,' and so he does 
Gurani tribe oftheZagros chain, between Ker- 'three times. Theu follow the various altera- 
manshah and Zoliab. The Gurani, are all of | tiooa that are to be made when the atonement 
the Ali-Ilahi sect, or believers in the Hivioity ! is for a women, or another pei-son, &c. Then 
of Ali (the cousin anffsou-iu-law of Muham- | is added : * As soon as one has performed tlie 
roed), and they have a yearly ftfstival, which I order of tbe atonement he should lay his 
they call the feast of the fowl. In every < haudion it, as the hands used to be laid on 
village, each bead of a family brings a fowl : the sacrifices, and immediately afUr give it 
to their sheikh or priest When tbe contri- : to be slaughtered'. This similarity of custom 
button ia collected, and the fowls killed and | between tbe Jews and tbe AH-IIabi explains 
cleanetl, they are thrown into a Urge kettle j why the latter offer tbe figure of a cock on 

and boiled. So soou as they are ready, the 
people assemble ; a cloth is thrown over the 
kettle, which is placed before the priest, who 

the shrine of their holy men. Barou de Bode 
found several of these cocks, some carved in 
wood, others made of porcelain, placed on the 

dips bis hand into it, and, taking it oat piece- top of the tombs of their cereral Pir in the 
meal, presents a morsel to each person pre- ! mountainous districts of Holivan and 2^faah, 
sent in rotation. The individual to whose I among the Gurani tribes. — Palgrave \ Baron 
share falls tbe head of the fowl, is snpposed ' C. A. l)e Bode't Travelt in Luriiton and 
to be more favoured than the rest by Ali, j Arabittan, Vol. ii, pp. 177 — 184 ; Taylor ; 
daring tbe course of tbe rear. It is supposed i Chatfietd, Hindoottan, p. 145 ; Sale'i Pre- 
that the Ali-Ilahi ara of Jewish extraction, | Jiw. Diac. Koran, Vol. i, p. xx ; Hyde^t 
and this ceremony of tbe fowl may proceed Jiel. Vet. Ptrsar, Chaps, iii and t. See 

from the Rabbinical custom of saerificing a 
cock once a year on the eve of the day of: 
atonement, although nowhere countenauced 
by the law of Moses. On the eve of the ' 
day of atonemeBtf in order to make atone- . 
ment, a cock is taken for a man, and a heu 

for a woman ; and for a pregnant woman, a [ francs the pound . 

Chaldea, Karund, Kibla. 

SABAB, a mountain ofSiam, near which 
and on the frontiers of the Xong tribes, pre- 
cious atones consisting of rock ciystal, cat'i- 
eyes, topazes, garnets, sapphires and rubies 
ara found, which are «old at from 16 to 60 

hen and also a cock, on account of the child. 
The father of the family makM the atone- 
ment for himself; for tbe high priest first 
atoned for himself, then for his family, and 
afterwards for all Israel. He takes the cock 
iu Ma band, and says these verses : * The 
chiMren ^ men that sit iu darkness and the 
abodow oraeath, being boand in affliction and 
icoD, he brought them out of darKuess and 
the shadow of death, and broke their bonds 
in sunder. Pools, because of their transgres- 
sion mnd because of their iniquities, are 
ftfflioted. Thair soul abborreth all manner of 
nMt ; ud they draw bay uato tke gates of 

SABADILLA, fruit of Veratrum saba- 
dilla, of Assgrtea offlrinalis, and several other 
Melanthace», Ben. Phar, 

SABAGB.£, according to Orosiat>, a 
people who made their submission to Alex- 
ander the Great, diiriug bis halt at tbe con- 
fluence of the Faojah rivers. According to 
Curttus they were called Sambracn or Sabra- 
cie ; and according to Diodorus, who placed 
them to tlio east of the river, Sambastae. 
They were a powerful nation, secoud to none 
in India for conrngs and numbers. Their 
forces coDststed of 60,000 foot, 6,000 horse, 
and SOO obarioli. The nilitary repotation of 

S 2 

th« cUn mig^esU to General CiiiminghBin ibe 
prol>«t>ility that lh« Greek uame may be 
descrlpUre of tlieir vrsi'like cltaravU.')', juetas 
Ynudbeya ineuii " v«rrJor or soUier." He 
thinks liierefora tltut llie true Greek name 
taty liBTQ been Sambngnp, for the Saunkril 
StniTftgri, that is, the " utiiteJ warrtorft," or 
Xv¥ftmiax9i, which, as thej frere formed of 
lhr«e allied tribes, Woulil havo l>«<:u na ap- 
firoprittU* appellattou, lu euppi^rl of this 
■urmisc. he meutloQfi that the coumry of 
which Bikaaftr ia now the capitAl wa« ori- 
git\iy called Ragar'tlen, or thu himl of the 
Bagri or ** wairiors." whow leader was 
Bagri K«a, The word Bltati also nittaui 
" iToiTtor or toldicr/' aod tiiua ar the preseul 
day, the lrtb«s calUug theioselvcs " waiTiorii," 
fufto a larKe proportion of the population iu 
tha rouuti-iea to the east of tiio Satlej ; 
Doniclr, the Johiya or Yaudhp^'B aloug the 
riror.'tiie Ba^t ia Bikaiior. aod tho Blmti in 
Jaaalmer. Alt throe iru of neknowk-dged 
laiutr descent. He ihtnka it po<i6ibltf that 
name Sambagri tnifjht have beeu applied 
to liiMe three clan**, and not to the tlireo 
tribes of the Tau'Uicya, hut he thinks, that 
the Ynitdheya have a su)wrior clniru, both od 
account of their uridoul-itod antiquity. To 
then hft attnhul«« the fouudatioii of the town 
of Ajudban, or Aynilliaitam, the "baitle- 
M" whicli ii evideuily votiDet-ted with t)i«ir 
•WD ROioe of Youdlieyn, orAjudlicya, (lie 
"■ woiriora," aod he cbiDks the latler fmtn of 
the Dana ia must probably preserved la tlie 
Oiaadii of Arrian. a free people n'ho lendi-rcd 
tlM»r altrgiouRH to Alexander at the coii6ii- 
pfiec of tbe Patijiih rivern. — Cunninghiifn't 
AnxutU Gtog. of India, p. 246. 

SAB/ KTAtl^IX. fadiLT of MahmuJ, ihe 
GhoinHTi. -liet) in 997. Hi^ name is also 
written SabiKjtacin. He ruled (rom x, D. 976 
ill A. I>. 997. He was a Turk, purchiised by 
laptagin, whom he snTt-ct-dcil in AS'^lianis- 
Un, Gbnai and C«iniah«r. He twice defi?aied 
aipali whom he drovt< tn lli« hnnka of the 
udm. He wa^ nurtrefded by hii aori lainael, 
t IsiDa«I afl«r a lew montliK wns put aside 
^ Mahmnd. Saltaqtagiu, eAlnldifthed an in- 
dspecideot dominion nvfr all llmsoutUeru )uirta 
of Ail^b«til»>tnii. making Ghncni hia i-xpilal. 
liia aoR Mahinud, wlio died A. D. 1028. eu- 
nebti AflT^haiiiftan with the apoila of India. 
n>fr;n of the craol Bahraoi, one of lUe 
'o d*'srandaiitii, the Sabaktngiu ilynwiy 
daprirad of ull but the Patijab, and tliie 
ia A. D. J liiO, ihey lo^u Seo ASgiiaoia- 
Goor, IfioHtfl Snmnnl, Mnhmiid. 
SA-BA-Lb^N, BuRM. AndiopogoD citra- 
iB. aUo Andfopocnn arhsnanlhuE, /.inn 
SABALIA in Guierai, a low caste, em- 
ployed in tending eattli'. 



SABAO. PoHT. Soap, 

SAKAU^. The Sabine of Ptolemy, are 
theSuari of Pliny, and both niny beideuHSod 
witli iheaborigiJiul5aTarBorSuuri,nowu wild 
race of wood-culters who live in the moon> 
tainous parts of the nortb-eaatem districts of 
PeuiufluUr India. The Savari or Sahoriaof 
the Gwalinr territory occupy the juoifle oo 
the Kotn frontier to the westward ol Murwar 
and Guiiu. — CNiiftin^Anm'it Anrtent Geotj. 
of India, p. 509 Sec Suar, ChenRiiar. 

SABARMATI, a rivor of Cambay. 

SABATHU. iu lat. 30* 51-, long. 76' 
5S', a mllilaiy fitatiou, a few miles N. E. of 
Simla. Tho<^autanment is4,S0.S fl., and tho 
fort is 4,283 ft. above th© sea, G^r. 

8ABBA JATA, Hinu. Canna indica, 

SAB-CH£ER, Bekg. SpiloruU oheala, 

Da mi, 

SABBE, n river near Fntiohbad ia Ajmir, 
aod runs ueiu* Jatitb in Palomlie. 

SABERMATY. sefl Kalmmk. Sabarmati. 

SUBERNAHltCA. a river (luit iteiiaratea 
Bt-n^u! from Orissa, and opens into the Bay 

SABIIA, Sak9. a Rotnmitieo, atiasseiuMy. 

.SABHA-MANDAP, Hi5ii. A portico, 
or au erection In front of a hitidoo temple 
where iwnple UFsenibla : tiie njieii »pnoe tif 
a luniplu to front of the apattuit-nt of thts 
idol : an audience hall, an BhEemlity room. 

SABI, the Christiana of St. John, the 
Mpndai Ynhia, culled Sabi, by tho Pcrslaus. 
It ia not known whether Ihcne be the Sabeuns 
alluded to in Scripture, (Joel iii, t)), who, 
in the tiniea of Abmham, wor!>hipped Iho 
host of hcAven. Thi-y believe in the diiiniiy 
of our Saviour aud tlie Holy Trinity. They 
i-eco^nire Jnhn the Baptisit tie their Great 
Prophet, and (.all bim Pniphainbar Yafaaiino, 
hence their numr', ChrtRtinns of .Su *Tobn. 
They dwell principally at ShnstL-r and Dizful. 
— Chesneff- See Sidai, Sihi- 


Fa.. It. ; Sohol, 


I ZoWl, 

I Onu of tiio wcum-Ik, Mnstela xibelliDa, n 
native of Nmllnrrn Europe nnd Siberia, with 
a Sne fur, tiie linivn of which iitrn with eqnal 
ease in pvei-y dirertion. Its folour is genorftllly 
of B dwp p'osey brown or btn<^k, and nome- 
timi's, though very n;rely, yellnw and white. 
^Fnnlhner ; SUngley : ifcCnUoth. 

Willum mutobie, DUK. | Willam maaa, Tau. 

] A fpetries of Clupra. 

SABO FllANGl, Malat. Cocumisraelo. 

I SABOGX, Akab , Gnx., ]|i.Nt)., Mauit., 
&Uo Sujnh, Maut* Soap, 

S » 



SABQTA-SfNDHU, sec HinJoo. 

SABR or Sibi', An. Aloe litoralie, Kteiiig. 

IJanavalia gladiata. — D, Cand. ; Roxb, ; fV. 
.Of A. 

SUBTANC*. Tho Basliee iulanda cousiat 
of a chain, iu tlio Eaateru Avcbipolago tnostlj 
higli, lyiug north of tlio Babuyan islaiida, 
from lat. 19- 58' N. to long. 21" 13' N. 
Their names ai'o 

Jialiiitanx or Kichmonri L. 19>' 58 . L. 122^ 14 ' 

RaUn or Daropier'H Orafion... 20 17t. 121 57 

Suktiuti; orSnbtan, Monmouth 

Inl&nd nf IHinpier. 
Ruhoe laliuirl.BAynt, urOrango 


The north lla»Iiee ihlands consist of one 
largo nnd two small i<-luuJH in lat. 21* 3^' 
N. — Horsburyh, Direclortf. 

SA BIT-DANA, llijii>. Sago, f\n. Sagu- 

SAimN.HiNr.. Soa[>. 

SABUNI, Hind. A kiml uf emerald. 

SADUNI, Benc., Hini>. Triauthema 
(ihcordata, rIro Aspmngus roccmosus. 

SABUBKAN or Shaburkau, a city of 
Viuzjan, west of I'alkli, thu Shibbcrgaii and 
Shubcrgau of tho mtips of Europe. 

SABL'-THA-BEY, Burm., is one of 
tho largest trees of Burmah. Fruit, eizo of 
n Hniall peacli, red, very many seeds, hanging 
in dusters from the trunk. — Maleom, i, 179. 

SABUVI, Beso. Trianthcma obtordata, 
Uorh., properly Sabmii. 

SABZ or Sabz rang, HiNi>., Pfrh. (ireen. 

SABZA, HiNi.. Emerald. 

SABZAK, Hind. The green tly-cateher. 

SABZI, Hind. A variety of riee, also 
I 'nniiubis sativa. 

SABZ-MITTI, Hind. An ravth used to 
wash tho hair. 

SACyK. TIiQ Saka of the Inndooh cannot i 
lie other than the Ravni or Sakni of dasaical 
geography. They are porputually named in 
various works, an<l seem to havt: i>eei) known 
on the borders of India or in il^s western 
districts in the first century pn'ceding i-hristi. 
anity. Vikiamadityo, king of Ougcin, known 
M Sakari, or enemy of the Sacii, Inn era dates 
R. c. •'iCt, and it should iip[>i;ur that about this 
tiate, some northern trilM.>8 had wattled tliem- 
.solvcs along the Indu», constituting the 
ludo-Seythi of Arrjan. Theii' attempt to 
[>cneLrato furtliei* to the eaftt, by way of 
Kftiidcsli and Malwa, was not improbably 
arrcalod by Vikramaditya, whence the epithet 
Hakari. The Sacm are supposed by Profes- 
suv Lassen to be the Szii Tartar who were 
ex[»e)Ied about l-IO b. c. from tin' Hi valley 
by tho Vuot-elii or White Hiiuo, whom he 
support"-.* t<-> be the Toelnri After oi-enpy- 

ing Tahift or Soghdiana for r time, they are 
further stated by the Chiaeae to have been 
driven thence also by the Yeugnr some 
years afterwards, and to have eatahlished 
themselres in Kipen, in which name Lassen 
recognise? the Kopfaeu valley in Kabulistao. 
Other stranger races, however, seem to have 
come from the N. W, into India. One of these, 
the YavHQB, is, in modem times, applied by 
hindoos of Northern India to mahomedans of 
every description, but in works prior to the 
mahomedan era, some other people must be 
inteiided. The interpretation of the word 
by Sir W. Jones is, Ionian or Asiatic Greek, 
and tliere ara some considerations in iti 
favour, although the chief argument in its 
behalf is the difficulty of attaching it to any 
other people. The mountaineers, or Kirata 
may have come from any part of India. They 
are known iu classical geography as the Cir- 
rhadn or the Cirrodes, the latter in Soghdi- 
ana, near the Oxus. The Kamljoja are the 
people of the Arachosia, or north-eastern 
province of Persia. For the sites of the 
Bahika, we are indebted to the Mahabharat, 
and the Parasika apeak for themselves. A 
branch of tho Sacfe, on one occasion invaded 
the inhabitants oo the borders of the Pontic 
sea : wbitet engaged in dividing the booty, 
the Persian geuerals surprised them at night, 
and exterminated them. To eternise the re- 
membrance of this event, the Persians heaped 
up the earth round a rock in the plain where 
the battle was fought, on which they erected 
two temples, one to the goddess Anaitis, tho 
other to the divinities, Omanusaod Anandate, 
and then founded the annual festival called 
Sac»a, still celebrated by the possessors of 
Zela. Such is the account by some authors of 
the oi-igio of Saca?a. According to others it 
dates from the reign of Cyrus only. This 
prince, they say, having carried the war into 
the country of the Sacas (Massagetn of Hero* 
dolus) lost a Uttlc. Compelled to fall back 
on his magazines, abundantly stored with pro- 
visions, butespecially wine, and having halted 
some time to refresh his army, be departed 
before the enemy, feigning a flight, aod leav- 
ing his camp standing full of provisions. The 
Sacse, who pursued, reaching the abandoned 
camp stored with provisions, gave themselves 
up to debauch. Cyrus returned and surpris- 
ed the inebriated and HCDSetess barbarians. 
Some, buried in profound sleep, were easily 
massacred ; others occupied in drinking and 
dancing, without defence, fell into the hands 
of armed foes ; so that all perished. The con- 
queror, attributing his suceess to divine pro- 
tection, consecrated tliis day to the goddess 
honoured in hia couutry, and decreed it 
*hnuM be called the day nf the Sacva. This 




is the battle related by Heroilotus, to which 
Strmbo alludes, between the Persian monarch 
tad Tomyris qaeen of the Gretie. Amongst 
the Rajpat Sachs, all grand battles attended 
with fatal results are termed Saca. When 
besieged, without hope of relief, in the last 
effort of despair, the women and girls are 
immolated, and the warriors, decorated in 
saffron robes, rash on inevitable destruction. 
This is to perform saca, where every branch 
(sacha) is cnt off. Cheetore has to boast of 
having thrice (and a half) su^red saca. 
Cheetore sac'ha ka pap, * by the sin of the 
Mck of Cheetore,' is the moat solemn adjura- 
tion of the Gehlote Aajput. If such is the origin 
of the festival from the slaughter of the Saca 
of Tomyris, it wtti be allowed to strengthen 
ike analogy between the Sacse, east and west 
of the Indus. Sacs, Gete, Aswo, and Taksbac, 
ore names which have crept in amongst the 
thirty-six royal Baj put races, common with 
others also to early civilization in Europe, aud 
thero is ancient aatliority on their original 
abodes. Strabo says : " AH the tribes east of 
the Caspian are called Scytbic. The Dahte 
next the sea, the Massagetn (greatGele) and 
Saese more eastward ; but every tribe has u 
particular name. All are nomadic, but of 
these nomades the best known are tlie Asi, 
the Pasiani, Tacbari, Saccaranii, who took 
Bactria from the Greeks. The Sncie (* races') 
have made in Asia in-uptions similar to those 

ahka races, of the Puranas, of Saca-Dwipa. 

C'est vraisemblablement d' aprcs le nom de 

Tachari, que M. D'Auville aui-a ci-u devoir 

placer les tribus ainsi denommees dans le 

territoiro qui s' appele aujourdhui Tokaris- 

t'han, sitae, dit ce grand geographe, entre 

les niontagnes et le Gthon on Amou. Bryant 

gives the following as a passage from Cliaeri- 

liua in the history of the Sacsaau Cuthiles, of 

whose ancestry he speaks with great honor' 

in describing the expedition of Alexander tlio 


Next mkrch'd the Smb, fond of pastorftl life 
Sprang from the Cutbite nomadw, who Uv'd 
Amid the pUina of Aiik, rich io gntin 
They from the ihepherd ntoe derired their soarce 
ThoH ihepherdi who in anoient timei were deemed 
The jaitest of mankind.— /nd. Inf., p. 16. 

A tribe bearing the name of Sues ts still 

fouud ill Jhalawau. It is supposed that they 

arc the descendants of the Sacie from between 

the Paropamison mountains and the Sen of 

Aral who ac!compauied Alexander, and rc- 

tuiiiiug with Craterus through the Moolla 

pass, settled in their present position. Tod 

states that Sacie in Sanscrit has the aspirate, 

Sac'hie : meauiug literally, tlie ' brunches* or 

races. The Saca of Indian history, however, 

ure undoubtedly the Sucse races of Central Asia. 

The captive Israelites, tho Sucie, the Gets 

or Gothi became blended together in some of 

their migrations. The Sacse are placed by 

Ptoltdmy bvsidu the Massogetro, and the Sacio 

of the Cimmeriaus ; thus tliey h^ve been \ and Scyttiiuns were always coufoundcd toge- 

ecen to possess themselves of Bactria, and : 
the best district of Armenia, called after them : 
Saeascnie." Which of tho tribes of Rajas- 
than IK the offspring of the Aswa and Mede, 
of hindoo race, returned under new appella- 
tion!!. Col. Tod says, we shall not now stop to 
enquire, limiting our hypothesis to the fact of 
invasions, and adducing some evidence of such 
heinc simultaneous with migrations of the 
same bands into Europe. Hence the inference 
of a common origin between tlie Rajpoot and 
early faces of Europe ; to support which, a 
eimilnr mythology, martial manners and 
poetry, languRge,and even music and architec- 
toral ornaments, may be adduced. Of the 
first migrations of tlie Indu-Seythic Gate, 
Tikshflc, and Asi, into India, that of Sehes- 
Mg, (Takshac), from Sehesuagdes (Techaris- 
thao?) or Sehesnag, six centuries, by calcu- 
lation, before Christ, is the first noticed 

ther.— ffiiirf. Theat, Vol, ii, p. 179 ; Toita 
Rajatthan, Vol. \, p. 70 ; quoting Strabo, 
lib. xi, p. 254; Indian Infanticide, p. 16. 
See Ariuu, Bactria, Hindoo, Kabul, Kelat, 
Kurmsnq, Viswaraitra. Note 3, 11, v, xi, 
p. 254, StrnboQ. 

SACA-DWIPA, Scythia. The Puranas 
of the hiudoos describe Suca-dwipa or Scy- 
thia. Diodorus, (lib. ii,) makes the Hemodus 
tlie boundary between Sacn-Scythia, and 
India Proper. Sec Scythes, Scythia. 

SACAM, or the white islund, meutioued in 
tho Puranas, in England. It is mentioned in 
tho Varaha I'uruna ns in possession of tho 
Sakie.— miford. 

SACAMUARI, or Sacnmbhari, a goddess, 
the tutelary divinity of tho Cboulion tribes, 
whose stutuo is in the middle of a luke. 
Colonel Tod derives Sacambhari from sacam, 
the pluriil of sacha;, ' branch or race,' and 

by the Puranas. About this period a grand arablmr, * covering, protecting.' 
irroption of the same races conquered Asia 
Minor, and eventually Scandinavia ; aud not 
long after the Asi and Tachari overturned 
the Greek kingdom of Bactria, the Romans 
r«lt the power of the Asi, the Catti, and 
Cinibri, from the Baltic shore. The Asia and 
Tftchnri, are the A«wn and Tnkshac^ "r Toov- 
■1 S 

The iuvoca- 
tiom is Om ! Sacambari Mata ! Oin ! — Tod's 
Rajasthan, Vol. i, p. 95. 

SACASEN^, the ancestors of the Saxon 
race. They dwelt in Armenia on the confines 
of Albania. La Sacasene, snys a French author 
" etoit uiie coiitree du V Atme\uti ftuv \es 
confine tic I' Ajbnuic nudvi SV\\t\aft.'" CKntc, 



— 4, tome i, p. 191, Strabon.) It might not 
be uuworthj of i-eBeardi to inquire wbeUier 
the Kimbri, the Jut or Gete, the Sicaseiue, 
tiia Catti of the Elbe aad Cimbric Chei-so- 
liese, aod the ancient Brilou, did not bi'ing 
their reiius with their bards and vatea (the 
Bbatond Bardai) from the highland of Scy- 
tbiaeaat of the Caspian, which originated the 
iiatioas common to both, improved l>t7ond the 
WoJgaand the ImJus. — Tumer'n History of 
the Anglo-Saxona ; Sailam, Vol. \ ; i'oiTt 
Bajasfhan, Vol. i, p- 164. 

SAC ARE, a weight of 20 gi-ains used in 
Madagasffar. — Simmond't Diet. 

SACATAI, Scythia. See Scythes, Scythia. 


SACCHARUM, a genus of plants of tlie 
natural order Pauii^acew and section Sarcha- 
reie. There are many opecies of the genus, 
all growiug in wat-m rounlri«8. Fire s|iecie8 
growing iu Burmah, viz., the Ka-ing ; Kyan- 
tnai ; La-maii-myeet ; Kyan-mi*n ; Boung 
kjan ; and Htee-po-ka-baau-bsn, but Imvi; 
not been speciflcolly determined. Griflitli 
collected nearly one hundred difTt^rent grfts.ies 
in the Ti-nasserim provinces. Speries of 
Saccharum, S. sara and S. spOntanvum, nre 
used for thatching, forming chair bottom}*, 
and yield writing pens and arrows. Saccha- 
rum officinarum is the sugar-i-sne, from 
which is produced n lar^e qiiHiitity of the 
sugar used by mau. It is a native of the 
Eouth and west of Asia, and was introduced 
by the Saracens into the south of Euro)>e It 
has several vaiieties, of which one is the 

S. comoiunfl or Kaitve Cans of West Indina. 
fi purpiireum, KhjooU, Bkho. 
M giganteum, KulIooA, „ 
S tahitenae, OUheite cine. 

Two other species yielding ^ugar are .nlso 

admitted, vii. ; — 

S. Tfolcftsum, Tustae, lald to be identiotl with the 

Otftheite no*- 
S. aiaenM, Raxb., cultivfttad in China. 

The known species may be thus enumerated : 

8. ean&licuUtum, J?ojc6., of Bengal. 

8. cyliadricum t Ajmir. 

8. fuKum, Roth., „ 

8. munjis Roxh., Hiodu^taa, Stod. 

S. oScinuum, Linn., E. ludiei, Chiuii, AV. lodie*, 

fl. procerum, RoaA., Bengal. 
a mm, Roah., B«ttg&l. 
S. utoidecumbene, Roxb., Bengal. 
8. lineoee, Bo*b„ China, India. 
S. spontaDeum, lAnn., 8. Aaia. 
8. violaceuni, T**tae, Polynesia. 

Sogg. ; Vou/t. 

Saguenis cylindrica. 
Horae'a tail grua. j Oola, Hind. 

Grows on the Ajmere plains and flowers 
early in the raini. — Genl.Med. Top.,p. 174. 



Khori, BtKO. I lahwalika, Saks. 

P»ti kori, „ I Kanda reUu gaddi, Tku 

Grows in Bengal. Natives make llieir 

pens of its culms, and also use it for screens 

and light fentws. The best dark-coloured 

reeds with which the natives write, are msde 

I from this spe<;ies.— {^oi^l. 


8nr-p«t», UtKD.|8irki, S'ikd. 

Suit, Simd. | Ponika: Munjkgaddi. Tiu 

This grass grows tln-oughnut IndiH, but in 
the Panjab it covers immense tracts oC in- 
uudated lands, and forms the chief difficulty 
of tlie agriculturist, as it rapidly encroarhes 
on tlie cultivation. The ropes made fram 
its from the sheathing petiole, are possessed 
of great tenacity and utied us rigging in all 
the vessels above Sukkur, alco as tow-ropes, 
for tying up cattle and for tying on the 
hui;kei»i of peiviaii welU. The twine made 
from it is n^ed Tor the butloma of bedi>lends. 
The plant growii ut Bmai-es and in Noi-tlifru 
Circars, is common iit Ajmir, in tlie valleys, 
and very abiindniit, along with the Saccha- 
rum procerum, ni-ar Jeypore. The bust 
nioonj rope is made from the floral leaves of 
tiiis plant, and the best siikee rope from the 
culms. The plant is dintinguitiheiJ from Sac- 
charum procerum hy its height, which is 
inferior, the fineness of the culm and narrow- 
ueas of the leaves- The Sacclmrum muiija 
ropes ai-e used in BengHl for tying tip rat- 
tle aud drawing water. With the biMitmcii 
of the Indus below Sukkur, coir rope is 
very generally employed, being ht-tter able, 
it is believe<l, to stand the action of salt- 
water. Two-inch ropes, often fifty fathoms 
in length, are made of its fibrep, bciug suffi- 
cient for dragging their largest 1,200-mauiul 
boalf up the lndnf<, and couKequcully agHiu^l 
the full force of the stresm, even round 
projecting points. The ro|>e is light, beaMs 
without injury, alternate exposure to wet 
anti to Bubsequfiit drying. Plants growing 
beyond the ninj^u of the overflowings of tin; 
river, or of the influence of the tides are bent. 
The upper It-nves, about a foot or so in 
length, are preferred and collected. Tht-y nio 
made up into bundles, ami ai*e kept for u«e. 
When required for twi:'link; into rop<% ihey 
I arc fii'St moiHtened in water, then, two men 
I sitting opposite to each other, lake one of 
' these moibt bnndles and bent it alternately 
with mallets, unlil the loose cellular, are 
separated from the fibrouA, [larts. These are 
then ready for twistiug into the ropea which 
are so extensively employed on tJie InduF. 
A continuation of ttie same procexs, or the 
employment of the dheukee would afford a 
very ample supply of half-stuff for paper- 




sk«r>. ami »t » rltwip-rale. If lite rope h 
•t oQi-n»locuii(]r weLi«(l, kikI alluwcd to l«< 

e l€W drj", it Msily bi'vaks when iiwd. 
h> i>pcpfiwd flhre i-o-tu two nijwv* per 

mid. It W(i» liiwrly being uporierf from 
iirrachpn and brines £5 lo £8 per ton. — 
Itwi, ; I'oivt. : trvinr, p. 175 ; .W, A" X W. ! 
oj//e, /nrf. /"iArM, p. 30 ; Cnt. Cat. £*., 
86Si7Viiw//. IW. i.p. 520. 



Sutlcj, KavL 

., pKOJAh. 


Sullrj. 1'iinjftti. 

FHadiiBr : Jmod * 



[Tko, «f Florei !• 

K>Till:ll>n, ftl A LBAU 

To, M>rquMni,Tnhili. 
Rnnoilid, TaXJAB. 

Nxi-ihuVr, Pbbr 


Kur«, ,, „ I 

Cotnmqp in the pinittt of Imlia. Its culms 
ai« finer and kLrotif^ei' ttiim tliM« of S. pro- 
cei'um, mid when ol^tMinHhle niv o«ad to nuiko 
Arrows of, iu pi-vft>i«u'?e to the oihw ftpeoie* 
ut-t'd atsu lur the rumtnon "kulm"or reed 
pea with which in Iiptlin, iho Arabic und 
Pur&iati chuiiclf^rs nm iriitU'ii ; il is Euid lo 
Imj heatrii into a rmlv filiro aud then twisird 
inio » ro|w ; ^Ir. Uvuljr inrortnisi Dr. Kovta 
that ilic pel) reed {»rni=» is empioyed as r tow- 
line b%' th« bonitnen about Allahahad and 


Kjru of Buniei}. 

Roller mill. 
, ft^tt . Puu. I Belna, Kulbui T f^itJ. 

■■t Ftatlr miU. 

^^^H Kotba. Pakj. 

^V This •p*riefl of the sgcnr-rane i^ supposed 

^tfl b« ft twtiTv of the Bant Iiidi« and W have 

ffrrad froQi th«re in other euunU-icf^ iuto 

^Ar'ri<-A, tlte south of Europe, the Ci«nnne« and 

^Blht^ We4t Indirn. A i-un^iderahln fortioii of 

* the jUgar of coinnn^rrc i» mnnnfftclurtfd Irom 

ihU (perir*, hoi th<i S. vtotaoeiim is now more 

rjlensiveW oilllivatfil and Ihn joicM of thfi 

PihnjT* ft'nd phceoix palms i« fltxo hirpRlj 

rooTert^ into sugar.— yVorA., Toiy*. Smith, 



iuni MMhanni. t»c.. I SMkan.. Hotd. 

iKkna^ Hiko. I tiukM. „ 

*Growa ID Bengal and is \\:\y nhuiidant 

■ r»Kry whwe ou the ridges and plain- 
of Ai'"*'* where wiiler ia not verv far from 
ihe surface. The lower part* of the culm?, 
«alkd "sirkmiiia," um made (iilo ont-'^idc 

K«. :t«Ddwieli IiUnila- \ Mirzaptro, mid vflte^^ined ttfor !(• ntrergth &tid 
dorahility er«ii whfo vxpoHcd to the action of 
water. — M'iitif, Gen. Med. Zbp., p. 175 ; 
Hos6, Voigt t Hat/ie. Set* Gram!iiiireii>. 
The Plant, 
Kbnri. RvKO. < Neju. HtKD. 

Tat, Hutu. I 

Th« (inn. | Th« Cnlm. 

Uora, HntD. | Kftlik, Ilnro. 

Tlie clumq arc uocd for screens attd pens. 


plant of Cliina cultivated io India. 


MaT\'k«ii, Cant. 


3. biflorum, PanL \ ln>p«rk4A>p<int«iiint, TVta. 


tW*tiD, •> 

II. Tao. 

,ril1>ll. TaU. 

HWP. ! Runnpnliichsrakn. ,, 
Am, u>*u, ,, 

Arn-KaunpaU kranusa. 





Klin. MAVit.., 









K»ki veduru, 





Thjitch Kf««, 




Tht8 grass grows In every part of Hindo* 
Stan ; is common on islands, &>:., throogh- 
oul tho Punjab plnJos ; is veiT abundant io 
the ptiiins ui' AJmei-e where the biosson in 
the rains ha^ u bt-nnuful sitvorr appcarauee. 
nrooms arfi rodde of tlie culm<<, striiig of its 
Itfives, and tlie whole i« used to tlitilch with. 
The Karens iu Amherst Proviuce cover their 
hounen with the tall grasKis which ai-e so 
iiUundAtil on tho i-uu^t, iind n few European* 

chkki far iloorwiijs. &<'. : ilie upper pans of j pit.-ft-rtliii'Mtbatfb to that made from thouipa. 
tW culms, calleJ "«irkee" mh mmle inro 
extell^t nent and rlieup m»l&, much used in 
ihalcbing, &» , the floral loiifus ore made iuto 
" moooj," Mp*r«ling the libre«, by HealiiiK 
ihf leaves ; Ibis is very murh used to ii>ake 
ilria^and rope.-~Bttxburff/i, Flor. ludiea ; 
Irvtne, Gen- Med. Top., p. 175. 












Irai«ralaeylindricB, syn. of Saucharum cylin- 
dricura and Sacrhavum si>ontaiietim, are how< 
ever u«.-d for Uiin purpose. It is in much 
demanil for twine ; nod elephants, honiett, 
uud horneil cattle do not object to It as 
fodder. The grass grow* from three to fifteen 
feet high, and it llowei's io great profusion 
after Uie roins, A familiar couplet, in which 
tlie hunger and amrice of hrahmin.i are 
sporlivety niludefl to, shows the conect pro* 
nuuciatioo fts well as the seasoQ of ita flower- 
ing : 
• 7 




OUhcite cano, Eko. 


Otaheito angvcuie, „ 


Khiuh-bM, Hlifn. 


OhMinft, „ 




POB»i .. 


Ayo kuiiogat plioolc Can 
Hnmhuii huct, lie clioolhc iiaa. 

'• Tlie lime (kooar) for porfomiiiif^ the 
ceremony in lioDour of deceased anocstors has '. 
arrived, the cms is in flower and hrahmins ' 
snrrouDd the fire-place."— A>r. J. Stewarfg 
Punjab Plant; p. 261 ; Mason ; Gent. Med. 
Top., p. 175 ; Boxb. ; Eltiot. 


HtdjiT, of JftVft. 

., Philippinei. 

K7U1 of Borneo. 

Floral laUnda. 

HarqaeUB Tfthite. 

Sandwich IiUndB, 

The sugar-cane plant of Polynesia is grown 
in India, is abundantly cultivated iu the ^uha- 
ruDpore dititritit ; it gives a larger percentage 
of sugar, but it is objected toby the natives as 
being too strong for the pressure of the native 
mill : it is therefore principally cultivated for 
eutittg. Id the Deyrab Dhoon it has witli 
much advantage been eztcustvoly cultivated 
for making sugar, but it is there pressed with 
European mills- — Voigt. 

cborium intybus. 

SACCOLAUIUM, an Asiatic genus of 
plants belonging to the nntural order Orvhi- 
acete, of which the following spociea arc 
known : — 

ealewlu-*, lAndt., N. E. papilonim, Lindl, Bur- 

ladia. mah. 

carina! am, WoJL.Kliawja. retuium, N. E. India. 

gnttotum, W. Je. rhe«dU, IK. /c. 

nioraothnm, Z'tndl., N. E. rigidalum, \VaU.,KbaaaTa. 

India. robmin, IK. le. 

niveum, B'. le. iporioiam, W. Ic. 

panieulatnm, W, Ic wightiannm, W. Ic 

These orchids are largely cultivated for 
their beauty. Their generic name has been 
applied to them from their lip forming a bag 
or spur. See .^ceoclades. 

Cymbidium pnemonimn, 8m. 
Et^d«Ddrum pnemoraum, Stah, 
^ridea uoduUtum, •$«. 

This orchid grows in the Circars and in 

Epidandrum retaiuia, L. 
Umodorum, „ Swt. 
Sarcaotliua guttatoi, 


brides n-tuauin, 5irz, 

„ ffuttatum, Rmcb. 
Ho ma khan, Buaji. 

This, one of the noblest orchids in tlie Te- 
uasserim Provinces, is profusely multiplied Iu 
the neighbourhood of Maulmain, grows in 
Java, Peninsula of India, Chittagong, Dacca, 
Khassya, Nepal, Burmah, Tenasserim. The 
flowers are numerous, white, spotted with 
orac'violet, and stand on little pedicels all 
around the stalk so as to form an clrgant 

plume Pomelimen a foot long, which i;itta 
the tn;es ou which tiicy grow a most princely 
appearance. — Mason. 

SACIIA, Hind. Saccharum sara. 

SAC'HA aud Chasa are inhabitants of. 
the grest snowy roountaius (koh), whence 
Khuchasa, the moutes of Ptolemy, corrupted 
to CancasuB. 

SACHAN6, Jav. Sapan wood. CaMt 
ptnia ssppau, Ltnn.y Roxb., W. Sf A, 

SACHIANAS, Hind. Argemone mexi* 
cana, Linn. 

SACH.JOTH, a pass in the N. ff. 
Himalaya. The ascent is steady to the 
top of this pass, which is a mass of hare 
rock, quite free of snow, and elevated 14,600 
feet. The |>ass is a deep depression in tbe 
crest oC the range, which rises on both sides 
to H considerable height. Tbe ridge was a 
moss of black blate rock, in highly inclined 
strata, on which no snow lay. — Dr. Thorn- 
son's Travels in Western Ilimalajfa amd 
Tibet, p. 339. 

pots painted, in which tlie Buri'ce apparatus 
ai*o conveyed in a maliomodau ceremony. 

SACK-CLOTH, a coarse clotli from any 
coarse fibre. 'They would liave repented 
long ago in sack-cloth and ashes,* says Mat- 
thew xi, 21 . Many hindoo mendicants cover 
themselves with coarEC cloth and ashes, after 
renouncing a secular life. 

SACK TREE, Eito. Antiaris saccidora, 
see Lepurandra. 

SACK TUAGEK, Gubu. Eumeta cara- 
moril, Weatw. Wood moth. 

SACONTALA, or the Lost Ring, by Ka- 
lidasa, is a Sanscrit poem first tranalated into 
English to 1789, and again translated iu 1855, 
into English, by Mr. Monior Williams, from 
the Sanscrit of Kalidasa. 


Ab., Hind., 



Sacro, Sacnito, 




Terms synouimous witli this English word 
are applied in Asia to individuals, animals, 
place?, stones, and plants. Amongst the 
iiindoos, tlic flowers of many plants are sacred, 
are offered up to tlieir idols, are used for 
rosaries, &c., and tlielr gums as incense, 
such as those of * 

X^t marmelos. 
,£*Gli]rnonieQc BCiban. 
AixclU bijuga. 
Ant«naria, ipeciti. 
Aplotazys gOMipina. 
Artemisia aatriaka. 
Aiicklandia cos tut. 
Barringtonia acutangula. 
Baubinia variegata. 
Betula bbojputra. 
BoroMtua flabitllif ormia. 
Bacbauania latifulia. 

But«a fmndoaa. I 

Ctlophj 1 Iu m in ophyUom . 
Calotropia giganto*. 
C«drua daodara. 
Chamcrops ritoblaoa. 
Chrjaanthemum indicum 
Clitorea t«mat«a. 
CuDfiMtua taruloia. 
Dalbergia aiaaoo. 
Daphne cannabini. 
Datura fastuosa. 
DelphinuBi briiiioniauuni 




Sctiui atyopbylbtJ. 
Erjthrii» f olgens. 
Rciu indie*. 
„ giummta. 
„ raligiuaa. 
Cirdenu fiurida- 
Gxrtnen nctinosA. 
tintlUrda ■peciwsk. 
Utrnuidia senon. 
Hftntcns phccniceus. 

' , rou aineutieA. 
Jtttninum, tptein. 
Jiutiea idhfttiMU. 
Juiiip«rui rommuaii. 

„ excel*!- 
Kupatieiis, tp<rui. 
Umonu icaiidcis. 
Valii uaderacU. 

„ wmpen'Ttsuit. 
KmUpeniiDm glabnini. 
Kesift friTKL. 
Xiebclu cLmpacii. 

Miuiuaopn elou^i. 
Morindx brcillora. 
Miirraya exuUc«. 
Naucltrx catlamba. 
Ndnntbiiiin spociunum. 
N«riuin (xloriim. 
OciiDuin sancluiii. 
Origan uui innrjornituDi. 
Poiniunii pukherrinia. 
Poliitnthiis tuberoj-a. 
Popiilun L.-ilnainift^ia. 
}'t«r(ib)i«rmiiiu ucerifu 

„ Hiii)«rif<iniiiii. 

Putrnnjiva niibiirghii. 

Rome, . uu<i fuuni) vttiit iu llic nuljlvet luoiiu- 

inciitH i>[ whicK tlie land ol iliu I'liaiaulis can 
I boasil. Turner liiid in Lis pos^Biiiuii aevei'al 
I SDiuotb Btoiiea fiora the new Hebrides. He 
I says tliat Konie of tbe Polynesiau stuue-goda 
' were supposed to cause fecundity in pijjs, raiu 

nnd suiisliine. According to tlie Karl of 
I Roden, a Btone el Mayo was carefully wrap- 
I jwd up iu flaniiei, ppiiodically worsljipped, 
' and 8up[>iit«t(iil to sfud wrecks on tlio coast. 
; Two larffo stones, lylnfj at the bolloin of » 
■ moat, are s-niil 1« liave piveii birtli (o Degt-'i, 

tlie siuprenie god of Fiji. In all instuiiccs, 

Kho.loaen<lron arb.,rBun.. g,, addition to objects nircady exislirj; was 

. expecrwl fi-oni tins riji monolulis. A stone 

near Baw exiAti'd, whirb, wheucver u Indy of 

niiik at lln! Kiji ntpital wa» confiued, was 
i ftiblf^d also to ^'ve liirtti to a little alone. — 

(ialton's Vacation Tourisls, pp. U73-275, 


SACREIJ FKi TRKE, Ficus religiosa. 
SACKED FIRKS are kept up by iJie 

j R'<>a, sprcics. 
Saii(aur«a obTaltatri. 
,, Siicra. 

., Bunt crpliala. 

Sen«cio IiiciiiiusuH. i 

Tagtftea «recta. 

patiila. I 

pnpubiea. [ 

Taliem !GU 1 wn tan A cc ri»>.'a. 
Tlirouf^tour Britisli India, fnT.snakcs, sstones , 
lod a Bpe'ies orunimonite are woishipiieil. ft ! 

is the salgrammnof the hiiidooa and la found Agnihotrabralnniiis of India and by thel'arsee 
in the rVer Gnndak. The ban-)ang of the ' or Zoroastrian religiuuista. 'The brnliniunie 
hibtloo»t9 a ntone rounded by attrition found i familie-^ who keep the sacred fires arc sup- 

is the rivers of Rnjputauali. At Lnnuviuin, 
16 mles from Rome, was n dark grove | 
ncml to Juno, and near it the al)Oilc of; 
i«Tfat <^r(H-ut, the oracle of female clia<;tity. 
Snf'io Africanus is said to have believed 
iinself to !« the son of a snake. Augus- 
tis Csn-ar allowed it to lie undcii'tood that his 
iiotlier Atia had received him fioni a serpent. 

jKtsed to descend iVom the seven Rishi, 
Bhrigu, Vasishtft, Atri, 

Angoras, Kusyupa, Agastya. 

Visvumitra, » 

The real ancestors, however, are eight, 






Alexander the Great, before he undertook to I Bliaradvaja, 
prove him^lf the ^on of Jupiter Amnion, was ! The eight gotra which descend from these 
tuppwed (apparently by Pliilip himself) to be I Riahi, are again Bub-divided into 49 gotra, 
itie son of a serpent, who actually appeared ' and these 49 l)rancli off into a atill greater 
to him ilia dream in later years to save the ' number. I'he terms Gotra, Vausa, Vaigu, 
life of his general, Ptolemy. The oacred ! Pakslia and Ganu, are all used in the same 

RTove of o«k> at Dotlona, supposed to have 
been plaoterl by the Pela^gi, existed till the 
time of Con Stan tine. Their bitanches were 
Iiunj^ with bell!", sacred pigeons rustled 
ainidst the leaves. The laurel of Apollo at 
Delphi, was sacred like the oak at Dodona. 
Uuder tlie laurels shade, the python took 
refuge. Sacred stones exist in Fiji, to which 
the natives pay reverence, for iustan<:e, ne:ir 
Yuiia and Baw, as well as in many other 
paiK of Polynesia. Compared with itmnants 
of priapus worship, as found at Indian 
temples, the Museo segreto of Naples, and in 
ihe obelisks of Egypt, it becomes eviflent 
that the object of these monoliths was to 
represent the generative principle ; and, the 
•liape of the Polynesian stones, the reverence 
J«i>l to them, their decoration, and the results 
expected from tlieir worship, are quite iu 
accordaoce with a widely-spread superstition, 
which assumed such oHvosiye foiTDs io ancient I 

9 S 

seuse to express the larger as well as the 
.smaller familiep, descended from the eight 
ancestral Rishi. On the.N. W. of India and 
at Baku near the Caspian, natural gases 
eEca[)C from the earth, and when set fire to 
burn with a feeble flame. Th :se are deemed 
sacred by hiudoos, many of whom make long 
pilgrimages to visit the sacred spots. See 
Baku, Jwata-mukhi, Sholah-mnklii. 

dendara, Lambert. 

SACKED SHELL is the Chank shell, some 
of which fetch great prices, Psalm lixxi, 3, 
-says, ' Blow up the trumpet iu the new moon, 
in the time appointed, on our fiolcniu feast- 
day.' The bindc-os similarly nniiounce some 
of their festivals by the sound of this sacred 
shell. See ^I<>llu.srs. 

SACTA, or Sakta. The hindoo worship- 
pers of the Sakti, (he power ov euev^^ ot 
the divine nature iu action, ave excec^'m^^l 



uumeroua amougst all classes of the liiuiJoos 
uf tliuduHtiiau. Ill the mythology of the 
hiudoos, this active energy is pei'sonilied, iu 
the forms of the three deities, I^kslnni or 
Mahs Lakshmi ; Parvati, BhavBDior Durgo, 
and of iSarasrati, the coDsorts respectively of 
Vishau, Siva and Brahma. The worship of 
the female principle, as distinct fiora the 
divinity, appears to have originated in the 
literal interpretation of the metaphorical 
language of the Vedas, in which the will or 
purpose to create the universe, is represeuteU 
as originating from the creator and co- 
existent with him as his bride and part of 
himself. Thus, in the Ric Veda, it is said, 
" that divine spirit breathed without afflation 
single, with (Swadha) her who is sustained 
wiUiin him, ottier than him nothing existed. 
Fii-st, desire was formed in his miud, and that 
became the original productive seed." Also, 
the Sama Veda, s|>eakiug of the divine cause 
of creatioD, says, " He felt not delight being 
alone, he wished auotlier, and itistautly 
became such. He caused his owu self to full 
in twain, and thus became husband and wife. 
He approached her, aud thus were human 
beings produced." It is probable that tliese 
legends may i-elate to the primitive tradition 
as to the origin of mankind, but thero is in 
them, also a figurative representation of the 
5rst indication of wish or will iu the Saprem^ 
Being. Another, set of notions of some 
antiquity, which contributed to form the 
character of the Sakti, whether general or 
particular, were derived from the Saukhya 
philosophy. In this system, nature, Prakriti, 
or Mula Prakriti, is defiDed to be of eternal 
existence and independent origin, distinct 
from the Supreme Spirit, productive though 
no production, and the plastic origin of all 
things, including even tlie cods. In the 
Puranas, especially in the Braoma Vaivartta 
Purana, Prakriti or Maya bears a prominent 
part, for from the Sankbya philosophy, 
Prakriti has come to be regarded as the 
mother of gods and men, whilst as one with 
Matter, the source of error, it is again 
identified with Maya or delusion, and as co- 
existent with the Supreme as his Sakti, bis 
personified energy or his bride. According 
to the Prakriti Khanda section of the Brahma 
Vaivartta Purana, Brahma or the Supreme 
Being, having detei-mined to create the 
l/oiverse, became two-fold, the right half 
becoming a male, the left half a female, which 
was Prakriti. She was of one nature with 
Brahma. She was tUusioD, eternal and with- 
out end : as is the soul, so its active energy — 
u the faculty of burning is in fire. It is from 
the Tautras, that the rites and formulv of the 
worship of Prakriti or Sakta U obUiaed. 
10 ! 


They are numerous, of great extent, and in 
the form of a dialogue between Siva and hia 
bride. Mauy of the Sakta worshippings are 
nothing more than a couvivial party, consist- 
iug of the members of a single family, or at 
which men only are assembled and the com. 
pauy are glad to eat fiesh and drink spirits : 

I/st bim pledge the wine cip «^n aod agun. 
Till he measure hia length on the ground ; 
Let bim riie and once mon the goblet dnun, 
ADd with freedom for aye, from a life of paio, 
Shall the glorious feat be crowned. 
The earliest record of Sacti is in the 
Periplus. The Sacti are the eonsorts or ener- 
gies of the hiudoo gods ; tbua Parvati is Uie 
sacti of Siva ; Lakshmi, thiit of Vishuu ; and 
Suraswati, Brahmai or Brahmiri, of Brahma. 
As their energies, they partic^ate in their 
various avatars or incaruations ; Lakshmi, in 
those of VisIiuH, being Varalii, Nniasinhi, Sita, 
Kadlia, &c., and in like manner aie the other 
sacti. Iu the eighth volume of £ie Asiatic 
Researches, Mr. Colebrooke calls 'Jiem also 
Matri or mothers, and says " they a-e named 
Brahmi, &c., because they issued f-om the 
bodies of Brnlima aud the otlier godsrespec- 
tively." The sacti are said to have nuaerous 
followei-s in uorthern India ; in the Peitusula 
of India, the sacti sect seem to lie unkiown. 
But iu N. luilia the sacti sect are sail to 
worship the sacti exclusively. The emUem 
of woi-ship is the yoiii. One branch of be 
sacti worshippers is so grossly licentious aid 
addicted to debauchory, that they are hell 
in the utmost detestation by the other secti>, 
and even by a large portion of their own. It 
is related that the energy of each god, exactly 
like him, with tlie same form, the same decora- 
tioQS,aud thesame vehicle, came to fight against 
tlie Asura or demons. The sacti of Brahma, girt 
with a white cord and bearing a hollow gourd, 
arrived on a car yoked with swans : her title 
is Brahmaui. Maheswari came riding on a 
bull aud i>earing a trident with a vast serpent 
for a ring and a crescent for a gem. Cu- 
mara, bearing a lance in her hand, and riding; 
on a peacock, being Ambica in the form of 
Kartikeya, came to make war on the children 
of Dili the giants, or Asura. The sacti named 
Vishnaivi also arrived sitting on an eagle, aud 
bearing a conch, adiscus, a club, a bow, and a 
sword, in her several hands. The energy of 
Ilari, who assumed the unrivalled form of the 
holy boar, likewise came there, assuming the 
body ofVarahi. Narasinhi, too, arrived there 
embodied in a form precisely similar to that 
of Narasinha, with an erect maoe reaching to 
the host of stars. Aindri (Indrani) came 
bearing the thunderbolt in her hand, and rid- 
ing on the king of elephants, and in everr 
respect like Indra, with a hundred eyes. Last- 
ly came the dreadful energy named Chaudica, 




who sprung from rtic body of Devi, horrililo, , Innls : Bhavnni is, honrcvpr, oft«uer »een oo a 
bowling like a humiitJil jackals. She, «ur- : lion or tifjcr tlinn ori Nttiidi, the vnhan bull at' 
namrJ Apnrajita, tlif uiiconquevcd goddess, h*r ftpouw. — Colemnn on Ihc Mylhnloqtf of 
ftddrcMed iMinn, whcse huid is encircled by 1 tht Jfhutoas, p. 121 ; Hat/a Mncntu oh the 
hia tlusky braidi-d loiks." In the foregoing Amnrttcotha ; Moor't Panthexfii. S(*e Agui, 
extnct, Maheswuri nnd Chnndioa are fornifi i Hallaji, Hialiniii, Chaudra, Hirniiynplinrbbn. 


of Parrati j and NirsHiiilri, Visliuaivi, aiid 
Varnhi, tlifwcfd' I-akJimi. Mnjor Moor like- 
wise obeerves iJifit ii Iho ni_vtholo!;y of tlie 
faindoos Tlnilinio, Vi'^liriii, aud Siva, have 
nsigned Ihein cuiiso'ts ivhicharo pcitionificn- 
tiona, rfspectiwly, of the uciivt* ciieij,'in5 of 
llieir Lonls, and are called Sacci. Samswali 
u ibo Sacti of Bi-iiUtiin, Liikshnii uf ViBlniu, 
■nil Parrali of Sirs : bctico (hose, of whatever 
seel, who iromhip oxulu&ively tho female 
pnwYrr — Panati (i. e., Duvi), however, more 
«s^>eo{all)r, tfo called Sucta. The inferior 
«loitieii iu Ueir otvu pei-sous, and the Ava- 
tars of lh« superior, are likewise mated iii 
fable, and lave ihcir willfl executed hy active 
belptiinto ; each a( ivbom, e?c<:cpt in hex, 
exatrtly .'esemhlca the deity whoso piirtiicr 
_Ao i>» : from whoao bodies indeed, ns Eve 
Admn'*, ibej are, in somii tbeogonics, 
i|»o-»'i lo luvo proceeded, and with whose 
powew and altribuu-* tlicy nrc armod- Eight 
of tivM Sacti ore more particularly recorded, 
Ihei* Dunes are tho followJog : — 

Ki^evwari .„. iiMti uT Ualieaa, or Siva. 

IM<util.ot Brahnaiu.-- M«ti of UraLmK. 

^n,f%n\......^ «■»■■' ff V irnj-aniv. 

ptkAri. . ji.,j-.i... > ini. 

t»«t»ari._ „ , .: , liltijTft. 

'•'»*»■ •<«»»...» •■cli 'A Viiiliuu of tUv Vftltiir 


tU. »«H...^.. mcti of Vi«hiiii in tho Nora- 

riiiB Avatan. 

A|«imjIia-4~... „..,.-,.... a form ot BLavNul, ucti o( 


This Iht is laliea fVom Mr. PattTson's Essay 

on the hindoo reli^'oni 'o ihc eighth volume 

of tho As. Jirg.,p.C}^. Mr. Pat*reini rernorks 

Ibat Aiwrajita may he Iho Aphrodite of tho 

UrppkF, aud Mahenvari, or a fenialo Siva, rid- 

ng nn a white bull, may have given rise to ihc 

lory of Europa's rut« i while Brahmi, or tho 

finalH nrilinia, wilJi tliu swan, niny, in like 

«no»-r, have bocii the origin o( tlie fable of 

BpiLor aDd Li^a. These explanations were, 

|wrhap«. tnventeil by the Greeks tonrc*Mint 

tnv tymbol*, of the meaning of which they 

w^J It. The eight Snt-li, or enrrgies 

of ; deilics, arc «lso called Miitri, or 

motimi>. In Koaip plares tboy nro lh(i8 enii- 

ncrslt^J, Hmhiui, MaJn^swnri, Aindri. Viirabi, 

' .'luniari, ('linmiiiidn, and riiaitiea. 

' ibe nunibor I') «evun ; omit ling the 

iwo laii«r. and itdding Cauveri. Pmym-R arc 

IdnwFc^l lo iho Matri ou variouH ooeasion.-i, 

p*H-ialIy In thrCavarha, nr defensive iueim- 

tirtio*. Fach of lh<» Sacti oi- Piitftgy »f fht> 

h«» 'he X'nhan r>f thrir rr«pccli*r" 


Kama, I^ikshmj, Malia devi, Osiris, I'ai vnti, 
Sai-ais-vjiti, Salnrnpa, Tripali. 








Tftml aq. 





HVB. ,. 





^tsriiScia, It. 

PoBT., Sr, 










A gaerificc is nn otferingof tiny ooiiBCCiateil 
thing to a deity, whether au animal, noylhtug 
of tbe miucrol or vvgolable world, a uuuiufac- 
lured arlicte, or in ibo form of a libation or ao 
oblation. All nutions seem to have bad a 
etage iu their history, iu which to make 
offeringi) in eac.riHeo formed a part of their 
mode of worshipping the doily whom they 
reverenced. Tim earliest record of saerificea 
uxunii, arc tho&o recorded in Genesia iv, 2, 
15, 25, in the cases of Caiu and Abel, where 
Cain, an agricutluriat or, a^ lie is styled, ■ 
tiller of the ground, brought of the fruit of 
tho ground an offering to tbcLovd, aud Abol, 
who wag a nomnde, a keeper of sheep, brought 
of tlm firstlings of his flock and of ihc lot 
thereof, and it is montiuued tliat tlie Ixtrd had 
reapoct aato Abel and to Im olTerlng ; but 
unto C!ain aud to his otTcring he had not 
respect- And thus, eveu iu tho&e early days 
in the hist^riry of the human laeo, the htood 
riacrifk-e, tJio oblatinn and immnUtlon of 
animals, was deemed by tlic olTeier more 
worthy of iho deiiy'tt ucceplancu titan the 
finiiti and flowers of (he earlb. In the 
exaltod iileatt of the Hacrificiug raeet), the view 
taken neomit to have been ihul tlie moat pre- 
cious thing should ho ofiVied and with the 
objort of propitialiug a wrnthrni being, and 
tberc followed on thi« the ofleiing up of 
huronu beings, of tho chiUli-on of the &Bcri6cer, 
tbe children of king?, thougti ciimiiuilSf of 
captives taken in war, alaves, and even 
women wiire suL-rificed. Chap, xi of Judges, 
rella us how ilcphthah when he invaded the 
country of the Arnniouitca, vowed a vow unto 
tho Lord, and 5uid, 'If thou shall without 
fail deliver iho chiMrcn of Ammiin into 
mine hnndii, then it >diall be, thai whatso- 
ever oonietli forth of the diKtro of my house 
to meet me, when I rutuin in peaec finm 
tho children of Amnimi, sbull surely be 
the Lord's, and I will nfler it up for a burnt* 
offering. • • • • • Aud Jephthali eamu In 
Mixpeh unto hif Umt^, and, Itehnb), hi« 
ihiiightri came fiiil lri meet him n-ith fimMeU 






aod with (IniiRcs. * * * And he said, ttlas mj 
daughter *< * I liuvo opened my mouth uuto 
the Lord, and I cauiiot go back. * * * And 
it came lu pass that nt the end of two tnoiiths, 
that she returned unto her fiithcr, who did 

the first fruilf, and ^rhether reaping tlie 
harvest or Katbering in the viutAf^, the 
Israelite made an oblntion of tliHuksgiviniF to 
the f^racious Beiug wko had bestowed his 
bounty. Lastly, the Hebrew sacrifices were 

with hcr'nccordiiig to his vuw which ho had | piacular or expiatory ; every aiu either of 
Towcd : mid shu knew no inaii.' The inter- { the nation or the individual had its apuoioted 

ittoncment. The tenth day of the sfventh 

pretatioti which froin the coni-ludin^ paasajje, 
ha.% Itcen put on tliu rhnractci' of Jephtliah's 
offuriug, viz., that his dtuiglitcr remained a 

iay of the SL'venUi 
month was set apart f)r (he sotemu rite of 
natioual expiation. First a bulloek was to 

virgin for the Lord's sake, but this view is | be shiiu and the bImMl ipiinklcd, not odIj in 
not supported by tho preceding words, where | the customary places but within the Holy of 
tTephthah declares the object of his vow [ Holies itself. Then twu goats were choseo 
sliould bo n burnt offering. The readiness nnd lot^ cast upon them ; theoiio assigned to 

ofl*er up his only ><on [«nnn, indicates a 
knowledge of thin rite, flt^reini.-ih xix, 4 and 
."j, shows, says Dr. Milman, thnt in later timeo, 
human 9n<:rifSces were offered to Molnch and 
to Bnid. Tho inimolutiou of human victims 


with whi<di Abruhuni obcyc<l the command to | the Lord was sacrificed ; on tl« other, by the 
■ ' ' ' • .- . imprecation of tho high prie:t, the sins of 

the whole [leoplo were iieaped, and it was 
then takeu beyond (he camp andseut into the 
desert to AzkzcI, the spirit of a>i| io whom 
Hebrew belief assigned tlie waste «jd howling 
lairticularly of the most precious, the favour^ I wilderness as liis earthly 4lwelling. . Sacrifices 
ite, the fii-st born child, appears ns a common ' have, however, been and coutinut comnioa 
usage, among niuiiy nations, more cs]>ecially | Io all races and religions. They art made io 
the trilws by which Abraham was surnmnd- ■ liio form of olfuriugs of the raw pr«ducts of 
ed, nnd when suddeidy comniantled to cut off! the earth, of raw food, of cooked oqJ Qf 
that life on which all the splen<lid promises | water, und of living creatuies. The larliest 
of the Almighty seemed to depend, he obeys 
and sets forth with liis unsuspecting child to 
offer the fnlal Eacrltice on Mount Moliali. It 
was the distinguishing rito among the wor- 

, , , - -Hiest 

historical record is met with in tti^ Old 
Testament. The contest recorded be&veen 
Cain and Abel, marks tho jealous tval- 
ry and strife between the powerful o«r- 

nhlp[>ers of Moloch, at u later period of Jewish \ bearing dwellers in cities who bear arras i^d 
history it was practised by a king of Moab, ' till the ground aud the harmless Domata 
it was undoubtedly derived by the Carthage- 1 shephenls. Tho first vicliin was Abel, bu 
iiians from their PlKenicliin uncestoiti on tho ' the struggle runs through the whole history 
Stores of Syria. It was an ordinary usage in { of Asia. lu the early ages of the world the 
the worship of Moloch. liul, besides the : offeiinga of living trentui-es was deemed the 
wor^hi|) of Moloch, the Hook of! more acco|>tabli-, and, in the time of Solomon 
mes tlic Sepbarvuites as making '■ an instance (IlChroii. vii, Z) is recorded of the 

socrifiec of 22,000 oxen. Isaiab, however, {i 
10-14) openly denounced the sacrifice of 
aniinul^i, as an atoneineiiL fur sin. ' Hear the 
word of the I^ord, ye rulers of Sodom ; ^ive 

Kiiign nn 

thefto human sacrifices (II Kings xvii, 31) and 
tho king of Moab (11 Kings iii, 27.) Thefic 
filial cHcrifices were doubtless of rare and 
cxtmordiiiBiy occurrence ; they were eitln-r 

to expiate some tli-eadful guilt, to avert the ear uuto the law of our God, ye people of 
imminent Tengoau<-e of an offended deity, or i 'lomornih. To what purpose is the mulii- 
to extort iii.4 blessing on tome iinportant [ tude of your sacrifices unto me? saith the 
enterprise. Dr. Milnian, however, considers j Lord : I am full of the burut ofieriags of 
that the Hebrew religion held hninun sncri* | rams, und the fat of fed beasts ; and I 
fices in abiiorience, and that the great rito of I delight not in the blooil of bullocks, or 
sacrifice was r<'gulatcd amongst the Hebrews I of luinb>i, or of ho goats. When ye come 
with tho utmost precision, and with three ' to appear bcforo me, who hath required 
distinct nbjccl.'*. Kvei-y morning and every ' this ut your hand, to (read my courts? 
evening, the f moke from lh« great Itrazen Bring no more vain ohlaiionn ; incense is an 
altar of burnt offerings ascendeil in the name I abomination unto me ; thti new moons and 
of the whole people. On the seventh day, j salibaths, the calling of assemldies, I cannot 
two animals instead of one was -sluiu, and the away with; it is iniquiiy, even the solemn 
offering of the poorest wai acceptable. The meeting. Your new moons and your appoiut- 
Bftinifiecs were partly propitintory, that is, ed feasts my soul haletli : they are a trouble 
voluntary nets of reverence in order to secure unto me ; I am weary to bear them.' But 
the favour of tjo<l to the devout worshipper : a little after the rime of Isaiah, Buddha 
partly eucharistic, or expre,.'(iivr; of gratitude I apiwared objecting to the animal sacrifices, 
for the divine l-lcbsings. <>f this nature were ' Kiom the times of the Vrda« until now, (he 

12 s n 




mn, an ofFciiiiB <>f glu lo iJie fir*j iVom (Jit weaver rtimiliei are >levcptc<l as «lcvn-dasa lo 
ciikitB or MCriAcial liullc ; also tlie l*a»a)-i, thu k<)«1b cf* tliu IiiikIchi It^mptos, I'lie puni-iug 
i-i) fonit nf rii-a iilI tnilk, cooked in sacri- , ont ol wnr<T ns an nliUtJnii is a vory xiKtvat 
oial kettlof, are nlilitioiis of liiiiilou)>. Mr. rite. David wlieu pri-aj(fi(i hy llie prople of 
r'he<U-r is of opiiMOo tint the Iii'ma was in- i'slpstine, m-areil for a ilriiik frtm) ibc w«ll »t 
nccil l)T lUe: hratmitiR to ilimplare aDimnl llio i>ntii of Betbltrlieni, an<l afterwanU would 
ificen. Ainon^t! t.iliur iinmetit Vt-ilic ctis- iint drink it wtieri broujiht by tlirec men, '■ btit 
tow, waH tlinLorUic;eir-F>iivrificeorwivo8 on |ioiiri-il it out iiulct lli« Lord." Ages piior 
the funcnil pilt^ nf their liunlmiitli). uuil it tlivrelu, iGi-n.xxxv, N ), Ja<^ub i.i incniinnpit 
03 roDliiturd iri unMc pnrt of* Af<ia tip to as Kt*ltiii;e tifi n pillar and lio |>oiircd a ilrink 
t! cUt*)* ot' the itiiri(!«'tiih reiilurjr. It is uOtiriii^r tlieteou, aud be pourud oil thnr<>Qn, 
ralateil iu ibe MiiHidji(-»m ihat after iho liattlD ; and to the pn-SL-nt day, thmu^liuiit Bniisb 
of Kiinik^icirn. wHfiu iLe widowa of the . [ndia, thu HiiKiini, tbe prinpiis or phnllus, U 
■Jaio were ta1kii>u over thoir lo!t:«e», Vya;<a daily woisbipjx-d by Ihu enivn btndons a»d 
Utl ifaem repair to lli« banks of tbc Gnn^«. washed witli oil and milk. \Vin« was »cva> 
VyoM alto wai present, and callfd out lUe ^ioimlly u^d &.H iQ Muiubera xzviii, 7. caunin^ 
naain of the tinin. All nppeai-vd ii> };<'<'')i' Ihtf H<ron<; wino to bu pnurtHl unto tbc Lonl 
Klorr aad »pbnduur and more bvautiful Uian for a drink ofTvrinf;. [ Saiuuvl vii, 6, Im-acI 
wlivn ihay vero alire, widows went to their gatheivil together lo MIzppli and dn>w water 
busboiids, iauftblers lo tJiiiir rMthers, mo- and poured it out hcrnie the Lord, Altb^UKh 
iWrs to tb*'i'»'><ii> aibten to their brothent, the BavrifKtat rite of oHV-riu^ liiiiuan bfin^s 
d all thrtiri^-uo yoara of sorrnw whirh had seems to have prevaili-d amongst many peuplex, 
I tircti the war of the Mahnlmiara ivcic the ordiit.-ii^ Vedic offering* viow of cooked 
Uci^in the rr.'^Uiry nf seoiii}; parh odii'l' fnod.dt^liciotis ToimI mid diink ; tjietltineniajaya, 
111. fh** niyht pnssctl away in (he (Viliicsft liowovt-r, \vh>< a snrriHcc ol «niike«, and tht 
', and vriicn tbu moruing dawned, all Rajn-<aYa wat a royal Bacrificc to the ||!r»U, in 
(]«ad mounted tltiiir hoiaei and i-harintn Hi-kiiowledi:ni<Mit nf &ovcrei)j;uiy and suprc- 
,f t^apiMTjti i?<l , liut VyiHn MitiJ itml the inncy. Uriginnlly il trns a f;''*'at nHtioiial feast. 
ir^» who wnitlod tn ifijoin thuir dead Uu<- Humnn siicriticvs^ayslinnM'niWeri.-abolieh- 
mij'hl do so, and all thr widow* wont cd liy iheKgyptians, in the very earliest ttiiiai, 
•^il in thi* UaiiKt™) "'"' «Mine out of d<>rJiii'in^ it to l>e an nbomitiaiion lo the gods. 
" "tin. ki»>cil, iMic l>y one, ihefiH-inf' Wlicreas in PnieAtine, in Synii, iind in culti- 
I . and Oandbiui, oud then went vakd i'liOBiiivia and C'-arthiige, »^uch saciitices 

ui--»>Jt'<t ihptn<elvc9 in the riwr : and, , cnntiniiud tu lie olfi-re«t lo i&lnlarh as the very 
(wcU the prayer* of Vyasa, they all went ' ultniax of religioas worship. Even Romii 
tlte placn tlicy wiphml and ubluiiird Uielr hnp^lf, in the lime of lier Ca**arH, buried hnr 
r^ dvsires. In the Innduo isncriliceii. the | Gallic priBoiiers nlive, in order to appease iba 
1HHV, Ki'oin) lohnve bevu wriitli of tlivir t^uds. Many of the kiiigft nf 
i). lift ant-ient datfti, and aTudidinnd Isratd t-auscd their nliildrc-n In pii!^» 

a»,>tr.Uiuua lliii'l whit^h ihey called tlie tliroufj^b the firt. The Greeks and koitians 
■ juice, and ih» Pt-rniaiiH Lnlted hniu. also were nnl fiee from thexe alnitritiei). 

this fluid Was h donliifu), bui> it had Animal siacriticon seem to hare l>een a 

ling and intnxii-nting <|uulities, ftir ihe usual rile amou^^t all ibe Soythinn racpit. 

«<£a (ix) Ki^n, " the ptirifying rxiraa, Sninc in<*m)K'r:4 of lliiit groat st/xk npprai- lo 

,ke ant rulliug it? waves has poured forth have wandered so far O-oin their iiorlheiii 

in aoti hymna and lliniigbta." It lias tieeu ' seats a^ the (>Cllill^uia of India, in llie most 

tn be lli« feimented acid juieo of liiP soalhcni p--irts of which are found great 

icRitua neiduin, Uir sboni-lula of Uku- > nnmbors of croinlei-lis and cnirue. All ruiind 

but the fierce eKullations which are iiyderahad in tiie Dekltan tbexo are lr» be 

d in tlie R(|£ Veda, conld ouly have seen, and, al one pU<^«, about 12 niile^ from 

' ' '' iDii^Hlcdh'ilic: drink. | that nity in a vaitt site of tlle^e nni-ienl dead. 

'I : U) the Lord iif till) Ki'Kl I In all the raiiiis ihal have l>eeu opened 

ict tia.H >Iniit>l1i>K~<= bud aliiiuAt u there, Bepuhrhral urns hnvu been I'niinil, and in 

! on inai). KxihIms xxii, 2!', ' their neit;lii>oiti'hno<l, httniaii hones and bones 

xnumti " > <'f the firitt fruit5, and llie of animals. Fr<»tn one excavated by Captain 

i'l Ueiil. xx»i, 2 ; Lev ii, 12, A. MrOonn, Ibero was oblaioed « perfect 

-r pincei. Gen. iv, f, telb us hunian skull. Of the race who ailopied thai 

- --„Ji[ the (ir»t nf his llor.k, aud form of burial uotliiuj; is now known. Whe- 

oj. xiii, 13, ond other places enjoin thin, tber they were m nnmade people who wander. 

I lA ibeprcM'nt day, in the vtUaj'ea tux'Uud ud iiiU> Itxlin and wandiu-ed oiif a^ajn, re- 

kfaiei«p«t Uir rir»t-fMim ibiuKbler Jn Ibe maina to bepiessed at. or whctliei- tlipy have 

i;i S 13 



merged into the mass of the people. But 
that they irere notnades, dwelliug iD teuts^ 
seemi proved by what remaiae in the place 
alluded to near Hyderabad where is to be 
seeu a great eucampiug ground, tlie stone 
enclosures for each tent being perfect, and 
tliat they were tents and not bouses is praved 
by the circumstance that within the enclo- 
Bures tliere are no mounds of ruined houses, 
but in all merely a level space, and it may be 
a question whether the bones now found in 
their cairns are those of victims iulerred with 
the dead ? Amongst the Arian hindoos, the 
eacrifice of a horse, the aswamed'ha, seems 
to have been practised. There are two hymns 
ID the Ric Veda, describiug the rite, and 
which leave no doubt, that in the early reli- 
gious rites of the race, this sacrifiue, as a burnt 
offering to the gods, wos made. It was even 
tlien, however, falling into disuse, and was 
existing as a relic of an ante-vedic period, 
imported from some foreign region, possibly 
from Scythia, where animal victims, and 
especially horses, wore commonly sacrificeil- 
And in still later times, the n-swaraed'ha 
consisted in certain ceremonies ending in the 
liberatiou of the Imrse, juRt as throughout 
Southern India and about Benares, is still 
practised with a bull or cow, many of which 
are met with in every viilafte, freed or let 
loose in the name of Uie Inndoo gods Siva or 
Vishnu. Profussor Max Miillcr reminds us 
of what we read in Ilerudutus (v, 5) tliat 
amongst the Thracians it was usual after the 
death of a man, to And out who had been the 
most beloved of his wives, and to sacrifice her 
upon the tomb. Mela (ii, 2) gives the same as 
the general custom of the Getie line. Herodo- 
tus (iv, 7 1 ) asserts a similar fact of the Scythi- 
ans, and Pansaiiins (iv, 2) of the Greeks. In 
Salamis, formerly called Coronea, a man, f^uys 
William Howit, was aiiuually sui*ri(ici!il to Ar- 
gaula, the daughter of (.'ecrop% and daughter- 
in-law of Argaulis. This continued to the 
time of Dipliilus, who changed the victim to n 
bull. Men were suurifloed in Heliopolis, a city 
of Egypt, till the time of Amosis. Men wero 
also sacrificed to •luno, as many as nine in 
one day, but Amoais cliani^cd the victims to 
waxco statutes of men. A man was ^acriticed 
to the Omadian Bacchus in Chins and uIho in 
Tenedos. Tlie Spartans according to Apollr>- 
dorus, sacrificed men to Mars. Tlie I'hcciii- 
ciaiis and Egyptians, Crelnus and Persians 
had similar sacrifices. I'hilo Bibiins tolls us 
tliat the PhcsniciaiiB had a king named Israel, 
who sacrificed his only sou Jeust, which was 
the origin of their cuKtom. The Curetes 
sacrificed boys, and Pallas says that the sacri- 
ficoB of men did not cease evcrywhcrr till (hr- 
days of Hadrian the empcmr. 

A virgin was sacrificed annually in Laodi- 
cea to Minerva, atlterwsrds a hart was snb- 
stituted. The CarthsgoDiaos had aimilir 
sacrifices till Iphicrates abolished tbem. 
Augustus Ciesar, wh«n he took Pemsit, 
sacrificed 300 men of the equestrian and 
seuatorian orders, to the manes of hit uncle 
Julius. Porphyry sayit, in his time, a mao 
was sacrificed overy year at the shrine of 
Jupiter Latiuris. Heliogabalusofiured haman 
victims to the Syrian tfeity, which he intro- 
duced. With the Gauls and Germans, no 
business of any )m|)ortaiice, was transacted 
without l>eing prefaced ly human blood. Ac- 
cording to Lucans Pharsalia (Fb. iv, 444) the 
gods to whom thefe sacrifirts wero made, 
wureThautetes, Hcsus, and T.'iianis, and thai 
in the midst of gloomy woods t<, increase the 
horror. Tacitus in his Annals (lb. xiii,) says 
that the Hermanduri sacrificel all their 
prisoners to Mai-s. The Arducnmnod Uyr- 
ciniun forests were terrible for theie immola- 
tions at the liHiid& of the Drnide. ^ee Clau- 
dian in Laudcs Stilichoiics, lib. i.) The Mas* 
sagels, the Si;ytliian, the Gete, tlie Smnatiaii, 
the Suovi, and nil the Scandinaviuti races, 
believed that nu blessing, or security citjld 1*6 
obtniiied except by tliece lioiTors. Dihmar 
rolules the suine sacrifices to the god Syan- 
towiti in Zcclaiid. The Druids burned wn 
in wicker frames to the gods. Hamilcar, beijg 
defeated in Sicily, not only sacrificed a boy o 
Cronos on the spot, but drowned some of th< 
priests to appease the god. ThePersian8,sayir 
Bunsen, I'uricd peoj)le alive. The Cyprians, 
the Kliodians, the Phociaiis, the lonians, the 
people of Chios, LcKbos and Tenedos, all had 
iuimnn sacrifices. The natives of the Tauric 
Cliersonesii!', ofFen-d to Diana, every stranger 
whom cliauce threw ujion their coast. Aris. 
tomcnes, the Messinian, slew 300 noble Lace- 
demotiinr)<i, at once, amongst whom was 
TheopoTupiis, the king of Sparta, at the altar 
of Jupiter of Itliome. The Spartans, in 
return sucrificcd their captives fo Mara. 
Phylarchus and Porphyiy nssert that every 
Grecian stnle, lieforo inarching against an 
enemy Facrificcd hiiniHii victims. Livy sayit 
that in the coti!<ultite of Kminius Paiihis and 
Tercutius Vari-o, two (thuIs, a man and 
j woman, and two Gre»'ians, wero Imried nlivo 
[ at Koine, in the ox-m.nrket, in n place walled 
round and made for such purposes. Plutarch 
'gives another instance of this a few years 
i l>cfore, in the consiitntc of Klamiiiius and 
I Furiua. it is asserted that the principal cap- 
' tives led in triiini[)h l»y the Roiniins, were, 
I for a loi)!* time, den|tatched afrerwnnin at thf> 
! HJtar of.lnpitcr ('apitolinus. Mariii!! nncrificed 
' his own 'lati^htPv tothe Dii Avpirunci.foiiiiic. 
«'pss agniii'-t the ''imhri. l'lemrn«. Porothr-n* 


ii PtHtnrcli all nlBiw it, TliC Dumatinns 
Arabia satiitict'l LnnunDy a boy. 'Ibe 
|reek5, says Phillurchos, genemlly wcri- 
7tf\ men liefore Iticy weut uut to baltlc- 
the TbrnctNU* imd SeyUiioiis did the? same. 
Kvci-y cla^sicitl reaJor will recolkct ihe 
UeiaptvJ fucriflce <*" IpbpKCiiiji, by her 
lOii-r, and Llie pcrrertnl inm of tlic diiiiuliler 
)f Krectlicuftniiil PtitsiUiia by tlier AllinuAD?. 
vt lbi» time. Guyt F.ii9cbiti<t, n iiiiiii i& 
icrificeil in SleyoloBolii. nt tlio fc'iBl of 
Tupiler Lnliam. TIp »nme buJ been (lie 
kse to Jupiti^ in Arcadia, to Snlurn in 
>rlIia|;L'. In Tyilin. Otixtorus assorted tlint 
tM) of tiiu t><>i>£ of tlic iio)>lo», and 3(X) nf tlie 
F-ople at larRrliiid iiwn Bucrificed. l)ionj*siuB 
if ll»liaii*iuiF»3i fitys Hint Apollu and Jupitci- 
A at one UTie «k'iimiidcd so niaiiy bumnn 
»iTirl''Ps of "he nl»origiiii's iti Ilaly. that ihey 
:|tiiilly deciiialc^I Uicmselves ; and, toeflra[]e 
Irum tbu inllictioii, cmigvuted into distant 
[regions. Tliis is Miid m bave bnppeiied to 
||he Fcla^t iu luly ; that it bcciune the 
tvuiu of (te irnuntry ; and, notivitlistitiidin^ 
lemif.^it"''*" of tlio younj( men, (he oraclcK 
inii"! t(i dutnniid and tlie ningistrates to 
'cafonv those »auriliccs 't'l Hercules put a 
[amp U them. Down Ui com jwrii lively rcceot 
[hi4tw^ tioiM, the riirenitians, Cnrthflge- 
liuABit Atamieaai, Syrians, Bnbylonians 
uih even liimvlittii am! their uci^ddiourfl OD 
UA t!de» of itio ilordiin, sucrificed their 
! (JddruD with the hoped fur object of averting 
tuy threat and scrlou^i mit^ fur tune. A Phtcui- 
eiau k'l^od is of Kl, the Stvoug otfering up 
bis ioa Vediid or Yedid iho Beloved, E\, 
btto^ the Kronos. 

Mali-kb Il»*l, was tlie sjune as the Tyrian 
Jlercule»t or Muloch or Ral-iMnloch, to whom, 
M«1m toHKBte and Mcli?klict ArU'mis. dopR 
wsra nrrtrieeil. In RaliyUmia; (In. Ixvi, 3, 
Ex. xiii, \'-i, xjcxiv, 30) their ucck or 1 ack- 
tnoe had lo im; lirokcu nnle&a redeemed. The 


<iut of use bmp before llie Kgyjitiaiis «Trc 
r**proached by Virgil and Ovid with sacrific- 
ing linniaii boiugs to ihu Nile to obtain a 
bouuteous overflow. Siuce Ibat time altars 
have seldom been lighted for hutaan sncrilit-e^, 
but by men who, slinniu to say, have been 
struggling for theological opinions, in entire 
forgotfuincHN of the humility, mildness and 
brotherly ktudne;ts for wliiuh such opii)ioD<t 
are chiefly valuable. DuiiM'U mention^ iliHt 
tlio B»crifi(.'ial stamp of Egypt, hud the figure 
of a man on bi« knees. Iiii* haudb tied beliiud 
biB bnck, wiib the siicrificial knife tied l^birnl 
his back, indicalc:< a bumaii bolog as Ute pri- 
mary Micrificial object of Kgypt, 

In tlie most nncient timea, the Aiynne of- 
fered human jiacrilicea lo Varuna (Onranfw). 
To Agui, it was the fire-uicrifice ivith malted 
bulier. Tn Ibe Tyrian Ilercutei, dogs were 
FiHcrificed, and to Diana, a doe, an a siibsiitute 
for Iphigciiia. 

lu Pale«line, Syria, Phmnicia and Car- 
thage, hnmau sacrifices were offored up as 
the very climax of religions worship, and 
even Rome in the time of (lie Caesars, burned 
her Gallic pri^iMncrs alive in order to/ippeosn 
the wrath of their gods. In a war between 
two Arab chiefs, in the time of Belisarius, 
but which was cniTiod on without Iho inter- 
ference of cither Persia or Rome, the son of 
Hnreili fell into the power of the Mondnrof 
Hii-ab. who sacrificed him to Uz/a. the detty 
worshipped by bin tribe. Captives taken in 
war, criminals and even innocent persons 
were oflerod by the Druids as sacrifices, slain 
with arrows, cnicilleil or consumed tn a gene- 
ral holocaust of human beings and animals, 
wild ami domestic. Same is mentioned by 
Cajsar. One of tlic pillars in the temple of 
Hercules at Tyre was lighted by day, iho 
other by night ; upon an altar of Hereules- 
RuzygoB at Rbodc!>, one of the two sacrificial 
oxen was offered up amidst imprecations. 


princi[iAL Mcrittces ofii-rcd to Hercules ITsov, pi-obably to Adonis the god of spring as the 

well ai to his inylbical companiou were 
ilnnuin b«iugft, which in Ijiodiceaof Phcenicia 
might \m mutotned by a doc. At Carthage, 
the practi(.*e of sai^rificing llieir favourilo 
chiUrrn, and those of the highest rank iu 
Itooour of ilercalos, coulinued down to their 
lalMl wirs. 'Hie legend of the Grecian Her- 
eu\t» ia that he became in»ne, burned his own 
ebi(dr«u as well as t host; uf his twiu-hrother 
lnh(clcs,, and murdered his guest Iphitus. We 
Imv*. >ay^ Sharps, the authority ofMaoetho, 
ibe Egyptian priest, for the fact that some 
enmirais were openly burnt alivo in tlie fono- 
«f a ueriJIce, every year at midsummer, in 
tihe city of Iditbya. Nalioos le^s earnest in 
tfaor religious rocboga shuddered at the 
h A iiPW » cnietty : but it had probably gone 
15 S 

nfls or ilog was to Typhoii. Tho Tyrian 
Hercules was tho same as Moloch, the King, 
Baal-Moloch, M.ilakh-Bel as be is called in the 
coins. No alatues were erected to him at Cadiz 
or iu Tyre, but in Tyre he was worshipped 
with eternal fire, which lighted up the tcmplo 
by night from the reflection on the columns of 
Smaragdus : dogs were sacrificed to him as 
well as to Uecato and Melek bet- Artemis. 
In Babylonia, their neck or back-bone (lafl. 
Ixvi, 3} as well m the first-born of the ass, 
if they wore not redeemed, was, according to 
the law of Moses (Ex. xiii, 13 ; aUo xxxir, 
20), broken in honour of him. The princi- 
pal sacrifices offered to Herculeii-U&ov, as 
welt tin to hiA mythical companion Melekbet- 
Artemis were human beings, la Laodicea, 




tlicy mi^lit lie rnnsomcJ 1>y n doe, as Diana 
aitceptei] that animal instead of I}>higeuia. 
The wild hoar was also sacied to the snrae 
f^oddeHs. A lid, in like mainier, in Hiiother 
mylli, another Artemis caused the delicate 

sncfifire-s were common in tiie -Alloid (Hellic) 
hoiiee of Atliumas as well as amoog, tlie 
Pclasgi . The Caitliageniaus after their defeat 
of Agutlioclef, burnt some of their captives 
as a sacrifice ; the Asiyiinns offered humaD 

veruai Adouis to l>e slain \>y a boar titstoad of : Mtci'ifices to the go«l Neignl. In Rome a 
hy Mors as he is usually saiil to be. At Curtli- statue of Jn[)itei' wus sprinkled every year 
age, the pmctice of sacrifliiin}; their favourite I with liiim,in blood, down to the scconil or 
children, and those of (he highest rank con- ' third century twfore Christ, iiud in Nortliern 
tinued down to their latest wars. Hercules I Europe Iniiniin sacrifices couliniied to a much 
of the Phoenicians whs culled Melkath. later peri4)d. In Mexico nod Peru tliey seem 
The Grecian Hen-ules, is described as beeom- I to have been peculiarly numerous. Miiller 
ing iasane, aud burning his own children as | has suggested that this way lave partlj arisen 
well as those of his twin-brother Tphicle:?, aud '■ from the fact that these races were not soften- 

murdering his guest Ipliitus. Itut, iu Asia, 
the rutliless god somctime» also required this 
alrocions sacritice. Iu Amathns, Malika 
(Moloch), * the inhospitable Zcu::',* surcasti- 
cally called Jupiter Hospes, had his bloody 
altar bofora thu temple of Adonis (Lord) anil 
Baallis (Queen.) So had Saturn iu Arabia 
whom Nonnus compares with the Syrian god. 
These sacrifices were offered ou occasioiiti of 
great misfortuue but as a matter of course 
when there was excessive heat. 

ed by the possession of donestic animals. 
Various e.«limateB have been made of the 
numlwr of human victims anuinlly sacrifiRed 
in the Mexioiui temples. Miiltpithinks, 2,500 
is a moderate estimate ; hut in one year it 
appears to have exceeded 10,000. Among the 
Jews, the twenty-eighth and tventy-ninth 
verses of the twenty-seventh cliaptir of Levi- 
ticus appear to indicate that humanBacridcca 
were at one time habitual among tie Jews. 
During the Ludi Circenses of the iomans, 
it was not unusual for hundreds of thuisauds 

Bunsen quoting MegRSthcii<!8, (iii, 525 
£31) mentions the Indians tradiUon of Her- < of wild beasts to be massacred in a^ingle 
culcs, as reigning ill India fifteen generations day, in the Flavian Amphitheatre or ';;ollo- 
after Dyonysua. Ho built Palibrollm and | seum. Suetonius telU ns iJiat, at its ciose- 

otlier cities, bad numerous sous, to each of 
whom be left uu Indiaa kingdom, and a 
daughter Puudsca to whom !te likewise be- 
queatlied a realm. Buuseii following Lassen 
says he was chiefly wor^ihipiK-d in the Suras- 
Sen country and identifies hiin with Krishna, 
says he founded Mathura. 

The "Saturday Review" of tlie 31st Ja- 
nuary 1863, in a i-eview of Lord Stanhope's 
Miscellanies, — asks, " were human sacrifices 
iu use among the Romans ? Lord Mahon 
had mentioned to Macaulay a note in Qriseler's 
history of the Church stating, ou the authority 
of a passage in Lactan tins, that human sacri- 
fices existed in the classic days of Rome. 
Macaulay denied it, Lord Mahoii sent liim the 
passage from Lactantius." Lord Macaulay 
says, Ijaclantius' words arc tliese, "Neljitini 
quidcra hujus immnnitatis ex})crte9 fueruut ; 
siquidem Jupiter Latiaris etiam nuue san- 
guine coUtur humauo," which sentence Lord 
Macaulay translated thus : " Nor have even 
the Xiatias been free from this enormity, 
if it be true that even now Japiter Latiaris 
is propitiated with human blood." Accord- 
ing to Slrabo, human victims were offered in 
sacrifice at the promontory on which stood 
tb« temple of Apollo Leocatas. They were 
offered in honor of the god and to avert evil. 
Bel, or Baal, the god of the lun, tlie Apollo 
of the Greeks and Latins, was worshipped as 
Bel, or Belenus by the Britons. Human 

cruliou by Titus, 5,000 wild and 4,000 tme 
animals were immolated, and Trajan, accc^l- 
iiig to Don Cassius, after bis victory over t« 
Dacians, slaughtered 11,000 of these anlniali. 
The Greek aud Latin writers mention 
Cronos, or Saturn, as one the principal Phoe- 
nician and Cartliagcnian deities. As father 
of Jupiter, he had a definite place and histotT' 
in classical mythology, though there are few 
traces of his inrlependent worship. But it is 
by no means certain what specific name of 
the Phoenician mythology answered to the 
Cronos of the Greek. According to Sanchf>- 
oiatho, it was II ; according to DamaBcina, 
the Phoenicians and Syrians called Saturn, El, 
Bel, aud Balathen ; but II, or EI are the 
Hebrew £1, God ; Bal in a general name for 
the supreme divinity, and Balathen, a combi- 
nation of Bal with some epithet. We do not 
obtain, therefore, from this account any spe- 
cific name. The most characteristic circum- 
stance which we learn concerning him, is that 
the human sacrifices of the Plicenicians and 
Carlhageuiaiis were Rpecially performed in 
his honour. " The PhceniciaQ history of 
Sanchoniatho," says Porphyry, " is full of 
iustanccs, iu which that people, when suffering 
under great calamity from war, or pestilence, 
or drought, chose by public vote one of those 
most dear to them and sacrificed him to 
Saturn." It is remarkable that in the frag- 
mentary history preserved to UB of PboDicia 




1 irr»' 


prtiNirt wo fiuil no TDCutton of sucli a ucrtlico ; 
but tu tbc siege naJc-r AlexRoder it was 
propawtl lu revive a custom ^uspeiideJ for 
muij Bgeif snd sncnfico u boy to Stiturn. 
Th« fidnr men iDt«ii>ose(l and preveuted it. 
That sooh n practive had prevuiletl iu Pboeni* 
cw in earlier limea i) cgtuud. Ita existence 
in Palesliiie is ftt once indicated and coa- 
dnoned in the hixlory of Abruhani, and wo 
kiK>w that it prfivaileil in the circumjaceot 
tribeii. We trace it in the Fhcciiieiun colonies, 
Id Cyprus, Rhodes, Crete and S&rdtuia, where 
U was derived frotn the Cai-lhageniau^, and 
■boTfl all. in Carlliage itseir. An anusunl 
Domber of vi(:titu% uf the choicest quality, 
wore ajkcriliccd here, on orxasioti of uuy ex- 
tr»ordinary oalaiaily : after the victory of 
Agsthoclet l«o bundrc'l nohlc youths nix- 
•Bid to hNTQ b«eu slaughtered. But it was 
also a part of thu ostitblishvd ritual of tbo 
CarliiageoiaaSf and ovory year n youthful 
vidhn wms cliotwu by lot. 

lo£attt^, Hiys Kcnrick, were burnt alirc aud 
Ihetr sacrifice lib<l h special sij^niGcxaoe- The 
now aceeptnbleotrifriiit; of nil waa thol of an 
«ftly cliild. The imat^eorSatum, as weUiirn 
fh>naDi<ul»ni*^!culnitw&aorbi-n9«;the btretch> 
fdotit hati'Ift were hollow, tamed upwards fc 
■•to receive Uie body ufa child, whidi llionce 
tin (iowo i:!totlcry rocei>tBrIe bt-Iow, Muthera 
Itfioi r infants in tlieir aruia, and as 

aay mtinn of relurluiL-L' wuutd huve 

CMde the sacritice unacceptable to the goJ, 
stilted them by llieir caroet>e« till thu iimnifiir 
articn they were Ihrown into the tlunea. 
llBman t«critieea were uot cfTtiiced to one f^od 
ottly, nor to oue sjiuctally uuswcriug to the 
S*tiim of ihe Greekfi and Komaus ; hut as 
be Wtts reputed to have devoured his owa 
eliUdrea, it was natural that, in witueMing 
tba Bai:ri6co of inl'aui;, tbcy should call ihe 
gwd 1 ' ihny wer« offi'reil.Suluni. ("'htiin, 
BCi;:. V Amos (v, 26,) as an objt>et of 

idoluUoiM \vDi«hip to the IfiraclitcH, h iUcnU- 
uJ with the pUtirt Saturn, the name l-ving 
A) uaed in Syiiac aud Aiiibic, but it doei not 
appear that he wus wiirshipiwd witli infant 
Mctificet. 'lliere Is equally uo doubt that 
nrn.i !i the SivQ of the HiudtHR^ who pro- 
bo name of iJds deity Sco, Seb, Sev, 
El, Chiviu. Cheniosh, Ute " aboaiina- 
"le Blonbitef," has tieiMialfioidonlided 
n .u .^niuru ; and oo the other hand, Satum 
Waa pn^umed tu be wonihippcd where luiman 
ncridecs were known to have nndentl^ pre- 
led» M in Italy, tn ubnri(<Jiiitl tiincD. The 
<mpn»reft of iht Old Testament are full of 
hlloiinD!) to these bloody rile, and it lany be 
-urrr.[ :V. rn them that they l>pii>np.'d not 
«ii\iiiivr,% tn tho wor-ttiporoneUod. "They' 
tare fUle«i tbis placc^" luijre iho piophet Jore- 



I ruiah, (xix, 4, 5), " with the blood of mno- 
C'Cuta ; thoy have built the high pUces of 
. Baal, to burn their sons with fire for burut- 
ol)«ring» unto Baal." The mention of human 
sacritlceA, however, ia generally connected in 
scripture with tlie uHrae of Moloch or Mil- 
coin, the god of the AramoQitea. His statue, 
OS descrilied by the Babbinical writers, closely 
resembled that uf Saturn in Diodorus, but 
had none of the characteristics of the Greek 
and UnmiLU Saturn. The head was that of a 
bull, a form audcr which, frotn the story of 
Kuropa and the Minetaur, it is pmhable the 
chief god of Phcanicia was represented ; the 
body human, aiid the Etretched out hands 
received thu chil<), which was consumed in 
the fire kindled below, while the heating of a 
tobrct by the prio&is drowned ita cries. Ac- 
cording to the eoraioon interpretation of the 
pftssago of Amos, the Israelites had wunhip 
ped Moloch even in the desert : the Mosaic 
law denounced the pu»ii«hment of death 
nj]:niii!(t any one who eliuuld give hia seed to 
Moloch. Wedonotreadof it, however, among 
thu idolutiies of Tsruel in thu interval between 
ori^upHtion of the hind of Cauanu and tlie 
rei^n of Solomon, who introtluced ** Moloch, 
the abomination of the chihlivn of Amnion," 
hIou^ with the Sidoni&n Aaiitoreth, and Ghe- 
muRh, the abomination of Moab, into Jeruu- 
lem. The valley of Tophet. or of the son of 
Iliuiiom, just beyond the limits of Uie city 
near the eualeni gate, was the place iu which 
the binody rites were c«lebrni«d from the 
lime of Soloinnu till that of Josiah, by whom 
the place was defiled, being appointed as a 
receptacle for the iilth of the city and tJie 
carvDhoa of dend animals, to confiume which a 
perpetual 6i'e wan kept up. We do uot find 
that these &an-ifn!es to Moloch were rpnerved 
for any spe^^al occasion of national calamity ; 
thoy appear to have bei^n, like iJiose of Car- 
thage, of rrpulnr occnrrence- Young children 
alone were the victims and were regarded nn 
m propitiatory oflVriiig on behalf of their 
parents. Their sacrifice is generally described 
in scripture by the i>hrase " to be pasted 
through the fire to Moloch," and beoce it has 
been supposed thnt ihey were uot realty con- 
sumed, but symbolically passed tlirough the 
flames, that they might undergo the lustra* 
tioil by fire. The fiime woni which ia used 
io the origtoai is &Iso applied in scripture to 
devotouieut of the first-born to.Iehovah, who. 
in the case of linmaii lieiugs, were redeemed, 
but if the lower animals, sacrificed. " To bo 
powed to Moloch through fire," might there- 
fore si>;oify no mors than to l>e devoted to 
him by this ccteniony ; whicli Theodoret 
meultous as still existing iu his time. The 
cominirisou of Jercraiali vii, 31, with xxxiti 

■S 17 


35, shows, however, that " to piwB through 
the fire" was equivnleot to "hum," it ii 
unqueBtioDfthle that human victims were 
offei-ed by £re to the gods of Palestine, and 
the strong abhorrence with which the rites of 
Moloch are spoken of in scripture in hardly 
recont-ilablo with the 8U}ipo»ition of a mere 
harmlesiB ceremony. The truth appeara to be, 
that two motives, an expiatory offt'ring and a 
religious conseci'ation, were blended in the 
eacritice of infants to Moloch, and the readi- 
ness, and even joy, with winch mothers 
brought them to his nllarn seems inexplicable 
except on the supposition thnt they believed 
themselves to bo sccuriug their children's 
eterual happiness, by the sacrifice of natural 

Amongst the Arian races who went to the 
north-west, there are no grounds for believing 
that the Saxous coDtinued to offer human 
sacrifices after their seitlemcut in Great Bri- 
tain, but, in their own laud, the immolation 
of captives in honour of their gods was by uo 
means uncommon. The great temple at 
Upsal, in Sweden, appears to have been 
ospecially dedicated to Odin, Thor and Frea. 
Its periodical festivals were accompanied by 
differeut degrees of conviviality and license, 
in which human sacrifices were rarely want- 
ing, varied in their number and value by the 
supposed exigency. In some cases even 
royal blood was selected that the imagined 
anger of the gods might be appeased. lu 
Scaodiuavia, the aulliority of the priest was 
much greater thau it would appear to have 
been amoug the. Auglo-Suxous. It was his 
word often, which deteimiued where the 
needed victims should be found. It was his 
hand that inflicted the wound, and his voice 
which said, " I send tbee to Odiu," declaring 
the object of the sacrifice to be that the gods 
might be propitiated, that there might be a 
fruitful season or a successful war. One 
king slew nine sous in order to prolong 
his own life, in hopes, doubtless, that what 
they were abridged of would, in a great mea- 
sure, be added to himself; such iuslaDces 
however, occur not often ; but the common 
victims were without end. Adam Bremensis, 
speaking of the awful grove of Upsat, where 
these horrid ritcd wore celel>ratcd, says, that 
there was not a single tree but what was 
reverenced, as if it were gifted with some 
portion of divinity. And all this beciiuse 
they were staiued with gore, and foul with 
human putrefaction. The same is observed 
by Schoffer, in bis account of this place. 
The manner hi which the victims were 
slaughtered was divers in different placcf. 
Some of the Gaulish nations chined them 
with the stroke of an axe. The Celts placed 



the man who was to be offered for a sacrifice 
upon a block or an altar, with his breast 
upwards, and with a sword struck him ftir- 
cibly across the sternum ; then tumbling him 
to the ground, from his agonies and coqtoI- 
siouB as well as from the effusion of blood, 
they formed a judgment of future events. 
TbeCimbri ripped open the bowels, and from 
them they pretended to divine. In Norway 
they beat raeu's brains out with an ox-yoke. 
The same operation was performed in Ice- 
land, by dashing them agaiust au altar of 
stone. lu many places they transfixed them 
with arrows. After they wera dead they 
suspended them upon the trees, and left them 
to putrify. One of the writers above quoted 
mentions tliat iu his time seventy carcaMs of 
this sort were found in a wood of the Suevi. 
Dithmar, of Mursburgh, au autli»r of nearly 
the same age, speaks of a place called Sedu, 
in Zectaud, where there were every year 
ninety and nine persons sacrificed to the god 
Swantowite. During these bloody festivals 
a genera] joy prevailed, and banquets were 
most royally served. They fed, they carous- 
ed, and gave a loose to indulgeoce, which 
at other timet was nut permitted. They 
imagined that there was something mysteri- 
ous in this number nine, for which reason 
these feasts were iu some places celebrated 
every uiuth year, iu others every ninth 
mouth, and continued for nine days, when all 
was ended they washed the imsge of the deity 
in a pool, on account, it is supposed, of its 
heiug stained with blood, and then dismissed 
the assembly. Their servants were numer- 
ous, who Attended during the term of their 
fea&tiug, and partook of the banquet. At the 
cloEe of all they were smothered in the same 
pool, or otherwise made away with. On 
which Tacitus remarks, how fireat an awe 
this circumstance roust necessarily infuse into 
those who were not admitted to these myste- 
ries. The accounts are handed duwn from a 
variety of authors, in different ages. Many 
of whom wei'e natives of ^e countries which 
they describe, and to which they seem 
strongly attached. They would no^ there- 
fore, have brought so foul an imputation on 
the part of the world in favour of which 
they were each writing; nor could there be 
that concun-eiico of testimony were not. the 
history in geueral true. The like custom 
prevailed to a great degree in Mexico, and 
even under the mild government of the Pe- 
ruvians, and in most parts of America. Iu 
Africa it Is stilt kept up, where, in the inland 
part?, they sacrifice some of the captives 
taken iu war to their fetiches, iu order to 
spcure their favour. Snelgmve was in the 
king of Pahomi's camp afler his inroad 

S 18 

■to tbfl coiiuU-ic3 of ArJi'K uud Wliiitrnw, 
IimJ Mrs. thfit he wns k nritnris (u tlic ci ut^lfy 
»f tiiia' pi'iuce, wlmm lie mw socrifico mulli. 
mdrs %a the ie'Uy of his natiou. These were 
'jeontri ukcii in war ; hut ntnong the natious 
}f Canaan, the vicUins were peculiarly chosen. 
rUtir own chiliireii, and whatever was near- 
F«t aii«l vlearest tn Ihem, w<'i'u •Icemed ihe 

imt *rt>rrhT off'-ring to their )*oil. The 


with KoiTjp reference lo ilial *-h'ineiit. Thi 
Carlhafreuiutia Hm inlrixJucei] liiui iiilo 
Afrira : he was tin? same an the Onis of the 
Egjprians, aiiti the Alunis of the ea&lerQ 
uatioue. That the luiino given him originalljr 
by the Greeks was Koratms is maniteat from 
a place in Crete which is sacred to him, and 
in mcntioiieil hj the nnme Coronis, It is aaid 
titat both iJic chief c'tly aad tho adjacent 

,rtlttteuiaii>, whn wt^re a roluiiy fnint Tyrf , (^o'litilry Vfcrtt ihiM denntiiinntcit, and thot tie 
,med with them ihti rcligiuu of their sacrificos were there offered which we know 

lolher couutry, antl instumed tlio aunic wor- 
ihip in llir i>art» where ihey *eit!f«I. It coii- 

wc^re peculiar lo Ki-oiiti>t. If tjii>= pluce, oa 
coiisei'rmed lo hint, (ns is nppai'ti>t by these 

tilled in the adoiaiton of several deities, but | otferings) w&» called Korunit-, it is pluiu that 
rlieiilailv of Ki^iiO!* ; to whiiiii ihey offered I his name must have been rendered l)y tho 
lomaa aarrifiL'nt, and ^specially the blood of. Greek, Koronus, and bolh j^re a liatisposilioa 
nhitdrvQ. If the parenta wei-e not at linnd to for " Kou-Orus," or " Chmi-Onift," the loiil 

ike an iraniediaie offer, the magistrates did 
BM fail to makft choice of what wa^ moAt fair 
anil promiBLtitt. that the f;nd mi^ht nut he 

Onis. He was imivorBally adored iu Cyprus, 
but particularly in ibis purl, which Forphyry 
supposes to have beeti Salnmis. This is 

Mrvwled of his Aaet- U[>ou a vheck being | evident from Diodonia Siculux^ who motitioua 
received ia Sicily, and some niher aini-ming n rily Auranie here. He makes it, indeed, 
cirtDfDStooces happeuing, Hamikar, without , distinct fn>m Sttlnmi^ but places it bard by, 
MM baitntion, laid hold of a tioy and offeretl j Itetwoen thiitcity auU Carpasstn, where the 
him on the spot t» Krotios, oud nt the some river Chnur (ilio Aucanr n( tho Phicnicinns, 
tin* drownei] a numVter of prieHts to ap|«ase | nud the Courium of the Grefikf,) runs nt thus 


ih« deity of the »ca. The CailhageiiiaiiR, 
mother time, upoa a gt^at defeat of their 
army by Apalbodes, imputed the misriirrioj:« 
Slie Bngur of this pod, wliO»e services had 
neglected. Touched witli this, and seeing 
the enwtiy at their gate*, they seized at once 
two huudiod chihlrvo of tlm prime nobility, 
aod offered them in public for o ttncrifice. 
ThrM hundred more perfous, who were some- 
how oKuoxioua, vieliled themselves volniilarily 
lod were put lo'<Ifalh with iht- others. The 
Dwlfct of which they accused ihemsclTes, 
«ooel»ted in «acriliring children purchased of 
pit*oi5 among the poorer sort, who reared 
litem for that purpose and not selecting thu 
DiMt promieini^ and the most honourable, us 
had bern the custom of old. Iu short, there 

lay. The Creeks thought Kronus was tlie 
uimc, but it .was an orienlnt name, aud the 
etymology hii!i to be looked for among tho 
people of thow) purls. The Greeks, wc find, 
Called the deiiy lo whom these offuriugs wem 
tnmie Agrnulo^, nud feigned tliat bhe was a 
womaii, and the daughter of Cecrops. But 
it is not shown }inw Cecrops came to have 
any connection with Cyprus. Af^rautos it a 
coiTuption BJitl tninspucjitiou of tlie original 
nnme, which has, like many oLbcr oriental 
titles and n^imes, been strangely eophisticaled, 
and is here chnn^ed to Araulos. It wait in 
reality tho god of light, the Orus and Alonis 
who was always worshipped with Hre. I'ho 
deity wns the Molo4*li of the TyilnDs nod 
Cnniinnitet!, und the Moloch of tiie east, that 

hadbrm particul&r<-hildr«tt brougbtupfortlie is, the preiit and principal god, the god of 
ittar, as aheep are fattened for the shaniMci, light, of whom firu was esteemed a nyaibol ; 
sad flwy w«r* bruui;bt and butchered in tlie I and at who!^ shrine, instcnd of viler victims 

*mri- ■: r-r ; but ihlft iudiscritniuate way of they offered the blood of nteu. Such was the 

fitiL as ihon^hl to have given offfnce. i ICronus of the (ireeka, and the Moloch of the 

It I- it-i'.iuikable ihat the Egyptians luokcd | J'hceuicians, aud nothing can appear more 
«al for the miMtspcciouB and hHudaome person . ehockiug ihao the sncnlicea of tho Tyriaos 
t«ba ucrificed- The All>aninni pitcli>>d ii[M>n nud Carthnfreniaus which they performed to 

lL« bovt man of the community, and made 
km pay for the wickediip^s of the rest. I'lie 
CacthaceDiauii cho»4 vrhat they thoug'ht the 
HKMl excelltml, and at the xame lime moat 
■r ID them, which ma.le ihc lot fall lieavy 
•poo tlHfir children. This is taketi uotice of 
ky Sihua lUlius in his fourih hook. Kmons, 
lo wb«ra tbeae ■acriGi:es were exhibited, 
«aa ao oriental deity, the god of light 

(hey perform 
the idol. In all emergencies of slulp, aud 
times of geni?rnl cnlsmity, they dcvole<l that 
which was most necessary and valuable to 
them for au offerini; to the gud^*, and partlcu- 
Inrly to Moloih. Ilut L^sidcs these tindeter- 
tniued limes of bloodshed they had particular 
and prpsciibe«i Reasons every year, wheu 
chiidrcu were clioeeu uut of Uie most Dublo 
and reputable families. U' a pei'^on had au 

ni firt ; and therefore always worshipped ' only child, it was the more baljle lo be p»t ii> 
19 S 19 




(tenth, as boing ofieciiiCit inoic acrcptaMe tu 
lli« tleily, «ut] mure effiL-nrtuiiH uf tJie gLMienil 
good. ThoM wliu were Mciificed lo Kiuiiuj) 
Wcra llirown into the nnnB of nn idtil w^iicli 
•food in tilt! tnidst of a lar^e Ore, nnd was 
retl with heat. The anns of it wore Btrelched 
out with the hundn lumeit npwariliu it were 
to rofcivo them, yet iloptni; ilowuwanla, so 
that tlioy dropt Fvom Itiuuce into n gh^tvuig 
ftiTQaoe betow. Tu other ^odi th*>y weie 
othorwiao iliiughtL'rcd, atiil aa it \b ini|ilicd Uy 
Un- ypty hatidi of tli«ir parctits, the fnther 
ICAdiii^ the •icari'nt uf all lii& mn% to liiat 
iufvrutil (hrine, or mnlJier, tlie most cnpii>,'- 
ing and Hflbctiontlti of her dNii}t)ili>i-s, juFit 
riiiuj; lo ninlurity, lo be eIaiighi(>t'Hl at tho 
attar of Aslitaroth, or BaaL JumIiu desciibes 

it not," Miys bo, " have beeu more elitilbl^ 
fur tbo CnnhngniiaiiH Ui hH^'c hMtl Hit; aiJutii 
Critiaiis, or Dinpovas. ttieir lawgiver, 
the cominviicciiiciit of tbeii- polity, aod 
havti b4;e(i tauglit tbnt ibvro wan neither G< 
uur donioii, ihau to havo umfiwJ iii tlic 
niantit-'r (hty vivm Wimt lo the god whirl 
they adored ? Whcroiii they iiclod not ai 
ftfi'i'DU did whom Eiii|>udovUi( ilntcrilies 
some poetry, where ht>oxpoi?es tliii uunatural 
cii"tom. The riilbfv, with Diauy idk vowa 
ofTiTh up uiiwilMiigiy hia boh fur n ftncrifft 
but llu- yotitb was so cliait;teJ iu ft^atuit: and 
lii:int- Ibiit bis fallicr did nut know biniil 
Those people uSPi! knriwinfcly and wilfully taj 
go tbrou);h ihiii bloody wutk, imd ()lau({liter] 
ibeir own uflVpriug, F.vcn th*y wlio were 

this uiMtatiimt cu<tlum vpry pathetically. |ehitdb>aii would uot be exempted from tliia 

Sorb wan their blind real Ibnl this wbb 
cootinually practised, and so much of na- 
tural airet:tion ntill left unoxilnguiiihed ni 
to render rhe »r*ne ten limes more i?hoc)i)tig 
from the t<*ndm'nc«s which they Beeiiied tn 
ciaj»re«. Th<'y embraced their childreii with 
grvat fot)di(e>«. «i)d encoui«<;i:rd tht-in in thn 
gwtlnt lermn tbnt lliey miglil not be npimllcd 

viirspd Irilmte, but purcltased cbildren at a, 
price, of the pooler sort, aud put tbeta 
deolh with us litllu rcmorHO aa one would kiUj 
a lamb or a chicken. Tbo mother who Mcri- 
Reed her child stood by without any ftouniai 
aeoMt of what nbc was loning, and witiioui 
uttering n moau. If a si^b did by cJiant 
rsrapci '^l"' loHt all the honour which akp pro^j 

at the light of tfie belliih process, begging of! poeed to bertcif in the oHttriu},'. and tUu chilil 

thom to submil with clierrfubiesa to this 
fearful opeiiitiou. If (htre wns any appeii- 
aoee of a tear rising, or a cry unnwnrrH rnrap- 
ing, the tnotlicr smoibcred it wirb lier kisses, 
that there might not be auy thow ef back- 
wardneHs or consliaint, but the whole be tlio 
fret-will oBering. These cruut endearmetita 
OTor, they itabbod tlirm to iho heart, or other- 

was iiolwilli»lAnding rlaiii. All thu liiac ot 
thin cek'brlty. while the children were niae-j 
during, tlteic whs a noise of eluiiousaud 
bom Miundtng licfore the Idol, tfiat tlio crj 
and shrieks of the victims might, not be heard." 
"Toll TOP. now," said PlularHi, "if lit 
monKlcrs of nlil, thr Typliona niid tlic glauia,] 
were lo expel Lliegodit, and to rule the woild 

wise o)>ened the 6luicc« of life, and with the in their ntetu), conld ibey re<iuii-e a ftervloe 



blood, warm as it ran, be!<moared tlio altar and 
the griBi visage of the idol, Those were iho 
oasioms wliicfa tlie IvraelJies learned of the 
people of Catiaan, ami for whirli thoy an* 
apbrntJcd by Uie Pialmisi : "They did not 
dcatroy the nattoos eouocrning whom the Lord 
eomtoanded Hutu, but were mingled among 
the heklben, and learned their wDik»i yea, 
they aacrificed thair sons and their dnughters 

tuon* horrid than these iuferual rlivs aailj 

Sale's Koran conlninn further evid«D«tti 
tlie pt'nctice of infanticide, aflxiEailathig noral 
thfl:i ill nny oUier trtmc with tlio custom of] 
the Jahrrjs rare of Kiit<-h ntid Katlyvu-.j 
This barbarity purmh In linvc bpencnnfiueilio| 
the female infaotc, ai is thu ca»u vriili ibu Jab- 
rcji, aud it is ivmnrkatli* iJiiki the difficulijr 

UDto devils and sited innocent btooti, evea the | of pmriding for \livm iu man-ioge, ur tbo I 

blood of their sods and of their datigbtera, 
whom tliey »rriSced nnio the idols of Canaan. 
M)d the land wn^ polluted with blood : thus 
wera they defiled witli their own works, ami 
wcDl ■ whoring with their own inrentioDs." 
Thpw cruel rites, writes Colonel Walker, 
pntetised in bo many Qslioon, made l*lu- 
tareh debate with himself, " Whether it 
wnnbl not hav<^ Ijccn better for the Golato, 

apprehension of their conduct disgnciiig| 
thrir parents, is assigned in ImxIi cases aa tlMtl 
rnii*o of this inhnman castom. One baarfltj 
which hax resulted to mankind from tbo I 
success of Mahnincil ban ):>ecn the rclioqutsb* 
tueuc of so inhuman a practice atuuugst bit. 
Dum«rouB followers 

Abbe Doneaeeb says itiat some brftncbMJ 
of tfae Scythto slock undoubtedly erosited to 

or for the Scrthinm, to hnve had do Undi- ; America in the early ceittuncs of onrera, aud 

lion or eouet'pttou of any superior beings, 
tbaa lo have formed to themselres notions 
of gods who drligblod in iho btoiid of men ; 
of gods who esteemed hutnsn viriimsihenoat 
jiccaptablo and perfect sacrifice ?" ** Would 

they fcrto to bare can iitl with them tliuukcri* 
(leisl custoiDs which hive been ■ peenUiritj of , 
all their ofbhoots. The Comanche and tKo 
Naehea, lodian tribes of North America, 
rormerly buried the wirtiaof a deaoutd cluof, 



Tbi! Oltuwn Mill olTor a boreo vins Cnlpiitnia. Marnis was n mno n{ a 
liio totuU (if Uio ileuU. Witb ami blotxljr ilisposiltoti, ami hiul |ii-oI>hI) 

tl«Ka<rLrz, ibe victims pbtced Uiem»«lve6 on 

iMta ftotl Juccii tbe death -douco wilb Uioir 

ureatJODrr*, wbo ibrntecl m circtti iruunil 

tItKB). Tbe Pnwuee tril>e8, tuppocietl U> be 

iWniiilinn froffl (1i« ancient Mi;xi(.-iu3<^ aIho 

uliwiil buman MciiAcen, ibiHinIi iho rite is 

■oppwd U> bifi: laWlir falleii into alwjmtco. 

TlHMe aaerificea look plac« mnre parcicuUi I7 

to die nootli of April, iJial ii. b1 Mvriii^ time, 

. riew 10 obtaining al-[iii<liiiil ImrvHuu 1 

[nxt tlw Grval Spiriu Vlie pieparntiuQ 

Wul r<^ur tlaySv ou tiie fiTth tUc victim vita 

loutu] la tiirt'e »ukc9, (ilucctl abctvu tlie 

fuBeral pile. He «ra3|Muutctl reJ ui bUtik, 

uJ hts brvait burned ait«l pi«rce<l with 

w% antl aftar bia bc'arl wns reat-lied 

irai lorn I'i'om bi> breast Hiiil dwdDrnl all 

UI«eU»og. This trarbaruus ceremooy was 

WnRinaleJ either b^ ■eltin}* tixa pile on 6i«, 

fr by istiug ihc victim, whoso blood s«rvpti 

: iralrr tUe Mvds abutit to be committt'J to 

' 1 rartli- Btil tnonj Indian nalimis nf tlie 

lonikoni and noslerD parte oj' Xoitb 

AiftCTira rcltbntle aanoally solemn fesltvulti 

' Sa the ItmTM) of iho willow hiive aitaiiied 

Kir.i full size. TlitfH! Hulvmuilivt ar« in 

(oanBMOtalioa of a prcnt l-vpdI : in |>i-<>pi- 

tbUoa «f U>« fiopci-ior poweis ; or ut'« ullered 

u esaia.lioii. Amon^ the Mandnii, ihoM 

ire pToloog»l four dsyi, and the pvntoftl 

(naJtics art) pmctiNed on tbu tot'tuied. 

Ciioikot WAiker obsei'vee tiint tbc Uomuns 

wmm aceuaUMned to the Uko ■aoitfiecs. They 

hitli drroled tbenseWes tu tbe infertitil gMh, 

anJ cunatrained others to ftubmit 10 tlio ^Rioe 

lioRid tloocD. Hence we read in Tiius 

LivitBi tlwl in tlio coneolato of Omiiius 

Paoloa and Trrentius Vnrro, two Gautft, a 

heai'd of such 8aoi'ifivv& beinc; otTeied in tbo 
encrny'« cnuip, nniuugsL wboiu they wore -vary 
common. Or he might have behold ihem 
exhibited at a di&lance, and Llioiefoii* niui- 
dercd what was<^st, and should hnve been 
dcfti-cst to hitn, to cuuiileract iheir fi-aiTiil 
apcllfl, and to outdo them in their wicked 
machinery. Cicero, tnukiu£ mention of this 
custom bciug cuiunioii tti tinul, adds that it 
provAiled aninug tbnt people even nt the timo 
wht^n be wm s))cakiiig : from wJic-nco wc may 
be Ivd to infer tliat it was Ibt-ti diBcnnliniied 
aninn^ the KtMUons : and we nre told by IMiny, 
that it had then and nut Teiy lun^ lieen dia- 
coai-A^cd. For tliere was a law eDaeie^l, 
when LenluluA luid Crn^'^us wcio con8itt», so 
late B9 tlio»ixhundreil and lif\y-aeventh year 
o\ Romr, that there should be uo more hninan 
»icrific«fi, for iill thnt timo tho^a horrid rites 
ha*l been celebrated in open day, witboat any 
mask ur control, which, had we not the beet 
evidence for tho fact, would nppear scarcely 
credible. And. however diacouliiiued tliey 
m»y have l>et<u for a time, we find tbnt llicy 
were o^ain reuewed, though they became not 
so pnblic, iiur ?u ^eueml. For uut wry long 
after this ic h r(')H>i'iod nf AugusluH Ciu«nr, 
when Persia .tiitrendered iu tlie time of the 
9«coml triiimviratp, thnt besides mnllitudes 
execuie<l in a military nmnAcr, be oflered up 
upon tlie Ides of March throe hundred 
choseu iforson^ both of the efjuostriaa and 
•eiinturiau ordur, at an altar dedicated lo tho 
manes of his nncle Juliiig. Kven at Rome 
itself this cuBtom was revived ; and Por- 
phyry nsFiire^ us that iu his time u man was 
cvciy yenr sacrificed nt the uhrino of Jupiter 
i^liuri^ HcliiMnibnluB offei-cd the tike vie- 

■ml yeoama, and two in liko manner of tims to the Syrinn deity, whirli he introduced 
GfMc^ WW baricd alive at Home, in tbe I among the UrMnans. The same is paid of 
iK«aBt^Ci, where waa a place under ■^loutid I Aurelinn. The (tsuIs and tbe Oennans were 
valleii roaml to rccetre ihem, which hnd | so devoted to this shocking custom that no 
berti made Dsa of for such cruel buniiie&s nf any ntotnent wa.^ IrniiNUclcd 
He saj» it wna a parrifirtt i"»t pii>- nmonfr them witliont Iwing prefaced by tbe 
RoowB, that is, uotorigmiUly of Uamau : bbtoil of men. They wure offered up to 

ikititiitiaii« yet it waa frequently practi^iid 
iterr, awl that too by public nuthoi-jiy. 
itatvrtJi makes menliou of a like iusiunt^r a 
few yren beforci iu tiie eontuUbip of Flami- 
nm* and Forius. There is retMO to tliluk 
ifaal aU the principal captives who graced the 
trinaspli* "f the Uomaoa were at tho cluse of 
<:;cAntrj- put Lu death at llie altar 
ipitolinui. Caius Mnrius otTered 
taugbter for a victim lo tbe Dii 
•.0 piXMrurc Bncce«5 in a bivltio 
j>ri. aa we are informed by 
<i by Clemens ; t( ts likowiso 
HteaUfl by Plutarch, wbo saya that tier oama 


i^iaat ' 

vatioun godp, but particularly to Hesus, 
Taranis, and Sbanlates. These deities aro 
mnntionnd by Lucao, where be enumerates the 
various nations wbo followed the fortunes of 
Cittsar. Tho attars of these gods were far 
removed from the common resort of meo, 
being generally situated in the depth of woods:, 
that Ibe gloom might add to tbe horror of tho 
opcrulton, and give a reverence lo tbc place 
and vrooecding. Tho persons devoted were 
led thither by the Druidn. who presided at tbe 
aolemnity, and performed the cruel offices of 
the wcrificc. Tacitus takes uolite ot ti\ft 
craeUy of tiie liermuQdari io a Ttvc ml]ki V^ic 




Catli.wberain lliojrtinti gi-mtl/tlien<lrRiiUgp. act as »liouM biMik kud dU[>«rw ilie alii. 

nt itic diifte of wlilcli iber mailu oue geiit-rnl 
iiacilflcoof all thnt were taken in Iwiiltf. TIjc 
piKd- I't-miiiiis (i( Urn l4>gii>nk tiuiter Vintu 
sulfcrod ill nome ilof^rcv tJ)C Mime (nUi. 
Thfiu wtie many [iIki-cb nlloueO for th\» 
purpoiu nil over GaiiI ant] (>erii)nnyi but 

ping uf HhtuIJ, king uf Denniark." 
Grammaticux mentions ■ like fnct ; 
(tallft Uie king Hnquiit, «Dd 8[>Mikii of the pK'-i 
MiitEi put to iltiaili as two vciy l^opefu) yotii 

Jiirnb Rryiint piroa mt arconnl of tbc crti 

(Mix't-ially iu the niightv wuotls of AiilntMiTin, I SKviificfi of iU» Ciumaniio*, Phcenicinni Mod] 
uml iIm; ){rBalci- Heniiiiau furc>i(. k wild tlmt I otlier natitiiii. fioia otui^rTiitiuDB and infjaini 
exlended above tliii-tyila^a' jniinify in length. I'clnlitt^ lo otliei* \iavUi of ancient liislorrJ 
The places Kl apnrt for tttiit solctniiiE/ vrvn In llic Annual Kt^ieter, Vol. x, for tlia ytiw\ 
beld lu the utmoet tawreavf, nutl uiiljr ap- 17fi7, tin hays one wr>uli) tJtink it srarr«)] 
pruached nt pai'ticular itcasoit*. Lucati men- ' poniblc (Um » unanlural a custom ai that ' 

tiom a gi-ove of tJiis sort neat- MaMt-lea, 
wliit;h vwn the Itnniaii soldici'R were ofi-aid 
to viulalv, though commanded hy CieBnr. It 
wu one of llio««R«t apart far th« eai-i'iOr<>s uf 

liuraau taciifit-ea shunld bare rxisted in tbi 
world, hnt it is very cvi-taiu did 0( 
only cxiftt but aliDoal unirerMtly prcvailt 
Tbc H2iyplian= itfold brought 160 virtitn^to' 
iht) couDtrjr* Claudiaii compliincntJi Stillico, I their temples. Human viciims bud the Ulood 
that ainfiag otiirr aJvanls^a occurriu}]: to ; of ineu mti&Lal o»o |icnod most I'lrtnioly bm« 
thu Roman nrmies (hiYm^h hii ruiidtict, lliey ' been offered lu thfir gods. 'I'hu Crolaui 
coiiUI nuvv venture into the nr/ful furi^st ofjtha tame cuitoni, and adhered to it a 
H«r>;inia, and rnllow lUf <*hn«p iu ihusc bo lon};pr lime. Thonatiunsof Arabiadiittbvi 
much dreaded woD«U, and othrrvrisu niukc The pooplo of Duma in particular tacrlflc 
nu uf ihvni. These prn<:tii-i.-i4 prevjiiled | fvory jsnr a uhiUl, and Imricd il undemeaUi i 
among all the pitople of thi^ north, of what< | aliHr, which Uiey made u»o of instenj of 

ever denomtuation. Tbo Maw-agciA, the 
Scylbian, tbu Gt.'U>, Uie Sannatiuu, Alt Uie 

idol, for they did not admit of images. 
Herstanii buried |>eopl*9 atire. Ame«tri», th4 

viu'inua ontitiui upon the BaliiA, porticulnrly < wife of Xerxes, entombed twelv« jxii 
I ho SuoTi and Srandinaviana, held ita& a fixed quick, underground fur tbo gotid of her loQ 
prinriplo that their liappinen and security , It would be endle»s to enuraemte evorr cuy,' 

could not bo ubLoiucd but at Uiu expense of 
the livo» of nthrr?. Tbrir chief gods were 
Thor and Woiicn. whom ihejr thought, tliey 
could never nutficicutly glut with blood. 
They had many vrry i-elebrated plare* of 
worvhip, eioQcialiy in tlie ialnnd of Rugen, 

or every province, wbeie tlie*e 6»d prattion 
obraineil. The C'ypriAn<t. tlie KbodiKn.i, t! 
rii«:nicJMH5, tliose of Ohois, I^esboa, Tcned 
111! Iiad linmuii »ncritii-ca. The natives uf i 
Tauric CherisoufwuKotTcred up to Diana c>i'i 
atiauger n'hotu cbant-e throw upon their coks 


uear the mouth of tlie Oder and iu JSeelaod. Hfnce arnne (hat jual expiKitulntion in EuH 
Some too, vury fauiouit unioiig tiie Suinnones i pidee, upon the iucoaaiatcucy of the proceed- 
and Nuhauvalli. Uut tlif nio^it reverenced of I ing wherein much good roa»)ning ii implied. 
all, and the most n-«quvi)lod, was at LIpiat, I Iphigenia wonders, as the goddcM delighted 
where Uivre was every year a graud culebri- | in tlie blood of men, that every vill&in and 
tv. wbicli •■outiniied for nine days. During murderer aliouldbe privileged loeanpe.— mny 
tiiift term tlicy •acrlficcd animals of all eort«, ' be, driven from the ilirMlihold of the tempi 
but the most ar-reptable victimi, luidliio mmC ' Wlieroaa, if an honent nud virtuous t 
uumvrtHia u-ere men. Of tlie** ?iu-riflce« ' chaiiced to tttmy thither he only was «*i 
none wcrv ealeemed so aiiopicious and mIu- ' upon and put to deiith. The I'etasgi id 
tary as a wcrifice uf tbo [triure of tlie coon- ' time of eearcily votred that they would 
try. Wlirn the lot fell fur tin; king to die. it the t«utb of all that >bould Ita Iforu to _ 
wiu received with unireraal ucclauiatiuut and for a aacvilice, in order to pr'Miure pleat' 
every eipreMJon of joy, a« it on>;e hnpjn'ncd Ariilomenes, thu Mciairuiaii, flew three bu 
Id Ihe time of a famine, tvltcii they ca>l lula, j dreal iiobli; Laced«inuuiaii", amnii}i; whom w 
and it fell to ihe king Donialder lu bn Uie 1 Th<*-'^p"nipuH, llie king of Spiirtn, at tho altJil 
people's victim, and be wa* accordingly put I uf Jupilvr at Uhomc: witliuut doubt tl 
U> dmth. Olaufl Triliger, anotlisr prim-e, Ijieedfrnonians did nut fail to mak« amp' 

iraa burnt alive lo Wudi<n. I'bcy did not 

spare their own children. Harold, tho aon 

of Ouoil-i, the Qrst of Umt name, i>lew two of 

bM childroo to obtaio a storm of wind. " He 

did tK)l let," says Ventcgan, "to sacrifice I of Lhrir parents witJt auch *«viTity befa 

two of bis fOQt uDio these fdolfl, to the cud aitar of Diana Ortbis, that they t^teu 

1m might vbtJtiQ uf them such t tetopat *1 ' uuder the tortuix- Pbylarchus atlinai^, u 

22 S 22 

returns, (oi ihoy were a severe aod roveD| 
fill people, and offered tbo lika vi^f 
Mars. Iu their festival of Oie Dcani 
tlie 8]>Artau boys were wltipp<-d iu Uf 



b gaoled by Porphyry, that of old every 
tineiaii fUlo m&de it ■ rule, lwfo\e tliry 

—I lild tuwirtts Mti et)etny, to -(olirit a hles5< 
tag ott ibrir uiut«riaking« liy the vacriltci; uf 

Bryaut does not Eppenr ta h&ve h«en Rwiirc 
flf tha exisivAoe of Immnn f«t:rific«» miiDiig 
tfaahtadoos ; otherwise he coalil have nddeil 
to bis lift of haman iofirroity hy citing the 
tiutaUlioa of the RmlLei-adhyavn frutn the 
CilieaD Pamti, by Mr. Blacjuici-f, an an evi- 
tew« of this hsiiiaroMs rite heiti^ Nitictiotie<i 
kf ibe hiodoo Itgitlatnt-e. It wea nnt only 
" , bot b th« aiiHent rile* of the hiii Joo» 
jaeuily fiiw(i-«il, uudei* llie tlmioinj. 
lof Mcr, Med or Wud, tlie sacrifice of a 
Tbcl^ctulio tlieVeda^of tbeurrifireof 
SsBahstpba, aeeoii to havr beer hauded down 
ft<omfi«ctria. But aicnficesofaniiual life still 
Ittn pari of the reli]i;iou» r)(et> or mauy i-aces 
it Sootbcm Alia, acid «veii humaa being*, b$ 
biha meriahft of the ICotid districts in Gnu* 
iuDfBresliU being offered u|> in saerifice : 
Aaapk it i« report^ that tlie year 1 860 passed 
lijwilbotil a single meriali. With tltelnudouH, 
UacTrr, male bnttalo^s, sheep, and goat". 
Ml fawU are cotisLnittly tarrili'^rd, and mahtK 
««iin« occaiionniiy ^nrrilice a camel, a sheep, 
SfMiuracow. There is, at the vlt^e of 
lltg BiD^tw^ittli century, a uiiiiiL>roua vines of 
Inl'- ' ate nccuied oT the pitkclicc. 

Tbfx ■ li Kitnuda, iiitd uie iiitialiilnat* 

a/ the knoknn. Thoy were notiicd in 180H, 
load Walker, Re-'ideiit of ISarola, hi 
,aodbrSir John Mnlcnini In hifi History 
'■'i the latest rcpoii? from that 
tt^< d »huw the bt'liff lliat llie 

i|nfii.v "1 -ocrificing human beingn still eon- 
lliooea atDotig-t ibis ^ecl. The object oftlieir 
amriilp ti Mafaa Lnkiihnii, to wliom buranti 
MirtfccaaTcacceptAl'le, aud lUc moi-c no if the 
victim m a hiitlimiii, ieamed in tbo phiulei-^. 
TW public p«rfonnai)cc of this iwcrifice has 
toDK aiucefxlleu iuto di!>ii!>e ;h(il a i'ect of tite 
Kamila ttmlitnln* are arou'ed ofeiUrtinp, by 
^BtClK- :tuf[H>is<>U, that ot>ject which 

Ukey dair : kdyKt-ow. Coloutrl Walker 

kaeia ftarersl Korruda bnihmini in ret-pet-t- 
iM» public vitiiHtiuuK, inlelli[*eut, chaiilabte. 
ta4 hutnoDr, who would abhor tlie comini«tuu 
,/ il... .l..t^.nblo crime, nml who, though 
iitf former e«ialrnre, mutt stumg- 
. ■» jii««ai practice, but the power of 
il •fonietimea tttrouger than the 
' I idcK** of moial coodurl ; and 
uudei the luflueuce of this pai- 
icrhnp to eal of food prt'iiarwd 
of chis tribe, of wrjiich be him- 
I "t ni tbo Bame time (lartake. 
■ iiift:iiS thai at the Chinese fourt. 
Irlbc tauJillr ufihiu Iftth vculiiry, some Man- 

cbii and Mongol in the fiv« banneii have tlie 
prcGi t»ai-8ang which declaifs (hem to be 
employed in slaying the Ticliins used in 
»i<:riliee. The flesh of victims is offered in the 
IJivan-iiing-kung, tJie portion of tlie ptili<'-e 
appropriated to the empress, eveiy rnoruiug 
at 4 o'clock, and at tlie Mune hour in the 
aftcmoon : at the monthly sacrifice perform- 
ed oo the «ei.>oud of the first moon and the 
first diiy of all ^iucceeding ; and at ilie sacri- 
(Ico of the moiTovr, performed on tlia third 
of the (iiftt, and the »rroud of all Bucceediiic; 
moons. The morning daily eaerifioe is to 
Budillia, ICwitn-yin, mid Kwan-ti (the Mars 
of China) : Iheerening, lo nine Tartar diri- 
nitica Itvaring long unintellifjible appellatiuiis. 
Thi'' monthly Ktcrificcs np|)ear to be the sanie 
with that on 'the mon-ow,' i. e., of the 
monllily savrifice. The Hesb uf ihe viciim i^^ 
boiled and placed before the idoiH above 
ennmemted, on the right and teftof the shriae 
of heaven ; when remored, il \a partaken of 
by the emperor or empre»!», if officiating in 
person, or by those to whom hia majesty may 
direct the noblpx, IiIh proxies, to distribute 
it. Medhn, Sanscrit, «igoiliea (o kill, anci the 
Anwiimetlha, the sacrifice of the horse, was 
practiced in Indiu, in ancient timet, but its 
occurrence wilhin any lei-eut period i» not 
known. It MtMUK to hai'e been a Si^ylbirrite, 
whi-re often the boi-tc, after certain cervmouiei>, 
wan lihpraled, in fntfilnieiit of a votr, or lacri* 
fi('ed on the ifeulbs of chiefs. Up to the 
present day, in India, cows and bulls are let 
iooN) in fulfilment of vows, hot the lil>erKtion 
of a horse is not now known- Colonel Tod 
surmises that the grand soUttlial ftfKlival, (he 
Aswamedha, or sarrificc of the horse I'the 
type of die run), which was practi-ied by Iho 
children of Vaivaswata, the * sun-born,' wai 
most proWbly simuttaneousty inlroduoed 
from Scytbia into the plains of India and 
west, by the sons of Odin. Wo<lcr., or Roodba, 
into Seandinavia, where it became the tli-el 
or Hi ul, the fe^tlvnl of the vt inter solNlice, 
the ^aod jubilee of northern nations, and in 
the lirst agea of clirif^lianily, being so neHr 
the e|)Och of its I'ise, glndly ns^'d hy llip 6r.<>t 
fathers of the Chnrch to perpeinate that 
evf>nl. It wax pntctifed liv atids by the tiKte^ 
in the time of Cynii ; deeming it right, says 
liertMlotits, to ofTer the Kwiftesl of created 
to the chief of uncreated being* : and tliis 
wonihip and sacrifice of the liovae was 
hnndod down lo the Rajput. Tina sangui- 
naiy part of this ceremony would, accord- 
ing to Mr. Colebronbe, appear like that of 
the parusharaedba or humati isacrifioe. to be 
racrely nominal, ibe horse, after certain cere- 
monies, being let loose. Mr. Ward, how- 
ever, states liiat he wa& liberated only for a 



twelremoDth, when be was Bgaio Ukeo, and 
being mignificently capartBooed, wai, after 
▼arioua prelimiiuirj proceedingt, slain hy tbe 
bota or priest. " He who offen a hundred 
sacrifices of a hone ia entitled to the throne of 
Indra." And in the Rig Vida, are two bymos, 
describing tbe tacriGce of tbe horae, which 

and all the host of heaven ; tbe sword ; tbe 
serpeut and the horse ; and tbe horae swms 
to hare been worshipped as a tjpe of tbe aan 
by all the Scytbic races. 

Tbe meriah sacrifice, the bead-buattog of 
tbe Dyak, and the cannibaliim of tbe farther 
Archipelago, of the present day, can bat be 

leave no doabt that tbe early ritual of bin- j r^arded as tbe cootinuance of ritea wbidi 

dooism did antborise this sacrifice as a burnt 
ofleriog to the gods. As, however, these 
two, in all tbe body of bymoi in tbe Big 
Veda, alone relate to it, it may be inferred 
that even then, the rite was fall lag, or had 
already fallen, into disuse. As described in ' 
tbe Big Veda, it appears that tlie horse was 
immolated, and afterwards cut up into frag- 
ments, part of which were eaten, by tbe ' 
assisting priests, and part offered as burnt- 
offering to the gods. This sacrifice is de- ' 
scribed in the Puranas as one of the highest 
order, insomuch that if it be performed a 

must have bad a wider nuge io times long 
gone by. 

Mr. Ward mentioned it as a general report 
in his time, tbe ettrly part of the 19th cen- 
tury, that human sacrifices were aetually 
performed by hindoo races in ludia. llajor 
MacpherwQ mentions that human sacrifices 
were celebrated at the beginiiiDg of the 19th 
century by the bill rajahs of Boad, Gum«iT, 
&c. At Bombay, Kali is wonbipped as Sitali, 
and at other placen, as Devi, Mala and Amoor 
Amma. At Chauda aud I^nji, she has temples 
in which human victim have been offered 

hundred times it elevates the sacrificer to the . almost up to the middle of tbe 19tb century, 
throne of Swarga, and thereby effects the ; The victim was taken to the temple in tbe 
deposal of Indra himself. In the Big Veda, ; evening and shut upand in tbemorniug he was 
however, the object of this rite seems to be ' found dead, tlm dread goddess having " shown 
nothing more than the acquiring of wealth ber power by coming in the night ami suck- 
■od posterity ; and even in the Bamnyaua it ' iug his blood." At Dantewada, in Bustar, 
is merely performed by king Dasaratba as alwut 60 miles S. W. of Jagdalpur, near th« 
the means of obtaiuing a sou by a universal junction of the Saiikaui and Duukani, tribu- 
monarch, but it was performed by kiugs in \ tnries of the ludrawati, is a famous shrine of 

celebration of auspicious cvcnttt, especially 
after marriage, in the hope of securing if>sue, 
when lai^esses were distributed to the brah- 
mins and officiating priests. It ^eemf, al^o, 
to have been performed by kings, in assump- 
tion of supremacy, on which occasion their tri- 

Uanteswari, at which, about a. d. 1830, it is 
said that upward.^ of 25 full-gi-own men were 
immolnled on a single occasion by a rajab of 
Bsstar. Since then, adds Mr. Hislop, numer- 
ous complnints reached the Nagpore authori- 
ties of the conlinnance of the practice, up to 

butary sovereigns were the officiating priests. ' the time of the annexation by the British. 
On this point Colonel Tod mentions that . Htppily, f>ays Captaiu Postans, writing of 
when Yudishlra was firmly seiited on his Western ludiii, tha^e blood-stained oblations 
throue, he resolved to signalise his reign and bare ceased in Western India ; and the 
paramount sovereignty by the solemn rites | of which he remembered to have beard, 
of Aswamedha and Bajsoo, in which princes was amongst (be brahmins of the Deckao, 
alone odiciate, every duly, down to that of ' wlio long preserved the custom of yearly 
porter, being performed by royalty. On one ' sacrificing an aged woman, on the occa^iion of 
occasion the " Steed of SacriKue" was liberal- ' the rajah of Sattiira'B viRit to the fort of 
cd under Arjuna's care. He wandered wlii- , Purubghur. Sir John Malcolm states of tbe 
ther he listed for twelve months ; and none sect of Kurradee brahmins that they had a 
daring to accept this challenge of supremacy, , ciixtoni at Poonah, of annually ucrificing to 
be was reconducted to ludrapresthu, where, the Sacti, a young brahmin ; aud as, ac- 
in the meanwhile, the hall of sacrifice was ' cording to tbe sacred books if the victim ii 
prepared, aud all the princes of the land were ; unwilling, the sacriBca id forbidden, to prevent 

summoned to attend. The hearts of tbe Kuru 
burned with envy at the assumption of sugire- 

the posnibility of such an occurrence, the 
unsuspecting, hut ilevoted one, iit frequently 

macy by thePandu, for tbe prince of Hastina- - the arranger, whn for months or perhaps years, 
pura's office was to serve out the sacred foo«I. had nhared the hospitality of bis murderer. On 
The last Aswamed'ha was undertaken by (he one such case occurring orders were issued for 

celebrated Sowaie Jey Sing, of Amber ; but 
the milk-white steed of the sun was not turned 

the apprehension of a Kurradee brahmin and 
hisfRraily, who theni.ielveH were put to death. 

out. Animate creatures and inanimate things i whilst ev«iy priest of the sect was expelled 
have been objects of adoration amongst most I fituii the city of Poonah, and llicir return for- 
of the nations of the earth : the sun, Uie moon, bidden by the heaviest penalties. Captain 

2* S 24 



*iog in IS2H, uiy^ ihftt Tlipn B 'castes tniugle u^ctLiM mill, after ■ liUlum of 
! hns oppiwioti to |«i»* tin.' Miilii mdfiit spints lo llm goil'Iew, ilriuk flj.irils, 


(h1 fvom n tribe d^iccnJed 
Rajput Btid u Bbil raother 
vacrificed, tiis Uirtutt twing tiat and his body 
Weg thrtivru into the river. This taorifice 
ioA beta ODco penbinicd in the lirctimc ol' 
tt»ntia tlufTi mgujag. Dr. Mudod relates 
tlul when, altout a. p. lltSO, the gute* of the 
on? cily of Tbvojt werp erected, a crimiritl 
WW put into Mch poit tiote, aii<l iho iDOMive 
pdNU Clirowu ia up<Mi bira. so that lira btood 
j pnfc«d op mt ihe tidOR liU spirit was sup- 
fMed M» become a Nat, tliiit would hover 
Mbrmi !!»<• pnt*. iril^i^fMin. pvilou all who camp 
Wfl : to Iht* ilcfpiire nf 

Ihe- ' -and theomaiDfrDts 

cf '- I are alluded to iu itic Toy Cart 

IMT .\ Ui-kati and iti Malati nii<) Mad- 

Utb. two uiiTient hiDcloodruDBB. Mmlliai-a 
OHDM on the acenp when liie AgborBghnnta 
■ipra|«Ht« to offer Mnlati, aoil excUiraii, 
Wfctt tacttlcM ohsacv u Uiii, thkt auoh a maiH 
Witb ohMon gmrb u)<] ^rtrUnil, lik« a Tictitn 
A<!"nMd (or ucriSca, ibould ba Uia eaptiT* 
uf lopiota wniebM : 
In Itlw n»nDBr. the orObftry vintiiiift of the 
Gncln mrre idomeJ with crowns and gar- 
boUt u w^re human victtnu : aj thus, in the 
ChwJ*. to the iccDC between Socratca and 
S(r«p«tai3ea :— 

"Awr — N»w ukfl ch» ^plet— wwr H." 
' %«|k— Wlij this ehapLet t 

Would'at rrulu nf ta« anotlwr Atliamu, 
Apd Mcrific* tuv t« a cluud T 

Sa alM in the Herachda^ ; Macaris, wheD 
'Smntf tM!rs«)r as a victini to aecure tbe 
iriBBph of the Atheniaiu, cxcIaiiDS, 

"T.I tbeKtatof ileatb, 
Coaduet, wiUi j{ul«adfl cmirti toe," 

The trasslaior of KuripiJes also obflerres, 

Umi bomaJi aacviflces at their first origin 

■ppeir to hare conaUted of rirginx or young 

ticn Iq the ilatc of coHhacy, and to tiii<> 

nafiMt the eelcctiou of Malati uffera another 

aalDgy. The words Iraoslalcd abore iioiiiouii 

wmcbes, Piuliandii and Chatidala, iiieanN 

Wnrcicaaad ouicajteH, The<<eei>itlieLs indicate 

litsle rcipect for (he wotshipperit of Uur^a, 

uA their applic-alioo ao pal>licly declared, 

■•oltl Irwl UK to infer iliat the author's ^enti- 

amu wen* tlione ef his a^e. Jagnddaham 

uale^ that hi the rite two l^al proliibitions 

are violated, of which he ^ivea the text ; tht-y 

Mr, *' I«i him not ent from the leitf of ilic 

MciepiM, aor iilay a female Dor child." and, 

orevti7 Jeaciipliou of being, it is 

ksewB, «re not to be tlain." 

tate ss 1959, iJie July No. of the 

Calcutta Review (p. 42^1) remarks that " in 

b«&gtJ, «ft tha wonhtp of the bloody Kali, all 





and eat flesh, na Ihetr fatliers did in iho Vedi 
tiroes. It is practiced alw to this day in thd 
foul aiid HOiirut riles of the TaDtra. A fe&- 
tivalhcld ill honor of Kali is called also KaU- 
puja. BK tlie Dasrn in bouour of tho sama 
deily, under the name- of Duigo, is called also 
Durga-pujn and I)iirv;i»t«ara.'* Of llie maoy 
narae-1 of this goilde^s, those of Parvati, 
Bb&vBui, Darga, Kidi, and Devi nr the 
^oddesa, aie the nm^t common ; they are 
indeed used aloiust tLd-scrinjinnlcly in the 
writings Biid convwYBtions of the hiuJoos. 
Although in the pt-e»L>ut age, hutnan sacrificea 
are no longer opeuly made, by the mora 
Milled people, there cnn he no doubt of the 
existence ol' the prnctic* formerly, and many 
of the uui-iviitzed Kiioudi ■itill follow the 
rite To Kharani, iii her cliaraetei- of Kali, 
it would appear they wera cbielly offered ; 
and no rcligionii rite can bo more minutely 
or<lei-ed and detuled tliau this is in thn 
Kaliku PutmiB, tho songuiuttry chapter of 
which has been translated by Mr. Ulaquiura 
and given in the lifth volume of thu Asiatic 
Researchitf, Ait. xxiii, aod as well as the 
cereiDouies, the implcmcniB, prByeru, &c., 
used ou lUeso horrid occasions are niinulely 
described and recited. In ibis article, premis- 
iug that Sivn h supposed to addre!>9 his sons, 
Ihti Bhuimvn, initiating them io these 
terrible mysteries, occurs, '-The ilcsh of the 
aulelopL- and tlie rhinuceros give my beloTed' 
(i.e.. the goddess Kali,) "delight for 5' 
years." " By n humsn sacrifice, atteodetl 
the foi-ms hiid down, Deri ia pleased one 
tliousand years, and by n sacrilico of three 
men, one hundred tJiousnnd years. By humau 
fle^h, Camachya, Chandica, and Bhairara who 
assume my shnpe, are pluaaed one thousand 
years. An oblation nf blood which has been 
reudered pure by holy tests, is equal to 
ambrosia ; thr hcix) and flesh also aQbrd mdcli 
delight to tl)e god-less Chandica." *■ Blood 
drawn from the offurcr'a own body ia look 
upon as a proper oblation to the godd 
Chandica." " I^t the naci iiicer vepvul tin 
word Kali twice, then the words Devi-Buji 
wari, then Lawha Uandayal, Nnmah ! whii: 
worda may be rendered — Hail, Kali I Knli 
hail, Devi ! goddess nf thunder ! hail, iron 
sceptred goddess !" " Let him then take ihi 
axe iu his hand and again maketJie same by tlie 
Calratriya text." Difiereut mantra n re used, 
iit itirei-ence to the diismptiou uf Lite vicLiin to 
be immolated : females aie not to be immolat- 
ed, except on very particular ocrasions : the 
human female never. AlUioiigh, as must 
app«&r evident, bumau sacrifices were former- 
ly legal, they uevertheleaa still moat poiut- 



t:-ilj |>roLi)>it««l ill other ver; ucieut hotka ; uiJ when a cliief dies, a Domber of his 
.tucb proliiliitiuii is, iutleeJ, n f urtlwr proof of j serruits u-e stftugbtered, to form bii compftDj 

the etUlence of the [nctice. Ju the Brahmft- 
Furuia eyarj Nenruedba, or maD-sacrifice, i 
ii expressly rorhiddeii ; iidiI in Uie fifth book i 
nf the Bhagavat, Sir William Jones has 
pointed out the fol lowing empbaticnl wonts : — 
" Whatever men to this world sacrifice human 
viutims, and wliaterer women cat the fleah 
of tnaie cattlcv those men and those women 
ftiall the aiiimaU here slain torment in the 
mansions of Yama ; and, like slaughtering 
giants, lutving cleaved tliuir Hmbs with axes, 
shall quaff tlieir blood." See, for comments 
on thix passage bj Uie learned translator, As. 
Bcs., vol. iii, p, 260. The most recent 
missionary accounts show tliat in mauy of 
the Polynesian islands, op to the present 
date, liuinan Iteiugn are sacrificed on com* 
ineociug to bnitd a war-cnnoe, a cbiers bouse, 
or on the dt-ath of a chief In fact, the Puru- 
sbamed'ha or human sacrifice, is pro&cril^d in 
the Puraiias, but amongHt the more civilized 
races of India, t)ic ceremony bad long ceased 
to be other titan emblematical, and, as above 
remarked, it is only the continuance of tlie 
meriali, amongst the Khond, the buraan sacri- 
fices amongst the tribes on tbo N. E. of In- 
dia, the hnid-bunting of tlic Dyak, and tlie 
cannibalism of the Eastern Archipelago, which 
hIiow that tlie horrid practice was once more 
extensively followed. Human sacrifices of 
the most extensive character and ancestral 
worship still prevail in Dabomy, and thera is 
an Amazon class, and in all Africa a serpent- 
worship prevails. So many as six hundred 
victims are offered up at Dahomy at one time 
and are a feature of ancestral worship. Ac- 
cording to Dr. W. W. Hunter, the Hadi are a 
helot race spread over all Bengal, who take 
their name from the original Sautali word 
for man, * had,' and who have supplied such 
terms as * hadd,' base, low-born ; ' hadduk,* a 
sweeper ; * hunda,' hog, blockhead, imp ; 
hudduka, a drunken sot, &c^ also, * Hadi,' in 
low Bengali, * Hadikath,' is the name of a 
rude fetttir or stock, by which the landholder 
used to confine his serfs until they agreed to 
his terms. It means literally the helot's log ; 
it was also used for fasteotog the head of the 
victim in the bloody oblations which the 
Aryan religion adopted from the aboriginal 
races, especially in the human sacrifices to 
Kali, to which the low castes even now resort 
in times of special need. In an account of 
the last human offerings to Kali, during the 
famine of 1866, it was mentioned that the 
bleeding head was found fixed on the * harcat,' 
i «„ helot's tog. 

At Quendendes village in S. Africa, Dr. 

LiTiDgstoae found humau sacrifices frequent : 

SG ! 

to the other world, a cualtHn which the 
Barotse also follow. 

A chapter on human sacrifice in Dr. Nor- 
man Cherer's book ou Medical Jurispnideoce 
contains much curious and important ioforma- 
tiou, and it is worthy of note that the aatbor 
writes of human sacrifice by decapitation as 
an existing practice (pp. 4U8, 410), and says 
there are " strong reasons for believing 
tliat there is scarcely a district in India in 
wliich human sacrifice is not still practised 
occasionally as a religious rite." Doubtless, 
tho old sanguinary expiatory ideas still lurk 
in tlie bi-casts of the masses, and in face of 
impending faroioo or pestilence, when men's 
apprehensions are most deeply stirred, the 
offering of a human victim to the power which 
can iufiict hunger or disease, instead of the 
usual goat or bu&lo, is not a violent or aona- 
tural step. Ideas of this nature, formulated 
under the terras sacrifice and atonement, are 
essential axioms in comparative religion, and 
their refinement is only to be hop^ for as 
I)art and parcel of a refinement of national 
thought and habit. To this end, general 
education, and more particularly edncatioo in 
the physical sciences, and the fostering of a 
belief in general laws and a henevfdent God, 
are the great and only means. 

Among the Eboads of Central India, when 
performing the Meriah sacrifice, which was 
quite common up to the year 1850, a stout 
stake is driven into the eoil, and to it the 
victim is fastened, seated, and anointed with 
ghee, oil, and turmeric, decorated with 
flowers, and worshipped during the day by 
the assembly. At nightfall the licentious 
revelry is resumed, and on the third momiDg 
the victim gets some milk to drink, when the 
presiding priest implores the goddess to 
shower her blessings on the people, that they 
may increase and multiply, prosperity attend 
their cattle and poultry, fertility, their fields, 
and happiness to the people generally. The 
priest recounts the origin and advantage of 
tlie rite, and concludes by stating that the 
goddess has been obeyed and the people 
assembled. Other softening expressions are 
recited to excite the compassion of the multi- 
tude. AHer the mock ceremony, never- 
theless, the victim is taken to the grove 
where the sscrifice is to be carried out ; 
and to prevent resistance, the boues of the 
arms and legs are broken, or the victim 
drugged with opium or datura when the 
Janui wounds his victim with his axe. This 
act is followed up by the crowd ; a number 
Dow press forward to obtain a piece of his 
flesli, and in a momeut he is stripped to the 


Vtriow mioQi In Iihtin, bciijca Ibc 
XbOQdl who bavc been already in«»Lloiip<l, 
OMd Co atkr ap humnn gnr-nnct-s on exlra- 
onUniT oecuioos : atvl ovou noir in soinu 
pliCM^ ihtigli ifae ftctnnl aacriHre is no longer 
pvmiited, tiiej miikc liunMn Djnirea of flour, 
ftmte IX clay, and then cut otT llm lit-ailn in 
bonoar of tholr gotl^. Tho nlijoei or tlio 
KnU mraatls oa tlic pluioi is not plumlM, 
fi)r wludi lt< ' '-n ktitiwti to 

■kaw HDjr ik- -i i-avvy away 

Am bittdc of aa aiMuy Uuu. - us thay 

aa aeiae^juid hnvelKi'ii Icn. . .< >oii)jKlit, 

tonny ctf fifty. The^- jue u^eil iii i-ertaiu 
■iUMJuiee prrftimivtl at l)ii> runiTnUol' tJif>ii' 
cbefik, aed it is always nftcr tbo i^lcntb of one 
tt their rmjnlii tbat tiic-ir io(:iir.*iiin» occur. 
TW Rer. Mr. Waril, wriiinp imi tho hiutloos 
iatbc early part of t)io riincioeiitti century, 
9jt \t U ilifliriiU tn fomi lUi (vtiinnle nP the 
La«iab«rof biii<loo9 wbo («ri«h auuually, the 
^Brielitm of Ba{wr*tilido i \mi conji-trturvs tliu 
^nanber of vutim* aiiiittiilly Mtcnl}cc<l to be 

"^ ViAffw«WnikaUT«Mitti4 funorAli^Ilc.fn 

niriBW ptriikiBB oa tti9 iQuli auO xt 

•kcivvl |>l«tM4 . -1,000 
fVnaaa jfoauin; th»tinirlve» i'nU. i;\:>l-i:« 

i>rl*ah«d If).- tHJO 

CUMm ImaoUMd. including i^ra 

mk ntaaas whew dnlh is ): 

la hx% day per«onn cast tfiema^kas unrtor 
tie «tiul5 of the can of lliuOoti iJoU nott 
van instaniiy cninbod to death. Grait 
■mkben of Uiow ears arc to he weu in 
Bi^al ; and every yoar, in Romo placro or 
mUti pSTMiu ihiiK dcrtrojod tbcmw?lT^6. 
AocoHfat^ to foiitior aoeoiuifs, writes Mul- 

tain, ael' nmnn^ men, hy ciist- 

if ihcr.. ■ public fcstiralj, from 

t nek at OiiIm Zklundattob, nnil from n 

mc^tee ocar •lawml, wiut oncu conucMi. 

U6 aerifleea kavo uf late yciirs aclitmn 

The men whn sacrifice Uicni')r;lrcs 

>ECBaiIlyoflowtrih8S,u«tially (hel'Krcl, 

Dber, or Qniinar. Odo of the Icniling nioliTen 

bj which tliey wcro said to bi] ooiaftioit Ix 

t biHaf that ifauy will \ks n.-honi rujiui In 

ibvi BcKl ilatn of tratu^nii;!iiition. fn llw ' 

S% V«ds fDcotioD in Diatle of the A!;t)ih4lra. ' 

«r oAriof; of cinrilicd Liitt«r, ami in tht^ I 

SiBiavnhi of Um juice nt the Soma pliinl. ' 

lo the Atiharte^ Urubitinrta, tninslntrjd by ' 

&alb itLc related tliat : " llnrirhnn-hnhnil he«n ' 

matritd to a biEudi'oii wivtpt nod yet rhri\> wu < 

Miisn>chUd Iraru to bim. Ai (b(t ^ii;v/i'^tir>ii i 

"f Nando, a iiist. br? went (olciiiu* VmuMi, and ' 

imMiadd ' iiyci'a WL-rv bcnrd uiid a I 

taa croBti- ' ' ' wnnld ulb-r bhn up in { 

laeritee u the kiog. AMordiiij^lr. lu duo 

-^7 .S 


liinr, a suti was born wbo iva.i called Ruhita. 
Vurmn wanted to keep Unrichandra to hts 
promise, bill the bitter put furth variouSi 
exru^es till Rnbita f;rew tip. Riit then, Robrta 
objected, and tied to the wood;-, wbero ho 
wandered for six yenris until be fell in with 
Uio n'slii /\{^tya. The risbi bad three sons, 
aij<l lie priuni^cd to Hvhila, hid ifccond, Suiin- 
f<e)iltu, uii mcciptof 100 cowe. But another 
diffii'dltr occurred, for no one wrmlJ bind tb« . 
victim until Robiln ynvc '2()() cown moiB. 
Siiita«fphn iinn'illii);j lo be sacriticcd, iiitei 
rodcd firMt witbl'iiiJApatiiind then with Agnl' 
and Savifni, vrlm ii'r<-ried bim Ui Vanina by:' 
whom agnin be wn« lotVrred to liidra. Sui-h* 
ta a talft of ibc lilu an pi-acli»ed jn ancit'iil' 
ti!ni*h, lint ill M8tii{>oie, Corbar nnd AAMim,' 
occot-dii)!; (o tht) Ciilcutl/i Rovicw for )6F>(f, 
ihu offering of hulnuii fcarrilin?» is still con- 
ilntitHt. Hy the recordft of tlie Sudder Ni«a- 
nuil Adiilui of Cbittairons; for 1852, sumo 
racn of tlic TiMHiiii .Tt«i)in Mnliiilti were tried 
lor tniirJer by siicriflcinp. This is ft forest 
tritcf ill the bill^ and inliabitrd by (he Mu^, 
Cbiibmn, lloing, Tippcnib and othrrmre^, iiM 
mori? or loss noraadit". Tbo place of sarrifi<e 
was n clwired »t[M(t in ibe jutijrlt* and HlJiknl'- 
lomid with hnmbofii^ al.n^ut ""ix IVerfiigb, Tho' 
saciifiL-ial pule, tlie I'buia ban?, tiro bam- 
boos, eernped and !i(rip{>ed nt tbe odgcs, tho 
haogiDf; strips h'ivtuf; a rude notion of onta- 
mHit. These ftcrifiees generally occur once a' 
year. During Un celebration at Agartollah a 
goii is fired cvei-y evening nt sunset, when 
every person biirriea to his home. The Kukh 
and all ih« hill tribes wor^tp local deities 
said to bo fourteen in Dumber. 

There are two hymna iu tbe Rig Veda. 
dMcrlbtng the rite of tho AHwa-uicd'ha or* 
pfirrifleM of tho borse, and whirh leave iiOi 
doubt, that in tbe early religion of ibo race,'* 
tbi** HBcriliBe has had roeour*.e to as u tiui'nt- 
offcring to (be gfuls. It was even iheii, bow- 
over, falling into disuse, and was extstin^j 
as n relie of an anleTcdie period, iinportcJl 
froBi some foreign region, pop.tibly from ' 
Svytliin, wheio animal victims, and cspecialM 
horsed, were commouly sacrifii^wl. And in' 
Htill later times, the Aswamed'ha condistcU 
ill cerlniu corcmouiea ending in tlie libeta>'| 
tioo of the horw, na tbroughmit Soiithoru 
India lA siill praeli-Hcl with n bull or cow, 
mnnr of whiL-h are mot with in every village, 
freed or let lootie In tbu nnmo of the goilaij 
Siva or Vifthnu. The cow U uOt now ofl'ei^-* 
ed in ^acrifiro by any hindoo sects, but iul 
tbo marriat;e ceifniony of some parti of iho' 
country, wbvre a milk-ww, Surabbi, is lelcus- 
eJ on the iutercesaion of n barlvc-r, siiiricienl 
remiiiiis lu »bu\v Ibnt tbe rite was funueil^ 
pnctiied ai iuai'rJnL;i», tor Ibc ^akt: o( \ius\tuv 


nul, nib Mime of the Uood on the MHmtlis of 
their idob. Etoi thu nenu u length to be 
repbeed io some cucs^ u Mr. Tajlor has 
■oggestod, by ted pemL Thin the metei 
stoDC* ID India, as Colood Forbea Leslie has 
shown, are freqnentljr omamenced with red 
lead. In many ones, it teeiiis to be a oeces* 


htj. The nale btdlalo is, bowerer, frequentlj 

sacrificed, sooietiiDes in cooiiderable oambers, 

•od 00I7 to 1 8^9, the Goveroroent of Madias 

ordered tlie >Iagistrst« of the Krisbna Diraion 

to forbid the eniet rite of Amnuram, wberein 

balJock* *re impaled alive to appease the 

so^ry (;<«Iileas, Deri, and arert cbotera. Oo 

l!iat occasion, in a small village, twelve to 7 sary portioD of the ceremooy dial the rictba 

should be eaten bj those preanL Thus in 
India, wben the nerifice is over, the priest 
oooMs oat, sod distribate* part of the artidea 
which had been offered to the idols. This is 
received as holy, and is eaten immediately. 
The Woon distrit-t in East Benr, came under 
the care of the British about the middle of 
the 19th centory, when Benr was assign- 
ed by the ulzam of HyderabatL Before the 

tureutyfoar balloeks were kscrifieed, as 
it\vt siereral haodred sheep, and the beads 
of Uie sacrificed buflaloes were carried in 
titvxMtoa on the heads of men. As might 
r4 fcupposed from the sacrificial rites amongst 
the Jews, alliuioos to such are to be foaod 
io tlie New Testament. Tbts oeeora as the 
wijTtl Corban, (Kurban, Abab,Peb5. Hin>. 
Sacrifice) Mark vii, 11. Bat ye say, if s 

man nhall say unto his faibc-r or mother. It is) assignment,searcher8 for treasure nsod tooSer 
C>>orbao, tliat 'n to tay, a gift, by whatsoever :' hnman beings in sacrifice, but the sacrifices 
tliou mighteel l>e profited by me ; be shall be , of victims there are now confined to bu&loes, 
free. This word is equivsleal to Ssdqa or Tas- sheep, goats and fowls. A bnfialoe is sacri- 
mdooq or Fida, and is often used by men or 6ced in every village in the Dusserafa festival, 
women addressing a saperior, in which caw it The sacrifice is to the goddess of kiae, Gao- 
roeans merely, I am your Knrban. The word ' devi, and the bn&lo is led up to the bouse of 
is Arabic, derived from the Uebrew, has the headman of the village, who makes to it 
allosion to an approaching to God, and means ; oblations of flowen, &c. He then strikes it 
a sacrifice, a victim, an ofiering, an oblatioD, [ on the irnzzle with a sword and allows the 
for which also, we have the Greek Kaprm^^. \ blood to fall on the ground as a libation to the 
The other words, in the Arabic, Sadqa, Fida ' goddess to appease her anger. It is then led 
and Tasaduq mark the contiouauce of the ' to the door of every house in the villiige ; 
sacri6cial rite. Sadqa,AKaB^pn>perly Sadaqa, ; each hooseholder makes a money preseut to 
from the Hebrew, means alms, propitiatory' the leader : iu the evening the victim is killed 
ofieriogs and sacrifice. The words are coo- 1 by its throat being cat, and at the south 
tinned into HioJustani, in Sadqe-jana or ; boundary of the village, a drop of its blood is 
Sadqe-hoDS, to become a sacrifice for the ^ applied to the foreheads of the headman, of the 
welfare of another, and Sadqe-kama, to sacri- \ potail, the deshpandi and deshmukbs. Out- 
fice for the welfare of another. Amongst the 1 side of every Woon villsge is a shrine of the 
Ithot, in tho i^ak frontiers of the western I small-pox goddess, called there Sitla-devi. It 
Himalaya, the people salute by raising the i is merely a few stones coloured with red lead 
back of both liands to a height even with the < and, after recovery from this ailment, the 

forehead and then repeatedly describing a 
circle in the air witti them, by dropping the 
fingers dowuwards and turning the palm in- 
wards. This is similar to the mahomedao 
practice of Billaeu-lena, where a woman is 
supposed to take upon herself all the evils 
which would befal the perbou whom she 

The Bali is any offering to an idol, sach as 

family in which the disease has been, visit the 
shrine, offer a goat as a victim, and prepare 
food for this oblation. Throughout India, 
generally, at the present day, in almost all the 
household sacrifices, in which the hosbeud or 
head of the bouse is the priest, the oblation is 
used as food. In North America, the animals 
sacrificed are killed and eaten, or buried : 
sometimes, the horse instead of being killed 

that of fiowen or other things. Presentation of; is simply set at liberty, in tlie pre»cuce of tlie 

food to all created beings, by throwing grains 
up into the air ; goateand other animals ^oivd 

warriors of tho tribe. Soouerat relates that 
the Syrians, at tlie feast of the torches m- 

in sacrifice. The prcsciitatiou is called bali- funeral pile, and tho Hebrews, at the feast of 

dan or bali-danam. The ofTerinf^s to Vishuu 
consist of rice, milk, curds, fruits, (lowers 
and ioanimato forms : but to the terrific forms 
of Siva, or his consort Durga, Irving creatures, 
flheep, goats, hufTalocs and human beings are 
ofiered up, in which caw, the hcadi* are given 
to Ihc priests, and the hodtt-s ori* carried 
away. The Ostyak, when they kill an ani- 

the Passover, made arbours before the teni)ilu!<, 
and carried their gods round them in proces- 
sion, whiHO they afterwards burned. The 
people then presented their offerings, which 
commonly were lambs and sheep ; and after 
tho priest had made the first libation upon 
them, each person carried his victim bomu to 
eat it. Soma texts of Menu would Feem tn 

1 as 


die e»titig of niiimal UuyJi at nil 

obserriiifc tiwwly the pieliiuinnry 

atwxaettj of offering h portimi uf it to the 


some clothe* nod orMments. iSlie is then coti- 

tlmrreil in proct'sslou, attested hy miisii-ians 

- . ai'lMugei-s, toUi^liouiteoflicrJiusbai.d. Her 

Ftfclft or niBnes, likw th« beroe* of Homer, friends prurmle her na sho wolkn thilliiT, nnd 

with itlidoi tlio Bacrifice is oaljf tlie jircludi- Ui - 


Tbe institutea of l^Iena rontcin the rollow- 
iDg parftgrapli :— The u«riGi;e of a liull, of a 
QUD, or of a hone, in tlit! kali oge, mast ha 
■voided -born loen ; soniuslii seroud 

gift of a I . . iim^ womnn, nhotehuMltaiid 

bas ilied bciurt! couiuDinintioQ ; the laiyer 
porticiu ofau eldest brother, oud procrciitiuu on 
n krodier'a widow or wife Thu Kcvereud 
Mr. W'ard, writing regarding Bctigal, in the 
Murlj' part of the IDth t^uluarr, mentiotis 
ifau ai ft village called K9be«ru, uftar the town 
<tf Burdniui, human sacrilii.'es were offered to 
the gbJde^B Voogmlya, u furm of Oooiga ; ai 
KiireetukonEi, near Moorshedaluirl to Kai 

Hli-ow hcT path with beifil-unt and coin*. At 
home nhe Is roiTfivf-d by her fatlitji, who htm 
ciiino from hh villnge for tlie puriwac, and_ 
who prcfieiil-s hur with clothes, jtwels, motia 
aod other offerings not forgHtliiig the *.ymI>ol 
cal rocomiut, di^po»«d together upon » iihiel 
On tho thirtet-iiUi dny after its hirth the chil 
ucquires u name. The lii-st letter of it 
fixed by the a-sU-olnger. Within a venr aud 
quarter of the htrMi the relations' are ouce 
more called together to witne«K the cereniotii^ 
ealled " An«pni'dmn«,'' perforniwi on tifl 
rhild'a first tasting fM'i»nce(ni3 food. Brah" 
miua once morn worship Uio goinij, 0111I kindle 
tho sarred pu<rificial firi?. In order 10 tletei 
mine tlie course of life whiHi tho eliild h 

li, and 
at taaoj oilier places. The disenvery of then* I follow, tUcy set hcforo it UieiD'si'guia'or sever 

Banters in the nnmo of rcti^'ion was made I pi'itrt<ti<<ickL!i : 

by finding the lK)dle^ wilh the lieada cul off* 

Bf«r these iniAgeii ; ami though no ouo 
aiknowlirdged tlu Kt. yet the natives well 
kuew tlMil theae people had lecn offered in 
«rri0ca. ITcfiays iLrttattlievilUgeofSeram- 
pore, uehr Kutwa, before tiic temple of the god- 
Jmh Tarv, a buioBD body was found witliout 
■ hcnJ ; and iiL^ide tlie temple ditlurent otVei-- 
iii<», as 

"Tluil wfaioh flrat tb« diUil dath touch, 
" V*aMl, Bi('B«}r, weapon, or book, 
" Tho IWchtiiwa of lUe ohilil, 
" By ihut aMtiv «U1 b« procured." 

A Guzernl proverb celel.iatea tjie aceom| 
lishtueutii of him who can liuiidle 

" The pen. titu \>Alm, or tba ipear." 

If a eliihl die before the •' Anupi-nt-bflTi 

orniunonu, fowl, Howers, spirilii- .' **<'einouy lia» Iwen p«irformed, it is buried i 

or», Jcc, All who saw it knew, that | ^^^ ginuud imjiciul of being eommitied 10 t 

victim lia<l been slaughtered in the I fuueial pilu. A similar euhUim wns, iliipjieor 

. .^i>> -. und iMiari:h was made nl'ter the murder- 
%r*, boi in rain. 

A! ' I >eiit day, in meet hindoo boose- 
Iioli I'Xiiesiic oecurreuce forms a tiiii>- 

JMl ' lally of Lhc L-ui:oanrit or 

flu. . < ttbution wirh the gheo 

observed among the Greeks, iu ivgard 
iufnnia who died before cutting a tooth. TIi 
lU)tuiius nlnu lixd tho Hiinu i:u»loiii npplic«.r 
Bonu^timcd ui cbildreu who did not i-eaeb Llieir 
fortieth day, aud the obfiorvmioe is pnrtiettlarh 
meutioued as linvini* oblaintHl iu the rase 

orckuilii'J buuur luid an oblation by buruing I tnenilx^Di uf tlie Ueus Coruelia. In uddiric 
Cxiii|»bor. Mr. Kor)>r^, iu his Kn.s Mala of to that uf diildtvu who have not uiidcT^oit 
CnermC oientioD^ that whcu a yoniigmained the " AiLiprvshunu" ceremony, there in ais 
vonau ha.1 reached the fourth mouth of her [ A°<:*ther exception among tlie hindous ol 
fngnsocy a braeeirt is fastened upon herarm, OovzL-i-at to fJm oilicrwi»e nnivci^al mle uf 
In wbkh is affixed, as an amulet in pitilect crumutioit — thai of the Snuyasec. At thi 

her fWnn the ovil eye, a pa<Jcet of dark coloar- 
.1...1. .-nr.iniuiDg ecnipingB from llie image 
1 aud duHt from tlio crodi^ronils. 

devoteo's iutermmt no wnitingfi or expres'-iue 
of grief arc ullnwed. Tlic eurpae, seated in 
litter, 13 borne to cite grave preceded hy inuf 


.1 i.-.-i .1 u-iven na her iuvcslitOTC with Uiis einns nnd attended by pci-sons who wisi ro; 
hicciat aud idio ii released, during the tune ' coloured powder into {lie air, or domonntrul 
' :. )V«ai the prrformauco i>f nny iu other mudv.') their joy. It is pliiLxil in tli 

.ooK'hold duties, for iu ludia :» earth in a sitting posture, instead uf beiiij 
ikI, I couyumedon thepile. A t<iiiull plairorni tiii> 

.i.lnyinph»wilhdiiI.)mMth*W)lhotWnff«'o^cr ^]"' "I'ot, and exhibiting lb« «. nl 
Tutf long tur." tui^'d foet of the decca-ved, eommeninralei |j, 

III the sixth or oiglith mouth of her preg- ; saucLity. VVbcu age or lufirmiiieH •vum 
Bwey tiicp<»>ple of her cuato are again assem. man □! the uonr approach ol dtulli, I' 
hM to feail, and Uic family -priest pcrlbmis (so sny tbe ^^hnstnis) perform, rn t 
InMBcrifico befon; them. The woman is cou. 1 hia ability, "dch sliood'lli pi'' 
tvfMl to tiu? hou^ nl some relation, where she 1 expiatory puannces for the pni 
mfoniM«bluliotu aud dreues herself in baud- 1 body. When » hindoo appaaf* |« »m at 

39 S tit 



point of drath bis frieiitle prcpnro ■ pUcc ou 
the grouDil bj tmcaricf* it nith cow'dung ; 
Ihsj strew ti with biicrificiftl grsu, with 
Mwmuni aad bitriejr. Tbo dying mao is 
■tripped or his orniuneiit* and of Itiii cloihei, 
wilt) tlie exception of a !iiut;te gArmeot. The 
hatr of his head unA his mouMavhcs ai-e 
removed, and liis body i& wsaboJ with water. 
H« is then laid upoii tho jilaco whicii ha« heea 
ltni|iaroiI, with bla fcvt poiuting northwards 
townrds Meroo auJ the abodes of the bluued, 
■lid his baclc turned apoo the city of Yuma. 
A small cup, coutaiuiiig a cako witJi a silrer 
ooio laid upon it, is plnoKl iu bi» haiid. Some 
.poor brfthmiu is thvu called in to receive the 
[«ap fVom the bands of Um dyiiig man. Rich 
fperaous preseot a oow, gold, or other valtublc 
{kreseata, and they prudise thoir dtipartiDg 
FrclatiTe thai they will csiry his ))oiiea to 
tenant nnd cast tltero luto the Oaages, or 
that they will mnlcc pilgriinaf!!* (tliv murit of 
which shall bo his) tu Muihoom, Dwtirka, 
jmuBth, or otber oclebniUHl liuly grouud. 
They take vo<n, also, oo behalf of tlie dying 
idhii, Io fast or tu spend money in ruligioas 
^offoriags, aenliog tlio proroiw) by piparulntion 
it a huidful of wat«r. SuuctiiDOE they offer 
Ifta of iron to pru|iitialu Yiiffia, wlii>«t? 
ipoQS are of tlmt mutal. Thpw offiiringa 
nro moritorioua aliku to the ;;ivi-r and to hini 
on whoeo behalf they aro prcafntetl, "Tho 
■OD," it is aaid, " who prcsoiilji pitw by the 
hands of a dying father, ehnuld br hoimiin'il 
■s cbe lamp of his race." At ihc Mmc time 


join in^boma. Tlioi, of which wc pr 
tn give a part, bcwaiU tlie doalli of aa^ 
▼ictim, ODc, it will he uliserved, who, 
iu former days as a bridcgroom-kioh'p i» aaW 
lamented ns a chief and a warrior : — 

Atu I ftlu ! «<tliaiit thu rillsM thit nJ} ra»e«k4«, 

Vvi ! tba-vaJiwit. alu i «lu | 
AW I alul Ail im UniJM'a UKor. 

Vnll tli«naiant,*lMt ftU«! 
JUul Um! wHh blood the elaudj Iikv» rabid. 

Vat I tlitf TAllutl, mlM : »]m r 
Alut klul Its baaoils thu w» lii« ktAsJoMd. 

VH ! thr T4lUnl I tUsi I klu ! ^ ' 

AIm I klu 1 Ukfl bone-lMMriBg brvto ii plot 

Vui I tbi- nluuit, bU* ; alu ! 
Alul alu! Tun IUJk'i plan>IefenbnrecMSi^ 

Vol I tbunllMit. kIm! »1m! 
AIm I sImI thsjr bkVB lUiu th« bri(lBcn>WD-i 

Voi! tlut tmUuiI, nlu ! mimtl 
AIm! »!»•! tii« mnadDp hns bcim out ilown. 

Voi I tbv «4UMt. nlu 1 kIm I 
ALu ! ftlu ! I.b« TuaoU of liU L'liuriM hsva hmu br 

Vci I tliw v^liaut, ■)•• I kIm I 
AIm! »!■•! Iii* Ufa hw bMn tnwdivrnftilf M^as, 

Voi ! tbv vftliul, «iM I alaa ! 

These ottenoces of grief are rude. 
they aro far from uualTectiiig, omii to 
6(nuigor, the sea-dwelling Kn^Uvliman, and, 
a» they allcnia[«Iy rifce and fall, thuh: sooi 
stealing from n diitMui^u upon his oar, rtauini 
him of Utnt measured reolancholy lone whiol 
Uie broskciit of ocean pnwluoe uu 
e&ba weniiig, ns, by turnf>, they roll oi 
and receilo from n tlilnpkd beach. 
" thrfuns" riiii>Iifd, the frnialoi n)ouruc 
down )wniinp juid exhausltil, A 
woman n-tuniiu^ Iioiiil' fnjiii n vioit at het 
falhrr'n hmi>^(! ix pn^rnicd willi elolhrs and. 
anointed with rod oiuUnent on tli* foiehewl. 

tlioy set near Uio dying man a latnp nuppliod i 'Hio corp*o pri-pured. unci placeil upon lh4 

with cisrified butter, pirur Gangou wnU-r into 

hid mouth, and plneo Llicreon u Ir-af of the 

purple basil and n portion of cnrd. It hox 

been pronotinccJ that if, even when the life 

has Traeh(?d the tlironi, n tnsii dcelaru Ihnt he 

hnn aiMuidoned tho world, he rcAchcx Vy- 

kuntli After dcalli, and h rdcftkCtl from fnrlhct 

Insiistni^ratiou. Sonio person*, llifirfore, 

when they bolluru tliat their und is oppnMch- 

ing, pnrform the rite of •* Alhoor Siinyna." 

When all is over the rolntioTiH niid npipUhonr-i 

tMCUihlQ at Uio houFD of the •linoi<!t'J ; and, 

like an enlrc-acle to tho irngic drntiia, coin- 

littcr, four piToon^ raioe it upon iheil 
slioulders. Tliey lutve pivviously pctTo 
nldultotiB, and dri'ssed themu'lm in nil 
garments. Tho unrpso is eniTictI forth fo 
liiKl ; ont^mnn prooedcsit, brnrinu an rartht 
re»-4cl whipb rontains flrc. Thn rrlal 
and nciglil'Oiirit follow, bHrchiwInl. wil 
sliver, and linlf^irakrd, rinining mid r»I 
upon their ^oti, lh« hon of l>u«rnlh ; orj 
■innieliiiien one ninii nJont^' crios itt Ihf rest 
tlipy mil : "{.!nll on Kfvni I" to whirh 
rtply in cboiud. " llrollittr I It»iu !" llnl 
W4inien fnllow ttw fum-ral pnrestiiuo Iu 

tnetiCfS tho Iiumuiing moan of Inmrntaiion. ' jrale of thv village, iin<l Uiem-n r«liiiii tlowfy 

Thn ucariM' relxtives enter the hntulnlioD, 
pxclairoing. *• O. f.ilher r' " O, hvothcr f The 
Women, ttandiuft In n circle nciu' llie door, be- 
wail the tiocesM-'d, and itnij n fuiirnil ilii-gc. 
healing ttioir br^uia in sad accnmpAnimvut to 
the mpRiinrc. Young persons are Inmonttvl 
lengvriui<l more pnlgnnittly Umn th<<>v who7>o 
Hdvanead ages n^tn tu buvc poinu-d Iheni 
rat as Llic nalnral viclinis of the nngel nf 
death. Tiie >li!('i. whifli i 
uut'iirmertiH) piclamalu" 
I'T en* 01 two wucncn. 

Home. Thn proplipt Ji-n-itiiah i» ^nt■|H>sv44 
to 1)0 repeating put nf tho ununl funvml dirgrti 
wh<ti hu prciliri* of Joliniakim, tlie luii of^ 
•f<Mtah. king of •Imlah, thai iht-y shall m 
lamuut for him. uying, ** Ah, my brother ! orJ 
Ah, aiitlcr I tliey "Juill not liuncut for him, 
ut/ing. Ah, Lorn) ! or, Ah, his glory !" (Setj 
Jereminli, xxii, IH, and note with rol^< 
in D'Oyly and Mant, atpo Amoa, v. 16 1' 
ttnlly fntni>t!. of Keot«>'ai&iilr<«, »ii. H-fi.) " Tha Hnjponl war- 
rior," «MyR f'Oloiifl TtMid, "is oirrit*! t»\ 
hit final abo^fi armed at all points a» wimi 

i ;»n 

I ff, ia »nng 



thtflil till hii Ls»k, And hrnix) in 

rhilc hi* Meed, llifiijrh not 

iflr< tod to Uio doii)'. 

ft ;. I ■ uf (he pricnl," 

fniwrftlfoiD the ShutTM Uiit ilie roip-* 

^jMiU be fefrt ilowit at erossTOodit within tlte 

^^^kb aoil Uiu tbo lliird lampolftriii^, cnlleU 

^^4Kt«>ittr," sIiodUI be offcfivl th«J« : ihU 

cmum bof, hownrer, fillcn into cli.Misc. Tiie 

Gon ='^ 

of A 

hiir«e lu tlif .Vj«wame(Uin. Jn tlio itrnlimmid^ 
[M-Tiail, llic Ksli»triy« feasts were coovtnt'd' 
into ^llcrit■C4?^ for the uloncment of ^iD8 njraiii^t^ 
l>rshniiiiti'iil law, nml diviac wor>ihip wsa r&* 
ducud to a 5vstem nf kuiit«i'iiie« «ii<) tneJiu- 
UoQS npon the .Supremo Spirit ns Brabnia. 
It wnrt 111 this an ih»i the braJimius aMumeU 
Llie choractoi' of a gieal ecelesinstiea] hiorar- 

city and C6lablished that priestly dominion 
ti preacribrs tluil the iiihnhjlniits whivb btill extends over the miods aud eeo»e» 
which a ilcnih hris taken place ' of the hiiulooDiofladiu. Thirdly, the budd'hislj 
ar» tw »f**l4in from food milil the fovpsc lias period in whi<h Sakyamuni npfteared, nudJ 
(•RO ramed ont : al lliD pKWttnt lime the tounhly, the iirahminirnl revival during whit:Iu 
Bcra|iniii- ■ ' i ng houses alone obserTe hrHl)inlti:i (ilxiiiiloued the worship oftiieir 

ihb (»«£'; :.'WA in ihoir moiii'nirij;, Brflhni:i, hiid reverted to the aid nntionil 

"CocDVvr ncii y'>iJt buids, uoi(hnr rend yonr ^od» ami herocKoC the Vodic Arynos. In tliil 

rJrtbe*."— Levilit^u^ X, G. " Fcrhenr U} cry, 
atkr Borammitie for tlic deail, l-iiid thf^ lira 
of thin* bead or-in ihec, ami put on thy *.]ioeB 
opoQ Uiy fcec'-F-iekiel, xx'iv, 17. The 
u, or nearc*t of kin to the deceased, lights 
1 1 UmdU uf dry ^ra«>, and paBsing tliree times 
tnramJ ((t" "''■ r<l!ux>s Uie fire as udir us tlto 
wad pr, I to UlO Iwad nf the corpse. 

era, Vi-'hiiu came to be regarded aa the So- 
premt! iJiMng, »nd Ramn and Krishna as his 
Incnnintioub. In SonUicni Indjo, at the ure- 
sent dftv, in the seel of VaiMinava brahtnnii*, 
the Vudt;hula Vai^hiinvn uficr living creaturea'. 
ill »tcrilice, aod Tenaghnla Vai^boava antKI 
Mfidhnwa eubftituto douph instead of aQi-J 
ntals. In the sBcrificea of Saiva brabmanfll 
'TV partv ■>) iiiMtiriK-is tit down, (ind await | tho victim's hud is never cut by the Sudrftj 
die tnno with laniitnt^tlon ; when the corpM | but ts Htrsflgled by him, so tlial the breath id! 

■] thpy poor chirified butter 
id the fire. As soon as the 
lu'd, the ii5hcs of the dcnd 
: the pilct and arc cast into 
f if no dtream bo at hand 
ill a pit diiff for the piirimw, 
1 siwiBiclMl wiih wau-r. These ccfemonies 
HBsplird witl^ tlio mourners jMrform sbhi. 
fipq atKl wBAh tbeir clothes, and the heir 
I*Bmiti an offering nf Benamum nud water to 
ltedeaeta»<l "loeool him after the fl»mefi." 
Ite frleads who bnve attcndt-d the corpse tn 
Hit piU rvjoiu oneo more, »t the hoa^e of llie 
iJliiMliiT. the women and IhoBO who have 
l—i!iiail behind, and thence dis[>er*e to their 
o«n ' 

Bombay, «nd in Baroacli, iro 
Pinjrarapol into which beaste 
Ei-> c, qiiieity to live iu the 

lerttiiiity *•( never hein;; cuten. Tboy are 
oalled * Aced ti*^^!'-,' nnd nrt> the birds, beasts, 
otttnliM whlrh hMvo bceu purehnovd nnd rot 
Snob, as vfttire nlTcringi to the ^o^l in whoHu 
leupk grooLMt* tliey aro lumed loose. They 
*rr utnitnd by the prio*l« belonging to Iho 
uniBla who I'nrvd Uiem as saered. 
Tm Boma, a nacrifieiid rile of the hindooc, 

lost vithoul spilling blood. The Satva brah- 
maas do pciTorm Micrilices of a living crea- 
ture in Soulhern India, and never use dough.: 
imager as a substitute. Amongst the Smar^j 
tJui and nlso Madlmwa, each household keepsi 
a tolnsi plant in the middle of tlie court-yRrdl 
for worshipping. Kach new moon, as iilsoi 
en the occuri-enco ofaQ eclipse, either of thi 
sun or inoon, also, at the summer and wiotc 
solsUcos, their " utniyuuum" and " datcbiLni 
yanim," every caate bindoo, whether brah- 
mat!, ehetria, vnifiiaor suiii-a.oirers the '*Tbar- 
paiMim" or waiervaeriticc, io the names of 
bis deceased fattier, grand -fathen^, great 
grand- fat] lers and their wives, seeds of the 
oriental sesamum being mixed with the water. 
It is, as ft meanH of contiuuiug this ceremony, 
Chnt hiiidou» long to have a son bocn to them 
as, iu their creed, it is taught that the niaiies 
of ancestors are gralrllcd by the *' Tharpa- 
nam." This \x, n particular part of the sncri- 
licu ciilled yiignu, but at present it is often 
[►orfonued wjiwrately. The things offereil 
are elariHed butter, scsamnm flowers, boiU-d 
rice, rice lioiled iu milk and sweetened with 
honey, doorru-grass, Tllvi leaves, and the 
tender Wanolieis half a ejkan loug, of Uio ush- 

iK a fine ucrifice. The ancient history of wutthu, the duomvuru, the pulashu, the 

[•4a fthow* that it has hud four great reli- 
pou««r«s. The Vedie, in which Agni, Tudra 
ml a4btfr [«.'r*oii!fication:' of spiritual exist- 


w«r« propiiiniMl with fea^tA and iuvnk- 

the Rig Veda, and iu 

'\ ihoir hosbands in iho 

uouarchi sacrificed tho 


r**raiiivara, aod 

akuD-du, the shumce, and the kbudiru trecsi 
Chu-ifiod butter alone is sufficient, but any or 
nil of the$e things may be added. The Gond 

worship Rauga, Bamea, Racca and Bova, to 

wliom ihey offer fowls, goals, frnit, rire, 

grain, spirits. and whatever the eountry afTurd,*. 

Unman sacrifiee^ are noticed in the Veds6. 

S 31 



HnxcliAuJn, ^D or VedAs of tlic family c([ ^aiva, wItCQ av^miDu lo take life prei 
Ikiklivnku, wa? * kint; witliuut a ki>d. Narails i tli»4iii sftciitictiigan auiirul, siibiitituto la imi 
l)itl him ^o to V'ui-utia tiiu kiug ukI sny may ' mnOe of dough. 


a M>ii Im^ horn utiiu mr, ami I bIlsII buurilice 
liim Ct) y&ii. Varuna tJm king it-ixputeil : n 
sun WM Inmii tn linii, od which Vni'uuu ilc- 
lumuJtHl })ini in ^acri^i^r, hut Cur vnnniin ex- 
ruBva ihiH wajt (lefencd, until a 5iibKiin]te for 
the son, ivaH fodUtl, iu Suiutscpha, the sun ot 
a risht who, h; iiiirokiiig iIk! g<»ls Af^iii, fire, 
Savilri, the )iri>g(niitoi', Vanjtia, the kin*, 
VisTa-l>vvit,colhictiv<> guils, Juih-a iIil* frietiJ- 
lyi AjtTtui, Jiviite pliysicluua, borti of-ilic 
tuu RDil Usha, tlie lUwn, at latit, wti-s rcloaeotl : 
but not t>eforo ^uimstfitba was hoiiiid to Uic 
taeriticial pi«el, aitd hi« fathi-r tvhitliii^ his 
•word approaching to kill him, on whinli 
Sunufopha exclaimeJ. *' They will really kill 
tac, as >f 1 wna tuil a mini." In the At'tiaifva 
iKahmanit, (GS) it is »aiil tJie gwU took uiuu 
for ihvti' victim, hut &'■ bo wad taken, the 
ine<Jh& (the siK'tificv or llie spirit) went 
QuI of him. It culorn] Uie hon^e. Thae- 
foro ibo htit'Kt iterjiniQ tli? gan-ilicial auiiiiiJ. 
Theu thd gCMU took Uio Uovi<; Uil as il 
too was takflOt the dknIIiu wait takcTi mit of 

III SouUiern Ttwlia the lower (lassea of bbi< 
Joo» nUo, thoiijih rarely, i»acii6ce pigs tu llii 
iiil'fijur gi'xJn. Livitii; eaciificcA ot auiinal 
aiv nil PK'^eBtinl jinri of Ihti wuTilitp uf all Uil 
tutelary villHg« godJessea lu Southern indii 
an nitu of Uio guddeeaes of vhotern, •mall- 
pox, &c. Their naiuaa ara Tnrioui>, amoai 
tbv »evtfi-al iialioue, Tamul, Tolagu, Ci 
atid Maliralla. Aiumuii. Atnoor Arnma, 
ninma, I'ocb Aniina, Ycl&mma, Marri 
muii, Ai, Satwai Devi, Silla-dcvi, and ot 
amongst whom everywhere, lial Atunw aa< 
her wnr^hippcr««cctn di«aded, thn 
worshippiur; other of the Amtuun jfodt 
rBfuaii^i:; lo iut«rinarry with (lieio. Tha 
wiir>hip|HTh, alto arc dr^ado') an surct 
aiid their wi\-es nro diattDfrui^hahlR hy 
mode iti wbicli they altiro tlicmtelvet wit 
their sarhi whirli llicy driug fVom IrehiD^J 
from lelt to right Satwai, amongst 
Muhrattaf, is n great guJdesfi, to whom cbiU 
dron's hair la dcroted, the ft-oiit [lart olTe 
til her, tJic bock part being retainer] lUI 

htm aud euicrcd the ox, Ihoreforo tho ox ' other goddess posscM Ibe body (aiig bbarate) 

lici-ame the aacrificial atiimal. The same 
happened witji tlie ox, afttiwards the Klieep, 
rhon thr goat, oud at Uul the earth btirainL' 
tlie victim. Kruui tlic earth rice wae produced 
aud rice wan nflcmd in tbtj fonn of purnhi&a, 
in lit'u of Uic lindriQiibl anitiial. The drift of 
the tlory u (I>ut in former times nil tht-iie vie. 
liois luid been otffivd, as wo know for ccrlaiti 
that hoi'Hiin Htid [>ieii wrrc ; though, aftrr- 
worda, tbe<ic, alno. wt-tu Ji»coii(iiiue<l. In the 
«acri6(!« of llio hone, part of the flesh was 
cftlon by ttte B^xisianta, aud pnrt iireaeuied as 
an uflVring lo tlio goita. No rcaJKmable doubt 
OAii bti eiileruincd iJiat the ritual of the early 
liiudoos did aulhoriic ihc nacriflce of a borae. 

such ns the ^mall-pox goddena or cboli 
g04]deii9 Marri'ai. 

Iu tlie bloody «tcriilc«s of iheee uoo- Ai 
roiwe, tbu goal U more usual. The rihe is. 
erdinnrity, iK*rformfd ouly once a yc«r, wbcu 
friend'' join to oflVr a gojtt aud make a fcMl 
of its flef'h nftrrwai'dii. At all (he McnSciaJ 
ohlatious, bread aud grains nrc alio oflfered ant 
uHrtl ill the nriCT-fi'aslirig. Thou^anda 
*«Iiecp and fowls are annually cacnScAd al 
Periy&palayam, a village about M mile* frc 
Madrafl, and mutlitudvH of people attend fr 
that city uiid the uetgbbouiiug villages* lal 
celebi-nle the yearly foaliral, which laki 
place in the bright litdfof tbc moalb ofAdUl 

Nfitlier ia Soutlivru India, nor perhapi , Large oumbera of buHatooa werd uittil tbel 

In any part of India, in a raUhnava biahman 
koDWD to offer living creatures iu Haerifice. 

middle of the ninetcentli century, offered at 
(he funeral riuts of itio Toda of Ooiacamvott,] 

Tbc Miira brahtDani) on thn eoutrary, aiinu- ' but the Madras Government [lut a 8top lo 
ally, in ftoino lowiia, Conjevenun for instflnee, tuch nholeule maiuacre, and restricted Ika] 
)iorforni llin lilundy ritu to llieir ancient godt, i rite Co tlio killing of ouly two aninuila at 


liiiirn, V'anjna, Yama. and both in ldo9aud 
IHtU), the »iiVB bi'idtvuiiUA in MudiliN bo dacH- 
liocd- Siivrral iimhnuuiftnrc vtnployed in tbia 
rite. One bmhinau aa»t»tod hy bin wife, the 
oouple bt-ing *ly\vd tha Rotoa Vajt, and Soma 
Uevi, comiuoucei) the rite by perfoi-mmg the 
Bre aochficc, by pouriuK ghee into a large fire. 
Tho pujart, a «udra, th«ii alrikos the head 
from tlio victim and large portioua of ita fleah 
boiog thrown iuto the fire, and reduced to 
atbev. portioDi are dittribnted u> tbn aseem- 
bly. Tbia beiag a Prasad'tiam or food oOcred 
tu ttit gwla. alt caste* cua partake of iU Many 


time, — a measure which the Toda raca view*] 
ed with uuaflccted ahutn and dislike, as hkriy 
to decrease their childrcu aud ralllo. IJumaui 
inerifleea are aiill, in SotiUierii India, di 
vd to be requinite to mollify gikldewnj 
iii)<l di^mons who guard bidden trea-ure aac 
who ara believed to have a partiality for 

bIcKKi of a pregnant womau, CApecially of i , 

who h roDoeived of twini, and to the firat* 
buru of the goUUmitli caate ; indeed, in popu-j 
lar twiief, when writing in the year ItltiO,: 
uue of tlic latter waa ctedtled to have beea^ 
very rvceutly offered. Theri) i« a >briite 

S 32 




■tn pptzmeliiytr, tlic tutelary goddess or 
Tirerattar, » villige to the north of Madras, 
tbs nmd to Eoaore; UiU is situate iu a 
of the grmt and much frequented 
Pfoda of Tijaf-araia Sami, for which the 
ia celelmled iu ancient hindoo 
Th* sacrifice now ot&red ta that of 
bufialo, but » conducted with so 
ptBl •ecrecft that people are tiot generallj 
lAaitted to witness it. Indeed the fear of 
■ilneuing the sacnBce and its attendant 
nmiMmie* sre so great that prepnant women 
■f if poaaibleflceploutof tiio villn};o foi- fi-ar 
«r ibortioOf which in believed to be the cer- 
fem TMoIl, ahoold the shrieks of tbt* nica who 
arrj the raktabali fall on their e»rs. This 
tilct>b«U (rakta, blood ; hali, sacrifice) is 
■MoBwd to be iha food for devils and thu 
■UeoJant apirits of the goddess, and rousista 
of rieesiixed with the eacrificial blood. Itie 
carried on\y daring the laat day of the annual 
fin)T«l of the goddess, after miduighi. iu an 
MTllMa poi of a peculiar shape and design, 
hj HMD ipecUlly allotted to tho duty. They 
fsa and shriek and howl la tho atrcet to 
Kare away the dcviln ond evil spirits, and 
bait at the ooment and windings, and throw 
talla of this blnod-inixed riire to the ilcinoas 
kc. It is considered to be au evil omen for 
lay van to meet them in thfir rounds, as 
few. madaesat and disease mi;;ht befHl him. 
AI oneaaora eooceaied uodcr^ouud for a 
iiagth of time is ctaid to l>econie the property 
«f dcnxuis, who take charge of and only part 
with it, to those who satisfy tlieir desire for 
Uood-~thc greater tho demon, tho higher is 
Ibe kind of ucrifice he dcmiuid&. Simple- 
■ioiM VMn* even among those who arc 
umiilMiiil to bolong to the better infoi-med 
daMSaof Hindoos, beliere in the dtviitatiuu of 
(oadta, who pretend to point out the Tery 
plaeta in whtrli treasure ie to be found, by a 
eollyriom which when applied to the eye in 
said to give it the power of disroveiinp the 
traaanre. Stories are ni>w and tlipn Hpread 
■taoog the people regarding this subject ; aud 
tfaia desire for discovering and exhuming 
Uddaa treasure, aed the lore of making gold 
wai iQrer, praraiU to some extent among the 
edacBte«l hindooe. Bloody t>arrifi<-es form no 
part of the worship paid to Rama, Krishna, 
Hanuman, &c^ of the vaishnava aectariaus, 
snr VignMwara, Subrabmuniya, &Cn of tlie 
Mtva fact, or of their respective goddesses. 
la addition to Uie villngR deities, noticed, 
tita oaly goddess who requires tliem |» the 
•akl) of Siva, defined hy her voluriee, to he 
ttw tUUs energy of the divine eeseoee sym- 
belbad as a fcnmte. She is highly venerated 
dariag the nine dsya of the Da.<*!icrK or Nnvn- 
ratri (tli« oiue uighta) at the cloie of which 

a sheep is generally offered in the hounea of 
Kajputs aod Mahrattas. The sacrifice of buf- 
faloes on the occasion is very rar«, aud 
when it is oScrcd, the ceremony takes pUoc 
in temples, sacrnl to this goddcac, but some- 
times in jungles and unfrequented paria. The 
goddesses and demons of the sadrss, all ac- 
cept bloody FacritiniB, which are generally 
accompanied with the offering of spirituous 
liquors. As a general rule, the offtring of 
Buch i^criliceci among the houiies of educated 
bindoos, nod in the superior temples i& ob- 
served with great aecreL-y. Madan Js very 
little known, but with a closa of native ma- 
gicians, deemed a very great and jxiworful 
demon. He is generally courted by tlie pariah, 
cbuckler, lubbay, and uneducated mohome- 
dauB, who offer beef and nnack lo obtain his 
good-will and fnvour. 

It has been noted above ihiit tjio I'Crms 
used for the sacrifice are Uali, Tak. ; Gavu, 
TcL. ; Yagnya magha, Sassc. When an ox, 
lamh or fowl in oOurcd up iu iiacrifice lo a 
Duvi or Mari feraate deity by the sudma, xhe 
firttt two words are u»cd. The wordn Yagnya 
Magha are used to indicate a sacritico culc- 
bmted only by the bralimins on occasions in 
which thtiy oltcr guats aud D<»t iiny other ani- 
mals, as the following five things arc forbidden 
in the Kuliyuga or the Iiou age, the sacrifice 
of a horoe, of a cow, tti<^ ahnndnnmcnt of nil 
worldly affections, serving tlesh to brahmins 
invited to tlie celebration of tho funeral obtso- 
qoies, or to have issue by a brother- lo-hiw, 
that if, husband's brollicr, in case of a woman 
not having any children by her husband. 
In the present day, the cow is not offered 
in sacrifice by any hiudou sect or race, but 
in the mnrriagc ceremony of some pnrta of 
the country, where a railk-cow, surabhi, ta 
released on the intercession of a barber, auf- 
ticteut remains lo show that the rile waa 
formerly practised at maviiagtui, fur llio «i«ke 
of hospitality. The male buffalo is, how- 
ever, friHiuuntly sacrifired, somvtinies iu con- 
siderable number^, and only in 1 8o9, the 
government of Madras ordered the magis- 
trate of the Krishna division to Turbid the 
cruel rite of Ammavarn, wherein Imllocka 
are impaled alive to appease that nngiy god- 
doss, and avert cholera. On thai oi^caaion, 
iu a small village, bullocks to the extent of 
twelve or twenty -four were sacrifittwl, as 
I alflo several hundre-l sheep, aud the hoads of 
I sacrificed buffaloes were rairicd iit procession 
on ihe heads of men. As might bu supposed 
from the sacrificial ritei amongst the Jews, 
allusions to sut-h aie to he found in tiio New 
Testament. One sii<h ncours »s the word 
j Corbaii (Kurhnii, Arab.. L'srs., Hind. Sa- 
I crifice) Mark, vii, 1 1. " But ye say, if a man 

S 33 





shall Miy uulo his father or mother, it is Cor- 
ban, that \s to say, a gift, by ivhatsoever thou 
mightest be profited by me ; he ehall be free." 
The word Kurbaii is now almost equivalent to 
Sadqa or Taitsaduq or Fidi), and is ofteu used 
l)y men or women addressiiip a superior, in 
which ca:-f it means merely, I am your Kur- 
ban. The word is Arabic, derived from the 
Hebrew, lias allusion to an approachiuf^ to 
t;od, Bsd means a sacrifice, a victim, an offer- 
ing, nn obliition : for which also, we have 
rhe Greek KnpTofin. Thoother Arabic words, 
Sndqa, Fida and Tas?ndnq, mnrl; the coDtinu- 
auce of the sacrificial rite, Satlqn, Arab., 
properly Sadaqa, from the Hebrew, means 
atm», propitiatory ofTovinps and sacrifice. 
The words are continued into HindiiKtani, In 
Sadqe-jann or Sadqe-iioiia, to become a sacri- 
fice for the well'ure of another, ami Sadqe- 
karna, to sacrifice for tlie welfare of another. 
Amongst the Bhotrace, in the Ladiik frontiers 
of the Western tltmalaya, ttic )>eoplc salute by 
raising the back of both hands to a height 
even with the forehead and then repeated- 
ly describing a circle in the air with 
them, ending by drooping the fingei-s down- 
wards and turning the palm inwards. There | 
is a similar maliomcdaii praeltce ofBillain-' 
lena, where a woman is supposed to take ! 
upon herself all the evils which would befal | 
the person whom she addresses and thus | 
encircles. Though, as has l>een seen, in I 
Southern Asia, human and other i^acrifices | 
still continue to bo made, the increasiog ' 
power of the British in India may soon lead . 
to the discuQtiuuance of such barbarities, i 
Mention has been made above of the Soma ; 
sacrificial piiesls, the Soma Ynji and Soma 
Devi. The Soma, was an ancient Arian rite, 
a sacrifice to Tridni (Zeus) of an intoxicating 
potion, consistintjof fermented juice of plants 
mixed with milk. Somajuiceand its cfl>.>cts 
are repeatedly mentioned in the Vedas, ( Vols, j 
i, pp. 21, 139 ; ii, pp. 169, 233, 260 ; and | 
iii, p. 470,) but the Soma sacrilicc, now-a- ; 
days, is not made with any spirituous fluid. | 

The Irular race of the Nellglicrries sacrifice j 
to their deities a he-goat or cock, l<y cutting 
the victims throat, aij<l throwing; them at rlic 
feet of the idol. This is a winnow or fan, | 
which ihey call Mnhri and is evidently the 
emblem of Cores ; nnil, at a short distance in i 
front of the rude thatched shed which serves 
na ft tempio are two rude stones, one called ' 
Moshani, the other Kouadi Maliri, hut whicli | 
are subordinate to tlie fun occupying ihe ' 
iuterior of the '■■ -iplc. , 

The Veddah nren seiiii-savago rare In Ccy- ; 
lot), some of whom in (he interior divt-H in i 
hollow trees or rave". Tiiey luc dc.\ttron.'- j 
banters, u<>ing bown and airows and clubs nf 

31 S 


iron or wood. They are supposed to worship 
the planets, evil-spirits and the spirits of 
their deceased ancestors. 

The Rhodia, an out-caste race at SufTi'a- 
g!im, Dombera, and other parts of the KandiaQ 
l)rovince of Ceylon, are nominally buddhists, 
but nro also devil-w(irstiip[>er". 

The Khoud of Kimcdy have long been 
addicted to sacrifice human beings to tho 
cartli-gO(hles«. The victim is always pur- 
chased, mid is destroyed willi much cere* 
mony, in the midst of a«semt>led Kboiid!>, 
each of whom tears a portion of the body to 
bnry in his field as a propitiation. 

With the Kol, one or two of the bindoo 
gods are reverenced, but, they have maoy of 
their <twn, to which they mostly resort- They 
sacrifice fowls,and pour libations before eating. 
Colonel Tod describes a lofty thi-ee-peakcd 
mountain In tho Vindhya range on which is a 
temple dedicated to Aya-mata, also called 
Isani, the tutelary divinity of the Kol, and 
he mentions that Isani and the offigy of the 
liorfe are tlio only objects worshi]>ped among 
this al)originKl race. Tie mentions that Isani 
meuiis Motlier-eartli, from Jsb, goddess, and 
Anani, earth. The chief divinity of Ihe 
T^nrk.-i Kol is the sun, suraj ; and next to the 
sun ranks the moon, chandoo ; and then the 
stars, which they believe to be llio children nf 
the hitter. Itesiilcs the sun and moon, there 
are spirits called bbonga which iohabil Ihe 
trees hikI groves in and around the village, 
and those trees are never denuded of their 
bnmches or cut dowu. When labour-pains 
come on, the women ai-e shut up in a lonely 
hut, offerings arc hung up near to propitiate 
the bhongH, and no one ventures to approach 
till the Itiltour is over. 

Amongst the g<«N, of which the various 
Veilast and the more recent I'uranas make no 
mention, ore the village deities. Every 
linmlet of the southern parts of the Peninsula 
has iM own object of adorotion, always sup- 
posed to liu H godde9!< ; and the idol, is gener- 
ally a black stone. Amongst names given to 
it are : — 

Ankid-Ainma. Yellamma. 

I'oni-Amnift or gold 1 Padavettu Amma. 

mntlicr. Tnluknu Amma, 

Kani-Amma. i Multumari. 

Yegiita or s'llo mother. Potcrummu. 
Mntiiilitmmii or pearl Karikafta. 

mother. \ Tauthoniamma. 

Trip '*a-!>nndiirior the Dandumari. 

I>cniitrfnt of three . .Mallamma. 

cities : — Cbinnnmma. 

Pnleri Amma or great : Ammanaroma. 

goddess. ! Choundeswari. 

Of-iiramma. Vadivatta, 

Scllanima. Nagattamma- 




fW} irn alfixftllKj Ainuiiui, wlii<-li, witli ami uftei'warJe >]i*>tnlju(e i>fl'vriiiK8 tu su'lras 
alty »<ii)t]MiKf4] to n»tl uiliutii. On llie suvt-ulli tin}', i. e., wlmt 


n, Ammii. 

moth«>t'. Thr i*i||iiu(>|-gbclivvulluil tlie»o 

le»e«A pioloct itjeiD from ek-krit»ia nuiI 

ami tliat tlioir woi-^liip nrci; each or 

ittg>tea llicui. A pujuU nr i>i|JAi'i, a wot- 

lipW^K prieti. of tie fudra CM-tie, i« npiwint- 

cil ff-r hcT lUily witriliip. lie aDoiuis lit-r 

iIm't »ii<i p<tl3 «.slien on lie-r lit-aii, ■(.■nlly ou : 

■\i nf tb<r stoiif. IW it is nut kh iiirngv 

uDtirel}' witlioiil ^Impu. Iii m musII pul, 

:• rii-e, wliidi lie cullei-lj! iVoni tliu 

ill liirii, ptv\euLs il U> lUe uUil luiO , 

ukn tl o Pub i>wii liomp. H<* bi'pjiks n 

rocottiiut in iVoill of ttie Mi>l. lo wlticli lie 

tiff-r» ik Fiiii tlie iiiic-liiiiriK- b<-opH i'ur tiiiii- 

■rlf aitJ ^ives Uie Olttvr to tlic fniiiilieH troiii 

wlioR) he cnlliM-.tfil lIio fruit. Tliu vIII)if^i>i.-> 

ViAt TOWS ir> tbcir g(Mt<iL■^s lo (>fli-r tip tu Iici- 

fuwls and stiuvp m xivtifme, if slic will fulfil 

iheir dc»ir«. Onw a yeiir, the villttgi'r* i-oi- 

Wt tuoae; by subscriplioD ami Lclvbiutt' n 

ill tiuiioii) uf tliiMi' ^iiddejU) Juiiug wlitcli 

bqJ fuivls are Idi'^t^-ly sncriflccd. Many 

tlin BuJi-a ami lliu ciiiire ^civile (I'iUe^ in 

Kiiilli of Imlin. Iinvc tlio CuDe^t raUli in 

respective villnge goibleaHtH. Wlieu 

t>r llteir rhiltlivo aw oviTlulit-ii by hji-k- 

ibey fVL-k ilie iilul.tnid vntiHiilt rbepiijiiri, 

siugK Miiigti, MflV-cLa Lu licir tJic Aiiini«ii% 

dice, WiJ then nuiiiiniiccs to (he vvoi^bippcr 

.the olTbriut; ihit in(i9tbeprc.«enleil. If i'Iiult.-ni 

ttf««k nul» ilifl iiDtunustial roreonimicii^bboui'- 

tag Tillage duity ^iuddeidy to riso ii>to gi'cnt 

iniportMtice nud thn so(;ritic'ial I'llu ia tlieii 

altaMC UDCCviiigty pcrfunm'd. The liindoit^ 

ton hftvu even {HtiDoaified this pestilciii-c iulo 

a god'Ien^ vrhnni tliuy )iavf> mimed ^Iiilia-Kali, 

the frreat-Knlt, :ilso, Miiri-Ai, the Deaili 

MoUier, ami hcliwo tbiit if ihuy ur^luct bi-r 

woreiiip the de!iii'oy^ llicm by ilii.' disen^C' 

Indcfd Rod* Arc ntill in procufEs of e.staLjli»h- 

nrnt, and ^tiinll pox and chuli^ra have tiiiia 

\xeu persoiiilivd. Maliu-Kali of ITjjniu bein<; 

the gwIdi-A* ('! (.diulem ami Muii-Aniiiiiiii uf iliu 

Tamil [jcuple^ ilie SitlB-iimm»u of Wt.-^tein 

ludia, RDtnall |iux dvily. When n person is 

luediial ineu call tho ISlli day, the iuvnlid i.i 

batlii.-d iu uold walcrf lud ibu whulo body 

rubbeil Willi n pa^iy niixiiire of Itiires of tbc 

iiiai^OHU (tiiflia and azadirnchta) mixed willi 

liiriHeric, aud on thesatse diiy iiee mixed witli 

I'urdK iti'e dtsTriliuteil to Sudrns. If in the 

I vii'iik'iicctdtiic <liM-a«i> an eyu bu lost, it ii ni* 

tribua>d lo ftoniGlliiiii; biiviu),' bt-eu done, dis- 

I plvaKJiij; to tliL* {juddfss. Thu ;;uddL-&.s iiideeil 

i is Euppoi't-'d 111 Hppciir iu iIiixn? r<iriiis u» Tftttii 

I lllllll■u^fllll iji L'liiiinaninTiini, i. tr., lillteataall 

I jroddoss ; IVddaniiiVuru orgluut guddesA, and 

r&iv'in>iiiavai'u w goddess of giecu giaui, ttie 

two l:\^l of ubiuii aru in<i»t fearcil. 

Tli« Aniinan worshipperit almost all prac- 
tico and bdieve in llie i-Uicucy uf di-iuou, or 
ilcvil 01' L'vil spirit riicf, nniongst n-liicli sacii- 
(ici-italn'»ys form a pari. Tlieaaerid'ic of the 
coek, to llie demon, pHiHaobi, in this respect 
simihtr to tlic Jevit-worMliippeia ia Kurdistao. 
iH p^at.-Ii^cd by all the UOH-Ariau ])eop1e iu ihe 
south of India, wlieilier of iho brahmimcAl 
hiiidoo pcr?<i)Kfiou, or of tLo servile uou*l)iudoo 
pt^oplu Deniotinaru recognised in the Itgea- 
daty writings uf the bruhiuinical bindooff, ic- 
ri(rial>ty uh \va;:iiig war with or attempliiig lo 
ovi'ix-oine tlie^d^ ; in the avalantof Visbuu, 
for iii^lHiitie, givcti ill liie Iiistories of Ktvonil 
ilelfipd bfioe-s, who irei-eongnged in attacking 
and destroying detnou^. Even the demons of 
the V'udie liinduuf;, the Asstir, Kiikliu?, and 
others wero oniy lioaiilo Assyrian and Aracho- 
^iiui iialJoiis wltli w'buui thu intruding AriauB 
cinnc in contnct in Iheir niii;rntton to the aoilth, 
for it is eatabll^hed Lliat Semiramis attacked 
them and was obliged t4> retiro witii great loss ; 
and ihtt icmi Riik«ha or Hakj^Lixa came snbse- 
ipiently to be applied to other opponents, and 
iii now fl coniinou teiTn for a demon. Tbo 
preiiuiit (dtHructeiJ) of the brahnianlc&l deities 
difler widely from tlioKo in which the Vedas 
paint their d«Uie>| niortaltf or embodiments of 
the (deineuLi and phnit-s ludra and Vnruiia 
and .Somii nnd Chniidnt. And the t>ro-foId 
cbnrucler in which some of tjioni rire now 

-I ~ — ■ — / I - ' -"--- — — — -■- w ..«.. 

attacked witJi »-ninll |>ox, they Ltcltevo that Llie j rcpreBcntetl, the one uf mercy and the other ■ 
•nddoES baa taken D(Mfler<<ioD of th» eiek man. I a r^iiicl Kan'ruinai'\* ehai iicter. wilh n Imn-ifift V 

ptddces baa taken posflep<<ion of the eicis man. 
They i>iiiert«iii a gieiiL dtrad of tlii» f;udi!u»i. 
While in ilic bouK-, ibr ^cxfs remain a|iflrr un- 
til record^ tnd until Uie &ick has been puriCed 
hy ablution. Tliey placu the leuvf^i nf liie 
niirt;o«u tiee besiJtt the flick pt-rRon, bctcnnse 

a ciiicl san^ninar}* chaiacicr, wilh a horrific 
form is probubly ticquirad from the dcmon- 
olatrous people 'iviili whom they have been 
dwelling ; Justus the buildhisla of Burmah 
/lud Ceylon have siippiTiilded the worship of 
dcmotJii, though nothing can be Fupposed 

dl* goildeas ia xupim-'ed to delight in this tree- I moro fnitigii to the ^c!niii'i of biidilhism ttian 
Tbey give coolinj^ food but employ neither ftnebe^yijtcm. ThciuirudiQgbrabmaiiF.iniheir 
ititrmal n'jr cxtenial lemcdies, in reveienee ] pnigrcBS of centiuest and t-ivilization, seem 

for Uie deity. The women of the buuseliold, 
ttfer rice flour mixed with jasri or course 
tupruid black gmni((iaii-uTAU. pe^alu, Tei.,) 
tclore tlie fmtieoi, in honour of the goddess, 

as ti 

to bare absorbed the demon und local gods 
of most of the races whom they ovareatnc or 
induced to pay reverence lo them, hy arcepl- 
iug them as iucarualions of their own deities. 






ur tlieir ileilien uudvr other nafne». mid wliile 
thus smoothirij; tb« road to prowl^lef, ne^^es* 
(mHIj iidmided a largo amount of the old fiilli 
■nd old wnrvhip of their conrerts- Before 
the iullux of tbebrahmaiis from C«DCraI Aeia, 
demoaotalrj wu the religion of the early 
Tfttnit inliibilanli of iDdiii, and the brahmans 
have ncrer bc^eti able to txlirpate it. lu all 
brahmiiiicftl books tbu iincoi»|iiered people 
ai-u dfHicribed ua eaten of flesh and ofletiog 
bloody facrificiw, aod the lerma by which the 
devils arc iiaowu are not of Sanscrit origin. 
The Words used with refercuiio to tluvil- 
worship beiug exciuaiTely Taniit, indicate 
its eatahtixhmeni in the arid plain of Tinne- 
vclly and amougst the Travaticore jungleo and 
hills al a petiod long anterior to the influx of 
the brahmnns and their civilization of the 
primitive Tamil tribes. Every act of wor- 
abip Iti the brabminlcal religion requires a 
priest flud ovou the worship of the inferior 


religion of the Slianars, such as it is, has wj 
connection with morals. Tbe most coramoitl 
motive in nacriSuiug to the devil is that on 
obtaining relief in PtckneBS ; and in that i 
at least the rationale of the rite is safleii 
cl«ar. It consists in oflering tlie demon, < 
for life — blood for blooU. The demon thinuj 
for the llfo of his votary or for thai of bis 
child ; aod by a little ceremony and shofr of 
t'erpect, a little music and a little coaxing, h»: 
may be prevailed upon to be content with thij 
life of a goat instead. l>r. Caldvrell adds, 
that tliere ar« reiisoiia to lielieve that tliaj 
doctrine of substitution was formerly canned 
to the extent of offering human victims !a 
sacrifice to the Shanar demon!*, and be pofoti 
to the practice among tbe Khond tace up to 
the presL-ul time. 

In Southern India sometimes ah many sa 
twenty goats are sacrificed atone limo. Tbf 
tlenh is generally cut up, cooked and eateu un 

deities, Uic sauguiosry worehip of the brah- 1 (he sjwt j and round the shrines may often 

maniral emsnatioiis and Amman& (systf-ms of 
religion opposed to Iho claim of tlie brahmins 
but to a considerable extent infiueitcud by 
their exsmple), tbe person who officiates 
must hti exclusively devoted to tbe duly and 
a member of a priestly family. But in devil- 
worship, every individual may be bis own 
priest. Tbe beatlman not unfrequently acts 
for the whole village, but any voluntary de- 
votee, tnslc or female may supersede him. 
In the devil-worship of tbe Shannr rare, 
goats, sheep, fowls, Ac, are offered in 
sacrifice, for the purpone of appeasing the 
anger nf tbe demons and indueiag them to 
remove the c&lamitien they have iufiicted, 
or ftbMtain from inflicting the calamities 
which they are supposed to have threaten- 
ed. TLb animsl wliirh is to be oflered in 
sacrifice is le*! to the altar of Uic dovil-icmple 
adorned with red ochre aod garlands of 
flowers. Ordiuarily it« head is separalvd from 
thtt body by a ainglo stroke of a bill-hook ; 
the sacrifice being considered uuiwceptabte to 
the demon if more than one blow is required. 
Tbe decapitated body is then held up so that 
alt the blood it contains may flow out upon 
the demon's altar. The sacrifice being now 
completed the animal is cut up cm the spoi^ 
made into curry, and, with the addition of 
tbe boiled rice and fruit offered to tbe demon 
on the ssme occasion, forms a sacred meal of 
wUcb all who hare joined in the sacrifice 
receive a slure. The sole object of the sacri- 
fice is the removal of the devil's anger or of 
Iba calamities which bin anger tringadown. U 
ibooM be distinctly uodontood that suriflcet 
lo devils are never oAered on account of the 
■ins of tbe woralilMArs, and thst tlie devil's 
anger Is not eicfted by any moral offence. Tbe 


be seen numbeiv of small earthen oveni. . 
Tho BtiougCHt oatli a sudra can take is Is 
swear by Uio most famous devil of tbe di««J 
trict ; and often before a law suit is carriedJ 
into Court, the aggrieved party will say to 
bis opponent, — " T will be taiiffied, if yoo 
will go to such a. demon's shrine, and there, 
on the justice of yoor cause, blow out tbe 
flame of a lamp in the presence of tbe Kali.* 
A man who would not hesitate a raomeol. 
to commit perjury in court, would never di 
to perform lhi.i ceremony knowing his csnsvj 
to be unjust, for theu he firmly believe* that 
be would immediately be Blrickc-n dowu by theJ 
demon. So swears Latinus in Iho .£neid 

" Tkngo arss, m«dioa ignss «t dududs twtor^ — 

Under this ever-preaent fear of demons, the 
hindoo often heRi(Att^5 to go even a hiindn*<l 
yards in tho dark ; he will not enter a forest 
aloae ; he fears to stand on the borders of a 
lonely lake, for there dwells the itpirit which 
in Scotland is known as the Water-Kelpto, 
and it is near the water that he has bean] 
may be often seen in the darkness of ifat 
nigbt, the " fiery-mouthed devil" (Ignit 
fatuus.) But meet of all, ho fears the Baodr 
plain, for it is a notion thoroughly oriental, 
that tlie unclean spirit ** Walketh throngh 
dry places." which are called in Tamil Pay 
Kadu, " Devil Deseri«." Devils are eepecialty 
raid to abound in the sandy waste* tictweea 
Madura ami Tinnovelly, where tbe mirage (ia 
Tamil, Pay Ter, die Devil's chariot), ifl 
frequently seen, and is snid to be produotll 
by them. Does a fire take place in a vilUfi^ 
it is owing to the wrath of the Village- Dev^C 
Bis worship his been neglected, or msm 
insult baa been offered to bito, aod be Ihi 

S 3G 






Netr the village of Vctlinrpg- 

ijore iliiiUict, for Ui« past four 

jreoTB, acciclenul fires have beeu 

loal occorrencet tod it is commonlj rc- 

pvlnJ la be awing to the noger of Aiyauar, 

ftdtaott wh(M« shrine is i!iiuat4xl 10 ihe west 

dfifaevilia^ A buiTen tre« near tUe ipot 

■Mkaied to him, was some jean aj;o, felled 

wilhoat his pctiDiasion, sud »tnce that time, 

A* w m ig a d deiDMu, refuKiug to be {iroplLiuied 

b]r tbv tiMwl Mcrifir-f*. yrsrly buniii dowu a 

bane or iwo. Mad; race* besides liDdooi, 

hare bera aefnintomrd to make vovrn in time 

iir»ckocaa. Formcrlj we ai-e told^ people 

uwl to ^ froni all parta of Kiigtaad to Cau- 


*■ The licilj bliiifal murtyr for to seek. 
"Ihaltbai IwUb l<oI|<«n wliitn that tb«]r w«r« lick." 

TIh hladoQ makea a tow to ^o to a par- 
fatlar dkrin*. and tbere pour oflt-riugs of oil 
anl fl^Meea. If a dueaoed member have been 
nilDnd, oneo-timea a golden image of it is 
stdeaod pnaonted to the sbrine. A. penioD 
from ■ serious aiTectioa of the eye», 
vow tbat ia case of recoTeiy, two 
fjoideo eyes shoold be made and presented 
to iVe alu^tH of Man Amman. In like man- 
rrr, the PhiltstiiieK, we read, wben afHicted 
'Tith etaettMls, thouifbt after consulting with 
tiuor aootbtayere. that t]i«^j coatd best propi- 
liais tlie God of Israel by makiug and offer- 
ing to liim. golden images of tlie emeroda. 
Aa aiay be expected, the devils are moot bu»y 

" lut aceo* of all 
T%at atda tbii Btnnge cTcolfii) liistory ;" 

• JOQOg girl fears to croes a dying man lest 
Ui ItHit breath should pass inio her iii which 
eiaealM would be possessed beyond recovery. 
Fw ■ strailar reason, a liiodoo at Ibe point of 
datb is ajwayi removed lo expire without 
tfce beuae, which would otlierwine be haunted. 
Aj lb« corpse is oirried away, jMirched rice 
ia HUterad along the route of the fuueral 
PCDM— loo. It is believed tJiat the devils 
vlU iMp to pick it up, and it is considered 
adrWUe to keep them ko engaged till next 
■ut-riM, for should they return to the house 
bdbre lluit time tlu-y would probably not be 
■IliCcd without another victim. A native 
pnmrbcayi ; — "ASaiaiday'scorpsepoesnot 
alasa f wbeo, therefore, a death uken place 
OS ft tifttatrday^ to prevent evil coDsequecces, 
a liro (lock is taken wJtli the corpse to the 
bvniBg groond, and it ta there given awoy 
IB aoiM poreoo of low caste, or like the scape- 
gnu of old, allowed to eecape into Uie adja- 
ont JQHi^e. Brahtoani averse to bloody 
■urtfees, aubiitituie for a cock, the bolt of 
A* door of the house, whicfa tliey burn with 
tt» eorpie. When a dead body is buried 

37 S 


instead of beiog bcmt, as in the case uf 
BDuiyBsi (wandering devotees) Boman and 
Lutheran chri8tiaoi>, bbU is placed in llie 
grave, and fre«]ncully with it the leares of 
tlie margo»a tiee so famous us a rliBim 
against devils. .Sail wits till recently, also, 
in Kngland placed on tlie corpse for the 
avowed purpose of keeping it seeui'e from iJie 
«Til niie, and the piactice is Ktill said to linger 
in the Highlands of ScoUauil. The Higb- 
laudei-s indeed in maoy of tticrr superstitious 
are remaikitbly simJinr to the hiudoue. They 
formerly planted tlie rowan, or mountain-ash 
reganling it as a safe-guard against dovili, 
JDst as the luudoos regard the margosa. 
Thronghniit India, the belief is as commoa as 
it was formerly in Europe, that a man who 
dies a sudden or a violt>nt denlb, bucomea a 
demon. All the women in the district are 
immediately poeaessed by bim, and inuumer- 
able miwhiefs re»ulu A brahmau accidental- 
ly drowned in the river Kaveri about the 
year 1870, became in uousequencca '* Brahtna 
Rakshasft," one of the fiercest of demons. 
Dr. Caldwell mentions the csso of an 
Knglish officer mortally wounded at tlie 
taking of the Travancove lines lu 1809, who 
was afterwards worshipped ns a demon ; 
cigare and spirituous liquors being added to 
the usual oficriugs made in such raftes. An 
Kngli!»h or Freurh olllcer of artillery, killed 
At the battle of Assaye and burled there near 
a large tree, continues (up to 1869) to be 
worshipped by Ihe Mahrattif. A few years 
ago, a bmhman who was sentenced to ba 
hanged at Madras for the murder of another 
brahatan, going on pilgrimage from Densres 
to Ramesaram, threatened that tliough lliey 
wore about to hang him, he would not die, 
but would become a Brahman Rakshasa and 
torment all thoao who had given evideocfl 
against him. 

Hells and chains are almost alvcays used in 
the devil>worship and exorcism of Southern 
India tlie notion involved seems less to be that 
of scaring the devil, than that of chancing him, 
just as a ifnake-charmer charms a snake by 
music. Near the fanes of the popular devils, 
there are massive iron chains banging from the 
trees, with bells and knives uttAched to them. 
In the well-known Sanskrit work, tht Hjtopa- 
desa occurs a story rekliug to a famous devil 
called lihantakarna or Bell-ear. This Bak- 
shasa was believed to dwell on the top of a 
mountain near the town of Bralimaputri. 
One day, athterhaviugsiuleuabeJI, (probably 
one of those near tlie demon's fane,) was killed 
by a tiger, as be vrnn carrying off his plnnder. 
The monkeys who dwelt in the adjacent 
forest, obtained tbe hell and amused ihemselves 
by ridgiog it. The people of the ton n, having 









fniiiiil lIil> tlcBtl-boilj uf rhe niaii iiiii) von- j 
tiiiuully lienriug tlie soiiml of tlie bell were I 
filled wiUi iiiteiiiie lioi-ror fully lielieviiig tliiit 
tliu ilemtin enraged, liad killed the tliicf, and i 
was now ringing the boll. Tlie town waa in ' 
coDsequencG nearly di-tcrted, when m\ old | 
woman gnefising the trulli, went lo the king : 
aud said that for a small sum nhe would ' 
undertake lo sctlle the demon. The king, 
delighted, gave her what she uakeJ, and the 
old wonniu after tracing the cabalistic, circle, — 
(the Kolam) and pretending to go through 
certain iucnntations, entered the forest. Hy i 
means of A'uitd which she strewed on the 
ground, she was enabled to decoy (lie monkeye, 
and having obtained the bell as a trophy of 
her %'it:tory over the demon, she returned in j 
triumph to the town. So little has the belief' 
in d«vils been shaken, that in the India of the 
close of the lihh century, it would in a like , 
CKse, be just as easy to deceive the people ' 
and even their rajahs. Annually amongst (tie j 
Rajpti(« of tlie Solar line, the white boar is ! 
hunted and slain uh a Micriiico to Cei-es, 
known there MS Gouri. On one occasion as ' 
related by Tod, scarcely was the ceremony i 
over, when the young prince remarked, it ' 
was (h<i festival of tlie Almirea, nor musti 
ancient customs be forgotten : "therefore to' 
horse, and slay a hour to Gouri and take j 
the oraen for the ensuing ypar." They slew j 
abundance of game, and in the mimic field of 
war, the nobles who surrounded the gallant 
Pertab anticipated happier days for Mewar, 
Proverbs, xvii, 1, speaks of a " house full of 
sacrifices." A hiiidoo priest, who o£Sciat«8 at 
a great festival, eometimes receives so many 
offerings, that Lie house may be said to be 
filled with them : many articles are damaged 
before they can be used. — Milman't Rutor^ 
of the Jevft, AtkEH., Vol. i, pp. 24. 25, 154. 
155 ; William Hotvit, The Supernatural, | 
Vol. i ; Bunten, Egypf* Place in Univertal \ 
Hittortf, Volt, i, pp. 17-179; ii, 467-72 ; j 
lit, 2m, 525, 531, 687 ; it, 210, 214, 695 ; i 
Georgic, lib. iii, p. 5 ; Ar$. Amat^ Vol. i, < 
p. Q^i, quoted in Sharpens Ilisloi-y of Egypt, i 
Vol.\,p. 163; Enrhf Christianity in Arabia; I 
Col. Forhe$ Leslie ; Lubbock, Origin ofCieH.^ j 
pp. 238, 241-243 ; Kenrick's PAa:nicia, pp. 
315-20; J. R. Cnrnae and Col. .-f. Walker, 
Resident, Baroda, I5th March 1808, in Par. 
liamentary Paper, llth June 1824, p;). 52-58; 
Abbe-Domenech ; Wade's Chinese Army, ■ 
p. 22 ; Tod's Sifjastkan, Vol. i, pp. 63, 76, I 
373 ; Coleman, on the Mythology of the ; 
Hindoos, p. 374; Williams' Story of Nala, ■ 
pp. 119, 209; Postan's Western India, Vol. , 
ii, pp. 173-6 ; Hindu Theatre, Vols, i, p. I 
340 ; ii, pp. 59-60 ; Captain John Cltine, j 
Appendix to the Itinerary for Western India, ' 

38 S 

p. -Hi ; Itevtl. Mr. Mason's Tenasseritn ; 
Dr. Mason's Burmah, p. 106 ; Dr. fV. W. 
Hunter, p. 30 ; Livingstone, Africa ; 
Matcohti''s Central Indin, Vol. ii, pp. 209- 
10; Cal. Rev, No. cxx, December 1860, 
alto January 1871 ; Witson^s Glossary i 
So7inerat's Voyage, p. 116; tVard't View 
of the Hindoos, Vol. ii, pp. 49-58, 126, 127 ; 
Forbfs' Ras Mala Hindoo Annals, Vol. ii, 
pp. 353-55, 360-66 ; Frere, Antipodes, jr. 
234 ; Bryant's Mythology ; Robert's lUuS' 
trationa of the Scriptures ; Major Moor, 
Orietitul Fraginents ; Burder, Oriental CwU' 
toitis ; Harris' Natural History of the Bible. 
See Cow, Indi-a, Kabul, Lakshmi, Potyandn', 
Saraswati, Yavana. 

SACRIFICE ISLAND, Is thus mention- 
ed by Dr. Fiyer vfho visited India in 
1673, At ^lang&lore the Dutch have a 
fort, and six miles to Iho north the French 
have a 6iig flying : within a league off 
which R grey rock extols its hoary bead 
eight fnthoms above water, navigable on all 
sides, justly called by us Sacrifice Island, in 
retucinbrnuce of a bloody butchery on some 
English by the pirate Malabars who ai-e tlie 
worst Pickei'oous on this coast, going iu 
fleets, and are set out by the great men 
ashore, the chief of whom lives at Darmapa- 
tnn. — .^ Neu) account of East India and 
Persia, Sfc, p. 55, Lond., 1698, quoted in 
Ouseley's Travels, Vol. i, p. 68. 

SACSANDER or Satasanda, SiKOH. Aria- 
tolochla inilica. 

SAD, Pers., a hundred ; hence Saddi, a 
century. Sau, Hikd., a hundred, hence 
Saikra, per hundred. 

SAD also Spanmal, S%r. Com. 

S'VDA,hindoounit3riauB, which their name, 
Sad'htt, IIiN'D. Pure or Puritan, impliee. 
They originated iu a. d. 1658, with a person 
named Birbhan. They have no temples. 

SADA-BASNA, Hind. The white- 
flowered variety of Corouilla grandiflora. 

SADA-IiOUI, Hind. Asparagus racemo- 
sus, Willde, 

tilittfolia, Vahl, 

SADA-DEBDHAN, Bino. Sorghum 

SADA HAJAR JIANI, or Sada Ilajur 
Muni, PhyllanthuB uiruri. Linn. 

SADA DHATURA, Hind. Datura fai- 
tuoKa, also Datura nlba, Rumph. 

SADA-GULAB, IIin'd. Rosa sinensis. 

tilinfolia, Vabl. 

SADA-JAMAI-rOOLI, also Sada.jamai- 
shim, Beng., Hind. lAblab culLratus, 

SADA JATI, Bkng. Barleria dichotoma, 




SADA KUPPE, Tam. Aiiethum graveo- 
\eas, Linn. 

SADA-KASSIS, Hind. White vitriol, 
nitpfaate of zinc. 

SADAL, Bhng. Limnaetiisniracus, Temm. 

bnu stricta, Boxb. 

SA-DANG, also Saundang, Burm. A 
meamre of length in Pegu = 0'601 yards. — 
SimmoM^s Diet. 

SADA-NUTI, Beno. White Tariety of 
Annraotus oleracfus, f.inn. 

SADAPA.also Aru(]u,TEL. Rutaangusti- 
folis, Nees. 

SADAQA, Alt. SacriBce. 

SADAR, chief, supreme, the highest or 
foremost of aoythiog, as Sadr Adalat, the 
High Court. 

SADAR, Malat. AmmoiiijEhydrorhlorns. 

SADASHEGHUR, a sea-port town on 
the west coant of India in the Konkan. 

SADASrVA, see Insfiriptions. 

SADAT, Arab., plural oF Snyid. This 
von] in the oorthern Hejoz and iu British 
hiit is applied iodifierently to the posterity 
of Hasan and Hosayn, sons of Ali and grand- 
MM of Muhammad. — Burton's Pilgrimage 
to Sfeeeak, Vol. ii,"p. 263. 

SADA-TAM-PALA, Sison. Amarantus 
oleraeenp, lAnn. 

SADBARG, HlSD. Calendula oHicinalis. 
Csrpcsinm, sp. 

SAD-CUFI, Arab. Cyperus Juncifoliiis. 

SADDACUPPAIj Tam. Aui-thum sowa, 
?.oth. Dill seed. 

SADDAPA, Tkl. Anethnm Fowa, Roxb. 
Dill feed. 

SADDLE ISLAKD, in the Red Sea, has 

was so good as to be greatly admired by 
some of the best judges. — RoyWa Arts, <5*c. 
of Itidia, p. 508. 

SADDUCEES, see Polyandiy. 

SAD'H, ahindoo pnritan sect of the hiii- 
doos. See Hindoo, Sadn. 

diocalamus strU:tU!^, Scfiiiie. Bambusa stricta, 
R., ii, 193 ; Cor. 80. 

SAD'HI RAM DAS, was ilie fii-st Sik'h 
guroo of the Sad'hi tribe, and hence was 
named Itam Das Sad'hi. The Sad'hi were 
numerous about Muekawal, about the middle 
of the 19th rentui-y. — McGregor's fJistoiy 
of the Sikhs, Vol. i, p. 29. 

8ADHUA PANTHI.ft Vaishnavo sect of 
hitidoos iu the North-Westeru Provinces of 
India ; originated l>y Sadliua, a buK-her. 

SAD'HYA, Sasb., from sad'h, to perfect. 

SADI, a Persian Poet, a beautiful writer 
in his own peculiar way. Though inferior to 
Hafiz iu lyric poetry, his works are much 
more voluminous and diversified ; embracing 
hII kinds of composilion in prose and verse. 

SADIA, generally written Suddva, in lat. 
27* 49' N., long. 95" 38' E., in Assam, on the 
right side of [he Kundil river, an affluent of 
the Bi-ahamputra ; near this place, the level 
of the BraliiiinpuliH is 210 feet above the sea. 
— Sckl, A. 

SADI HAZUR MUNI, Hind., Bekg. 
Tageles erectu and Senecio Pltyllanthus niruri, Linn. 

SADI JIODI, Bkng. Emilia sonchifolia, 

SADJEN, see Karang bollono-, 
SADT.A, Hts. Saildles. 
SADONG LINGAH, see Katiow. 
SADONG RIVER, see India, Kyan. 
SADOO JAUHARI, Hind. Is a peddling 

active volcanoes, Saddle island, see Ramree jeweller. 

or Yambie. 

SADDLE ISLAND, or Semione iainnd, in 
Ut. 4' 3r N., long. 107" 44' E., about 6 

SADOZYE, an Affghnti tribe. The people 
who dwell about Kabul and Kaudahar. 
Sliorawak and Pishin, are designated U'r- 

miles from Pulo Lant, one of the Natuuas Pushtun or Upper Affghans ; and those oiicu- 

group in the China Sea. 






ZiiJ, Feus, 


Guz., HisD. 

SadU, Ki;d. 



Sellei, Sp. 


TIic saddles of Europe arc made with a 
wooden framework covered with leather of 
different kinds, and with interveniTig pud- 
ding. Those iu use in Asia, are made of 
cloth or felt (numdah) with or without a 
wooden framework. At the Exhibition of 
IS5I, the saddle-cloths and match-lock ac- 
cootrementa from the rajah of Kotah, a pat- [ 
tern was produced wilh eold-beaded niiils, j 
fixed into green velvet. The ctfect of this i 

3I> S 

pying the district of Rob, which is near India, 
are called L'r-Pukhtun or Lower Affghans. 
Persian is the official language of AtTghauis> 
tan, but the PiimIiIo is alike the common 
tongue of the uneducated people, of the fami- 
liee of the former Sadozye kings, and of the 
dwellings of tlie amir. There are, however, 
two divisions of the Affghans, termed Pu-^h- 
tun and Puklitun, who speak Puslito and 
Pukhto respectively. Tlio Puslito being the 
western dialect with affinily to Persian, and 
the Pukhio ihe e.astei-u with many Sanskrit 
and Hindi words. The Pushto is spoken, 
with slight variation in orthography and 
pronuncintion, from the valley of Pishin, 
south of Kandahar, (o KafirlstHn on Ihe north ; 
and from the banks of the Helmund on the 




wenl, to the Attock, Siodlia or Indns rirer, on 
file (•ftdt ;— tiirougiiout llic Smiinli or iiliiiu uf 
th« Yuiafyc, llie Tnoiintninoii.s dintricts of 
BajftvcHr, Boiijlikoni, Swatt and Buaer to 
Amor, on tlie boidijrs of Link- TitH!t,— a 
tract of coualry equal io extent to the entire 
Spanish |)eninsala ; aIfo, throughout the 
British ilidtricts of the Demiat, Baiiu Tak, 
Kohat, Peshawar and the Sninah or plain of 
the YiiKiifzye wirh the t'li-eption of Dem 
Ghait Khan, niue-tenths of the people apeak 
Ifafl A%haii laufftiaf^e. Professor W'iliwm 
nnArks that the inhabitants of the countiy 
■round Kabul, at the eailiect period at which 
we havo mithcntic arcotints nf them — that of 
iho Macedouiaii coaquest, — were Indians ; 
■nd the desi^ualiou given by tiie Greeks is 
confirmet) hy the lanpiage upon the revcree 
of Uio uoios of llie Greek kiaf^s of Uactria, 
which, there is little doubt, is a form of Pra- 
krit. Sadoxye, ruled in Kabul from *. D. 
1.7-17, till pat aaido hy Dml Maliuminj Kliuu, 
n Uarakzyu vhief. The advent of the Sadoiyc 
and uliicr mnhooiedan tribes, now atyled 
AfT^ha*!, is not known. See AfTghan, India, 

8AUQA, Arab. Sacrifice ; Sadqo-houa. 
or Sad<ie-jana, to becomo a tncrifice for 
anotlier ; Sttdqo-kHnia, to lacrifice for tho 
welfare of Knottier. Soc Sncrificc 

SAD'Il> Arab. Chief, hence S»dr A<la1ut, 
High Court of JuBlice. The Suprciuu Courta I 
of Calcutta, Madra^i and Bombxy were amal- i 
gatoated with the Courts of Siadr Adalut of 
tho three Prcaidcncie*, and tho united hodj 
ile^tgiuied the liigh Court of Judicature. 
Sadr is oflco used to compound words, as 
SaJr-Amiii, SaJr-Adalat, badr-Mohtamim, 
ChiefAtniUiCLiofCourtiChierSuperiti ten dent. 

.S.VDRAS, aamnll town on the Covomniidel 
Coast, ill tat. 12* 32' N., long. HO' 13 £^ 
■boul 30 milna aoiith of Madran. 

SADBUS, HuTD. Ciunaraomuiii Ditlduint 


SAPURA, MitiR. Pentaplera arjuna- 

S^M-.K, aUu Sii^lg, tliiiiT. Beta vulgaris, 

SAFAItTAL, Hind., Malat. CyUuoia 
Tulgari*. I'r.Ka. Qiiinco. 

SAKARON, Malat. Saffron. 

SATED, HiKtt., Faiu. Whitf, hone« 

Safeda, IltMD. A quality of fair rict. 

Safeda, Hind., of Kaimwar. Pupulua fasti- 
pau ; Dalbergia aino, Populus alba, Salix 

Safeda, HtKU. CeruM. 

Safed bach, HiNu. Aconii ealamut» Umn. 

Safed Imriala, IIinii. SidarbuinboJdea, /?'u6 

Safed juari, Uiso. While vaiieiy of Sor- 
l^um rutguv. 

Safed kadisambal, IIikd. Canavnlta 
aU, DC, Roxb., iV .!f A. 

Safed kapva. Hind. Calico. 

Safed kikar, Uind. Acacia leucophl 

Safed moth, Uikd. Occasionally applied 
Cyamopsia psuraloides. 

Safod-musli. Uixa, or Dox. An 
adaceudens, Roxb. 

Safed paltliar, a white alabaiterof Slialipui 

Safed puin. llENQ. iJa^flla albai, Lmn. 

Safed sliakr kandalu, HiMP. Batatas edulil 

Safed fimal, Hind. Eriodcndron anfractw 
sum. DC. ; fV. J^ A.; If. le. 

Safed sona, HiNi>. Piutinum. 

Safed tuisi, IIimu. Ocimum album, BudI 
alba, Linn. 

SAFED KOH, a peak south of Kol 
BqI*. a 19 in lat. 33' 5«.' V N. ; long. 7( 
27' 9- E., in tlic Panjah, 14,393 feel above ' 
level of the aea. It lie» at the head of 1 1 
Mflmnnd Dhai-a, a valley Uduti){ing to 
Shoiiwaii celvbrutod for it^ vineyards.- 
Walktr ; Hoorcroft's Tnweh, Vol. ii, 
35o. See Jellalabad, KriQlr, Kliylwr, Sulimii 

SAFFAVI, a dynasty which ruled 
Persia. .St-<_< KlinlifH. 

SAFFKKSriXN, Dur. Sapphire. 

SAFFIAJl, Gkb. Morocco leather. 

SAFFIAN, Ku*. Morocco lenther. 

SAFFLOEIl,D0T. Bastaidsaffi-ou. 




Kuiuiii kajinh, 

Uuiig UnhwKli, 

Bajrirrd wlf t*n. 

Bkatard iA0niD. 
tMfna b»l«Ml. 






7MXj nii«, 

Ku mralia- J&wa, M alaI 

KnwiaailM, Uai 


Ikuanunba ; Kaaura^Jol^ 

ton. fUsi 

Anfroa baalanlo, 

H«>Mlofkatn. Ti 

KHiiuuitM abstio. 

Two species yield the tgtlltuwer uf 
mercp, viz., CarthaniUfi Unrtorins, wkk 
has small leavoa aud an ornngt? flower ; w 
C. oxyairautlui, with larger leaves aod 
yellow flower, a iialive nf Caucasus Tl 
former i« cultivated in Egypt, the Levant 
i^c, whei-e it forms a coDsitlerablo aittcle 
commerce. The li>rmer \f> git>wii iu cvci 
part of the E. ludioo, in China. India, Kgyp^| 
America, Spain, some of tlie warmer paria 
Europe, is Indi^^enous lo Uiu whole of tJ> 
Indian Archi|K>lago, nnij a largo quanltty 
l^ruwn tu utid exported from Bali. At tli 
' .MailrH.<i Exhibiiion of 1X.5J, spocinieus i 
I eshihited fiwn Cmhlapah, ChiltlnJruug 

8 40 



fVidara. ami scvcml pockeU of ilic ^cfdf ^ ten, a«conlttig to qiulity, that frotn Rouihaj 

Mul fruni oUier ilistiicU. ll is ciilii- 
I vAied extensively Utroughout the C«(le<i 
Idutriet", &c., tins kucJ yielding bu Oil, 
uod the flow<:r r ityu. Of late ycnra Uiu 
LcxporUliou haft falleo off, but u great iJeal h 
[cuusuoicJ iu Uio couutry. Tbu flower is 
ipiUicreU uuil ruh<>ed ilown ioio > powder, 

■iitl tolU ia this stulc. When uacd for UyuioK 
lit b pnt in ft cloth nod nruhed in cold wnter 

fnr a long Unie, to rooiovo a y<>1low colouriu^ 
[ilDAlter : it tJ tlieu bailml aoJ yiulils tin- \miU. 

Jyeing liquid. The Cbinoic saftlower is 
IworiU four times tho nuouut of thu ludiaii 

iiboiU £ J lo £ ]<IUi. TItt! niiiiuul «(uaiitity 
imported into Knglnnd is tram -tOU to M)0 
Ions, |ths of wliiuh ii aeot from Calciittn, uqJ 
nbuul J ^O tuna w grown lU tbu Dml'cii 
Collvctoratv. Tiio pink colour of utilSoviiii- 
i» resiuouH iu it« nature, uud is heel diHsolved 
by the fixe<l nlknlis. In Bengal, tho Huwurn 
are Ki*^>'*'^i pUcud tu a bng, nud trodden 
uiidtir water to ^ct rid of tlic yutlow colour. 
They are then ptacod in a trouj^h willt Bodu, 
in the pinpoiliou of (i lbs. to 120 ibs. of 
cnrtliAinus. Aficr soAkin'' for a tSine, the 


couteuts of thu liou^ii iirc liunsfvrred to 
le, but llie loss from careli'ss drying mid uiidtliL-r, having n ]>uvfornti>d liorioni, but 
tiou iu India haa coo often bet-u m I lined witli ii 6ut;ly-wovt:u cloth. Thiii per- 

to ihc nuture of thu articlL-. The* 
ll tloretA yield a very bcnuliful colour- 
g aialleri which attachus it&fif without 
nordaot. In Madras it ia chiefly used 
eoloufiog cotton, and producea varioua 
lea of pink, roue, crimson, ircarli^l, &c. 
[a B«o^lore, silk is dyed wUli it. but the 
iyv ia Titry fu^jitiTO, and will not bear waitb- 
NIC. All alkaline extruct pioclpitiited by an 

furutud lrou|^li is plnced ovur an uniic>rf<irated 
empty ono, and watttr is ponied thruugli tho 
nppL-r uuL*. This c-arrii'» with it n larvo 
amount of tliu colouring ninlti.'r ruloHd by 
thealknli. When the lower lrou({h ia'/ull Iho 
butli in pluccd over another Irungh. A littlu 
more alkali is added and ficsh water, uolil 
(hu latter runs Ihruu^h wJthuut {.-Hirying any 
inorocolonring tnntlcr. Lemon jnit-e ia added 

(lime Juice in uommuuly utte*l ) will give . lo tlit: dye stnH* iu the tron(;lit>, mid raiKett thu 


bluu culuur either tu Ailk or cutlati. 
:ir> colnuriof; luattvr is not ttuitabte to wool, 
'id? of thu salHow^r cuiitiiiu n red 
^ ibatlcr ia»olul(lo iit witter, derived 
fnikmUkf from Uih oxidatiuu of n pt<L-uliiir 
Ifioclpw existing in IIk' polids : it i^ railed 
tailluuniat, or vartlmmeinv, and by Uumut^, 
cvllmiBous acid. Whtu a wpiik soda solution 
af mrlhumitii] li left in vonlavt with oxygen, it 
fii%t btfcuiuea yeltuw and then tud, and on 
AOiinitint; thia red lit[uor with citric a'^id, red 
intt! ■■ is thrown dowD. The affinity of 
nr' Tor cotton and silk is such, tliai 

«bc'> II '■> recently precipitated, those sub- 
u«tMv» imiuoJiately combine with it, uud 

colour lo a bright cherry>red ; silk, in hanks, 
i9 ihcii immersed aud turned I'ouud akein- 
slifks iu tho bntb s<i long hb it will taku up 
any colour. It is tlicn dritid, and if (he <:olour 
bu not deep enough, it is piutsed Llirungit 
uuutber ImiIIi of einiilar strt'iiglh, A flnal 
biiglituuing is ^iven by luruiug the silk round 
Ihcskeiii-btick*, ?uvcu or eight (iitie.s in warm 
water, with lemon jnlce, in Iho proportion of 
half n pint to eath pailful of wBl<.-r. I'his 
oolcHir will not U-nr the action of sonp, nor 
will it h'ug withstand t>x|Hisuie tu (I'o nuu aoil 
air; it it chtelly enipb^ycd nn bilk for imi- 
tating tho finu dye of the Viuiich called 

puuccaa. For ponceau, or flanie-colour, thu 
t flnil roMNut'lourud, aud afteiwardii | ailk ta flr»>t Ifjilui), and then receives a alighc 
teJ, 30 that they may be thun dyed , fuuudutiou of unnutto : but it must not be 

«iU«mt tfiB lotcrveotioii of a mordant ; thu 
6o dyod lire roudcifcd yellow by the 
IK, aud the \;Dluur is tuacetljiin extent 
kri^ by the acida. (^rthamvinc it« never 
'vidi iadyaiug wool Whou ii i» prc^'i|>itated 
frnro f>.t\--> irtrated aolutionn, it furniahta a 
»1 . which, et'aporated upon aauverp, 

IfQ*--. u iL-i^luM uf nouiuwbiit inetulliu lu5tri-<, 
umi m a pink dyo-i^tuH'. aud which, mixed 
•*i)i finely puwdcreil tab: aud dried, con.Hti. 
UttEatwamon rouge. When ilm iiifui^iuii i» 
mi' ': leaves nn extract fery soluble 


uluuiL>tl. S.ifllowcr dyo i& cosily : it is 
rboscii in flukes of a bright pink colour : that 
iu puwdei, durk'Coloutud, or uily, is of infe- 
rior c)UBlit.y. The beunty of tin- colour, in 
ila purest form, has caused it to bo ^n- 
ployed iu Ihu luaunfactute uf I'ouge. The 
preparattOD of ttte flnest rouge, however, 
IK from cochineal. Tho delteate aud beauti- 
ful rouge, known aa rouge vegetate, ia 
uothiug more tlitui the colour of Mfllower 
wiiii^it lui!^ been exliuclud by rneaus uf cvya- 

tallixCtl BOdN, pix'cipitated by ciliic acid, 

ipilatctl by urriils and Eolublo in | tlieu slowly dried, and ground i>p wttli the 

IA uot ' ' i by oxidixiug purc^it talc. In the prueexs of ruirgc-making 

•ICeau. The Chiucr*. i in considvied I from anfllower lliu llowcr<^ after bwing wa^!lod 

('ta bot, and that frum i^oiulmy ii» leukt , with pure water lill it couk'-i oD'cuh)ulh-«A, ato 
ak«nMi- The prieu of enSlo'.ver in tJie diied, pulven/ed, and digested with a Winkk^ 
Kifiitli Btvltet v«i'i«i Cr^ia ^ i lu i! M pm ' Mtlutiou of eryaiaU ul mAa, wltieli aaii 

41 a u 



thereby a yellow dolour. luto tliis liquor a affords aa of used by the natives of India for 
qiiautity of finely carded while cotton wool is , culinary purposes. It has of lata been ei- 

porteil from Bombay to England and EVanee 
as an " oil seed." — Faulkner. 

SAFFRAGAM, a district of Ceylou. See 
Ceylon, Khodia. 

pluuged, and then <>o much lemon -juice or 
pure viuegtir is ailded as to supersaturate 
the soda. The colouring matter is disen- 
gaged, and falls down in an impalpiiblu 
powder upon the vottou filaments. The 
cotton, after being wa!<hed in cold water, 
to remove sofae yellow eolouring'^rticlea, 
is to be treated with a fresh soluliou of 
carlionate of sodu, wliit-h takes up the red 
colouriug mailer in a state of purity. Before 
precipitating this pigment a second time by 
the acid of lemons, some soft powdered tiilc 
should be laid in the bottom of the vessel fur 

the purt^se of absorbing the fine rouge, in j ^/i^^f^r^^^'^ES. KM'S::i»m^ 
proportion as it \h separated Iruin the carbonate | AMfran, Fh. ' Kiinlumfc, 

of Boda, which now hold.s it dissolved. The ■ S«ffron, _ Otn. \ Khohun, 



KarkAin, Zufrtn, 




Si ■ tMn g- fa u Dg ■ h wft, 







Sp. Saffrou. 

[ Croeui latiTtii, 
I Croeui, 
t Knmkuma, 
I Kimgknmft, 
I SKfaron. 

Abir, Kurkun, 
I Eurkum. Zufraa, 







Ktjgui ; ZMfrAQ, Ul.^'D. 





coloured mixture must be finally triturated ; Zaifran 

with a few drops of olive-oil In order to make ' ZAffemao, 'it. 

it nmODth and marrowy. Upon the fineness | Crocus sativua, saffron, is a native of Asia 

of the tale, and the proportion of the eafilower ' Minor, naturalized in many parts of Europe, 

precipitate which it contains, depf>nil3 the : and cultivated in Persia and Cashmere. The 

beauty and value of the cosmetic. The rouge ] Chinese obtain it from Tibet. Saffrou is 

of the above second precipitation is received { brought to lodia from England, the sea ports 

ponietimes upon bits of fine-twisted woollen . of the Red Sea, Fei-sia, and Cashmere. The 

stuff, called crepons, which ladies rub upon ■ dried stigmata of the flower, are picked out, 

their cheeks. The imports into the United . dried on paper either in a kiln or by the sun. 

Kingdom of Great Britain were as under : 
183.), Tons 231, Cwt 13 1 848, Tons 506 
1840 267 ■ 12 I 1849 407 

1 847 40 j ! 

Tb(> annual quantity ofsniHower, according 
to Dr. Taylor, exported from the dialricl 
of Dacca for eight years cndiujj with 1S39, 
amounted to 4,0<K} maunds, or about 1 49 tons. 
The exports through the Calt^ulta Custom 
House are occasionally large : in 1824-25 
there were about 3IK tons; 8,500 Indian 
mauuds were shipped from t^'alctitta in each of 

If compressed into cakes it is called cake 
saffron : hay saffron, what is usually met 
with, consists of the stigmas, each about an 
inch and a half long, brown-red, the upper 
part flattened, widene«l, and eleft ; the lower, 
hair-like and yellowish. The odour is fra- 
grant, laste bitter but agreeable. Soffron 
tinges the saliva yellow. One grain of good 
saflrou contains the stigmata and styles of nine 
flowers, so that oue ouuce of saffron is equal to 
4,32U flowers. Cake iiaffron as now met with, 
contains uoneof the real article, beiug prepared 
from the florets of the sufflower or Cartbamus 

he years 184 I and 1842. 1 he prices ,n the ^.^^,^^.^^ ^^^^ .^^^ ^ ^.^ ^^^^ 

L.vmpool market >n Januaij 1853, were for jj^ Honigberger. (p. 263.) mentions that in hi. 
Bengal, good iind fine. £6 to £7 105. per cwt.; ,;,«- Pr.*^..^ ..liv.,^ «.«h,Doli«d bv ifae 

time Crocus sativus was monopolized by the 

middling, £4 to f4 1 O5. ; infe. ior and ordinary, Cashmerean government, and that the hakims 
^^'*''-i"/^-r^'"*'/^"'''r;?7:./r''"" of the Punjab use saffron in melancholy. 

sou, p 333 ; Shn^.and>>p 450 ; ^aulk',er ; j^^^ ,.^^^- ^^,^ ^^nt of .he liver, and 

M. h. J. R. \ O SUaitf/lniessy, lieiiff. Uitp. 

Kurru or Oumm I KArirniA aafir, PeRn. 

V\ tet. Iliyti. I Chendurukii jeiknAi.lAU- 

Potiran, Panj. j KuiumbAnuna, TtL. 

A light yellow, elear oil, is obtained from 
Ihc seeds of the Curthamiis tinrtoriuR. It 
giowri plentifully in My ••ore and Tinnevelly. 
In Mysore and Hellary, it cottK nbout Rs. 
2-8-0 jM-r ma'jnd. ami is ii<"ed foi' lamps luid 
culinary pnrpO!>es. — .V. A,'. J. li. 


Kurdnli, Til.'/, nnd 
The M^ed of the ('Hrlhamus lindoriiis 
43 S 

fndia both from Persia and Cashmere, but 
iuto the North-western parts of India from the 
latteronlv. Dr. FaU-oner formed the opinion 
that saffron could lie successfully cultivated 
in the Himalaya, at lieights va)7ing fi-om six 
thousand to six thousand five hundred feet 
above the sea, and that if it weio once 
liroii|;ht into (he market, the demand for it 
would be almost unlimited. The dried pistils 
compiessf-d into firm cakes or masses, are 
termed in India Rdoila saffron ; good saffr<Mi 
ha.', u sweetish, [)encirating, diffusive odour ; 
a warm, pungent, bitterish Inste i and a rich 



deep cruige colour. It is used i^mediuiue, as 
acolouriag substaace, and indomestiu cookery. 
The Tjtians prescribe this article iu iiervous 
ifiectioas attended with vertigo, and where 
there appears to be an approach to apoplexy, by 
accumulatioQ of blood in the head. They 
also believe it to possess considei'uble virtue 
ill melancbolia, liystenc depreEsious, aud 
kisiuab dashum ftypliua fever), in irhich 
last tliey suppose it to act ns a cordial and 
restorative. To women, soon after the pains 
of childbirth are over, an infusioD of Eatfron 
is frequently admiaiatei-ed by the Tamil 
TDidwives to prevent fever, Uf support the 
soiraal spirits ; and gently to assist in <!arry- 
iQg off the lochia. It ie besides used by 
the Indian practitioners as su external appli- 
cation iQ ophthalmia when mixed with a small 
quantity of pounded chebulic myrobotau and 
iimejuice and applied round the eye, but close 
to it. The Arabians class it amongst ttitir 
Mosebetat (Hypnotica) Mokewyat (Cardiaca) 
ind Mafetlebat (Deobstruentia). Used as a 
dye,a rich yellow-red colour is obtained which, 
when dried and pare, is of a scarlet hue. The 
Dse of fafiron in Europe is diminishing. It 
is employed as a seasoning in cookery ; also 
to cotoor cont<actionei7, liqueurs, varnishes, 
and sometimes cheese and butter. It is used 
to a small extent by painters aud dyers. It 
waa formerly much used in medicine as a 
carminative, antispasmodic andemmeuagogue, 
and it is still occasionally employed to pro- 
mote the eruption of certain diseases of the 
skin. It is given to birds to assist their 
moalting. The colouring iogrediptit of this 
plant as "a peculiar principle to which the 
name of polyehroite has lieeu given ; it 
possesses the properties of being totally des- 
troyed by the action of the solar rayo, colour- 
ing in small quantity a large body of water, 
and of forming blue or green tints when treated 
■with sulphuric and nitric acid, or with 
sulphate of iron. In moderate dose!<, this 
substance stimulates the stomach, and in 
lai^ quantities excites the vascular system. 
Moreover it seems to have a specific influence 
on tfae cerebro-Bpiaal system, as it affects, it 
is said, the mental faculties, a result which 
De CandoUe considei-s analogous to that pro- 
duced by the petals of certain odorous 
flowers. Saffron known in commerce an 
a kind of fibrous cake, should be moderately 
moist, clos^ tough, and compact, the smell 
sweet and penetrating, the taste warm, pun- 
gent, and somewhat bitter. It is a con- 
siderable article of trnde, both east and west, 
it is esteemed medicinal in the east with 
all sorts of virtues ascribed to it. To put 
on tfaesa&OD robe, is the sign of " no quarter" 
with the Rajput warrior. — O'ShQughnessy, 


p. 654 ; Hhode, MSS. ; Faulhifr ; Ainslie's 
Mat. Med., p. 38 ; Tomliiisoii ; Honigberger, 
p. 263 ; Falconer ; Royle ; Smith ; Powell's 
Hand-book, Vol. i, p. 303. 

SAFI.are a widely spread people occupying 
Dnra Nur, Dara Mazur, Dara Pech, and the 
I valleys opening on the Khonar river and in a 
\ district called Surkh Kliambar, south of Ba- 
Ijur. It hnn been noticed that they inbabiC 
j Tagbow. Thi;y now speak the Affghan dialect, 
; but also Pashai. In the emperorBuber'atime, 
they were styled Kafir, and they were subse- 
quently expelled by the Ghiiji from the lands 
to the south of Taghow, and between Kab .1 
and Jellalabad. Nadir Shah cultivated a 
I friendship with them. They speak a dialect 
called Kohistaiii- South of the Saf!, at Bahi, 
' the Rifit march from Goshter, on the Jellalabad 
I river towards B«jur, ate a people called 
Yeghani who consider themselves Affghans, 
but are probably converted Kafir, for they 
speak a dialect which no Aff;;lian can under- 
stand. — Massoiis Journeys. See Kelat, Kafir, 

SAFIRO, also Safir, Sp. Sapphire. 
SAFLINAFF, or ZalJnaf,or Laars Island, 
i]i the Juva Sea, in lat. 5° 31' S., long. 11 y* 
25' E., is a low woody island and the south- 
ernmost of a group lying on the north end 
of LflurK bank. 

SAFRAN, DuT., Fr. Saffron. 
SAFRI-AM, GuavR tree, Psidjum pyrife- 

SAG, Bkno., Hryi>- Greens ; green vege- 
tables ; any vegetable pot-herb ; gogi sag, 
is Maiva pariflorin, Jau sag, is Chenopodium 
{ album, Phapru sag, is Pharbitis nil, Kin sag, 
; is Phytolacca decandra. 
; SAG, Beng., Hinu. Corchorus olitorius. 
! SAG, PEits. A dog. See Kurrasaq. 
I SAGA, also Chaga, Tel. Sanseviera 
■ zeylanica, Wtlld. ; Sanseviera roxburghiaoa, 
] SchuU. 

j SA-GA, BcBii. Michelia champaca, Linn. 
I also Michelia auraiitium, IVaU. 

SAGA, SiAM. The rod seeds of Abrus 
precatorius, 32 of wbicli make a phaiuunir, 
worth about '^d. ; a gold and silver weight 
used in Malacca, the 12th of the mayani, 
and=4-33 grains. — Simmond's Diet. 

SAGA CilETTU, Tel. Sanseviera rox- 
; burgliiana, Sr.hnll ; S. zcylanica, R., ij, 161. 
SAGAFIUN, Pers. Sagapennm. 
SAGAIIBARK, Anglo-Malay. A bnrk 
of Siugapore. resembling mangrove bark iu 
appearance, Find employed as a dyeing material. 
SAGALA, was the ca])tlal of the Baclrian 
dynasty that ruled in the Panjab and its name 
was changed by Demetrius to Euthymedia. 
Bayer says that accordiug to Claudius Pto- 
lemy, there was a town within the Hydas- 

S 43 



\}ea yot npiircr llio liiduf* ciilli'it SHgaU, 
iilso KuUiymedin, Imt he scaioely tloiihts that | 
Demeliius cnlleii it Kiiihviifinin, from liis 
ftitlicr nftcr Ins (leath and tliat uf Mvnnuder. 
Colonel Tod supposes Sngala lo bo tlie Salb- 
hunpooi'H of tlie Yadu when driven from 
Zabulist'han and that of tlin Yuli or Yuchi 
wlio TToie lixeii lliere from CciiMal Asia in 
the 5th century and if ro early as the Becoud 
century when Ptolemy wrote, tboy may have 
origtnAtcd the change to Yntimedia, thi; Cen- j 
Iral Yuti. Numerous mediils have been found 
within Ihc probnble liinilf vi' the Greek king- j 
dom of Sii<;nlo, lielon^iug to these kings or to i 
tho Pflrthinn kings of ]\1inn^firii ou tlie Indus. 
The lofjends an: in Greek on one Hide, and in l 
the Sassaniun ohaiaeter ou ihe vcvurse. The j 
Darner of ApoiUHloluK and Meiinnder have I 
been decyphercd, aud the titles of GreatKin^;, I 
Saviour, ami other e[tithetfl adopted l»y tlie 
ArsncMsp aie iiorfeclly legible. The devices 
however resemble the Rirtliian. These Greeks 
and Parlhians muPt have gradually merged 
into tlio hindr>o populatiou, ~ //I'l/. lieg. Had., 
p. 84. See Uaetrian. 

SAGALLtKN, sec Japan, Knriliau, Sa- 

SAGAPENO, It. Sagapeimm. 


Kundil : .Snsfbvnuj, HlMU. 
Kanilel, ,, 

S&gk]>et]o, It. 

Sagnfiuii, PlBD. 

Knnilcl, SiAKS. 

Uugbinnj : Sakbeouj. AR. 
StkbiDJ, ,. 

I-sui. Uuuibay. 

Sugftpcnum, Fk. 

HkyapenuniRii, (iKU. 

Sagnfian, (in. 

A coucrcto gum refill supposed to be a 
kiud of aesafcctida from the Ferula iwmco, 
obtained from Smyrna, Alexandria, &c. It is 
found in masses formed of soft, adhesive frag- 
ment?, the size of the thumb oi-more, somewliut 
transparent, -reddish yellow externally, pale 
within, of a waxy or brittle consistence, often 
raized with impuiities and eced;;. Its odour 
resembles (hat of garlic and nssafcetida, its 
taste is hot, nauseous, and rather hitter. lu 
medicinal uses arc the same asthose of assaf<B- 
tida, but it is considered less energetic, aud is 
but little omploy»?d. F. pcrsica, a native of 
Persia, with n stem about twofeet high, accord- 
ing to some authorities produces Sagapenum. 
Necs von Escnbeck and Lindley, however, 
consider it as one of many plants from which 
assafoetida is procured. Sapagcnura is found 
in masses. Its otlonr resembles that of garlic 
aud assaftxtida, its taste is hot, nauseous, and 
rather bitter. It is sometimes adulterated 
with bdellium, gundabiro.-'a, and other similar 
gum resins or tnrpentine.s. It is collected in 
the same manner as assafoctida ; sells at four 
rupees tlie lb. — O Shauqhncssy, pp. 3r»3-fj4. 

SAOAPU MAUAMi Tam. Ilyuienudyc- 
tioQ oxcQlsum, Wall. 





SAGAR, Sans. Tlie sea. 

SAGAIl and Nerbudda territories ioclude 
part of the basins of the Gangea and Ner- 
budda. The Sugar district of India ia (situated 
in the extreme Dorth>west of the Cenlnil 
Provinces, and comprised within north latitude 
'2S' 5' and 24' 26', and east longitude 1H' lO* 
and 79* 15'. The Vindhyan outcrops belong 
to the groupiiamcd the " Upper Rcwa,"which 
is a mixture of thi(^k mnssivi^ strata and false- 
bedded flags, usuaKy hard and compact, and 
often glazed 6r semi-vitrified, yellowish and 
greyish whit« iu colour, sometimes reddish. 
The curious iptetlrap[>eaQ beds of the Sngar^ 
and tlie silieified trees which they contuin, 
described hy Mr. J. G. Medlicot^ are the 
remains of lacustrine deposits, formerlj 
accumulated in probably detached l>a8inB, 
and under couditions slightly differing in dif- 
ferent places. The calcareous bands of the 
inlertrappean roeks occur largely near Sugar. 
Iron-ore is found and worked at Hirapur, a 
small village in the extreme north-eatit. It 
is said to be of excellent quality, but at pre- 
sent only a few smelting- furnaces of the com- 
monest native descriptiou exist. The greater 
part of the iron manufacture is sent to Cawn- 
pore. Some of the saudstono is said to bo 
equal to tlie English tiling stone. Tho 
population of the district amounts to 498,642 
souls, of whom 220,070 are returned as agri- 
culturists, and 278,572 ns nonagriculturist*. 
The best cultivators are Kurrai, Kachhi, 
Lodhi and Dangi. The artisans and handi- 
craftsmen are chiefiy the Lobar, Barhai. KoHri 
aud Sunar. Except in some of the large 
towns, and tho city of Sagar itself, the niftu- 
nera of the inhabitants generally aru decidedly 
uncouth. The tribes most addicted to ertme 
are the Lodhi, Bundela, Brahman, Khan- 
gar, Chumar aud Kohri. They are raostlr 
to be found iu the borders of the district near 
native states, where they lind protection and 
concealment if pressed by British police. On 
the whole the inhabitants of Sagar may l>e 
said to bo a sturdy race. They are not high 
in stature, but they possess a fair share of 
stamina, muscles, tlicws and sinews. The 
houses are generally built of cither stone, or 
stone and mud and are tiled. A few of tho 
huts inhabited by the jioorer classes, such 
as Chamar, Sunar Goud, &c., are thatched, 
with walls formed of wattle and dab ; bnt 
every endeavour is being made to get them 
to build permanent residences, not subject to 
be destroyed by fire. In the begluuing of 
the year a. d. 1818, by a treaty concluded 
between tlie peshwa Baji Iluo and the British 
goveruoieDt, Sagar with the greater part of 




tbe present Sagar district Damoh, Jtibalpur 
and Mandlii, were made over lo the British. 

SAGAIi. Colonel McMiirdo quotes native 
aithors to show, that the western branuh of 
tbe Indus was called tbe Sagara river, which, 
b« thinks, may be identified with the Ssgapn 
Ostinni of Ptolemy, which was also the moat 
westerly branch of the Indus iu hia time. 
Now this channel passes about two or three 
miles to the sooth of Bhambura, so that the 
town was also accessible from the Piti, the 
Phandi, the Kyer, and the Pintiani mouths 
of the river. Genera) Canniughnm is of 
opiaion that the nortbero channel of the Gliara 
was the western branch of the Indus, which 
wu navigated by Alexander and Nearchus, 
lod that before A. D. 200, its waters found 
another cbaanel more to the sonth, iu the 
Mathem Ghara which joins the main stream 
of the Indus juet below Laribandar. By this 
cbannel, in the time of the author of the 
'Peripluf,' the merchant vessels navigated 
the Indus up to Barbarike, where the goods 
were unloaded, and conveyed in boats to Min- 
mgar, the caf»ital of the country. But after 
some time tlits channel niso failed, and in the 
beginning of the eighth century, when the 
Arabs iuvaded Sindh, Debal had become the 
thief part of the Indus, and altogether sup- 
pknted Bhambura, or the nacient BHrbarike. 
But though the Ghara river was no longer a 
navigable channel, its waters still continued 
lo flow past the old town down to the thir- 
teenth century, about which time it woitld ap- 
pear to have been finally deserted. — Cunning' 
kem't Ancient Geoff, of India, pp. 296-296. 
SAGAKA, Sans. An ocean. Qanga Sa- 
gara, the place where the Bhagnrilhi leaves 
the Ganges to the ocean. 

SAGARA, a king who is faUcd to have 
had 60,000 son5. 
9AGARA RAJA, sec Inscriptions. 
SAG.^ROOTA, Mahs. Guilandiua bon- 
dac, Linn., If. ^ A. 

tiAG-DID, Pkrs. 


Doff-view. See Pnrsi. 


in S, and N". America, Java, Cliinn, and in 
India aloug the ibot of the Himalaya. 


Tran>- Indus. 
Ravi, Sutlej. 

O anger, kanger, 
Bhaodi ; bftjan, 





Eing-kai, Cais. Hulhei, 

Tmn «aB, ,, Seys-elle, 

SalbU, HiKn. 

A perennial, native of the south of Europe, 
of Central Asia and China, it grows iu all the 
gardens, and is propagated by seeds, layers, 
and flips without any difficulty. It is used 
fw seasoning. Sage of Bcngnl, the Murtoo, 
BesG^ are the leaves and herb of Meriandra 
ben^ensif. — Ben., p. 223 ; Smith. 

Alangiom decapetalum. Lam. 

SAGEN, G«R. Saws. 

SAGERETIA, a genus of plants belong- 
isg to tbe nataral order Rhamnaceas> found 
A/ S 

A large shrub first collected by Griililh. 
It (;row& it) Kaghnii ; abounds in places, 
Trans-Indus, from 2,000 to 3,500 feet, and 
in the Salt Range, and occurs low in the 
Jhelam basin. The fruit is well-known in 
the bazaars of Fefliawar and Afighnnistau, 
it is small and black, and is very plea,sant 
eating wlien fresh and in sufficient quantity, 
the favour being not unlike that of the 
bilberry. In the Salt Range, acbatni is made 
of the fruit. — Dr. J. L. Stetpart. 

Rbamnus trigynuH, Von. \ ZiEjphus hamoaa, WaU. 

A trailing plant of Ngpal, Voigt. 


Berchemia oppoaitifolia, WaU. 

ZixyphuB oppoaitifolia, Wall. 

HbaiuDUB trigyoiis, Don. 
GirthaD, Bea«. I Kanak, Kaghan. 

Dravge, Ravi, j Gidamak, Eaghan. 

A plant of the Dehra Dhoon, and in the N. 
W. Himalayn at from 2,000 to 3,000 feet in 
the outer hills. Its fruit is eaten. — Drs, 
Voigt, Cleghorn and Stewart. 

employed as a substitute for tea, in China, 
where the poor make use of the leaves in the 
same manner as those of the true tea, and for 
which it makes a good substitute from its 
astiingency and fragrance. — Voigt, Eng. Cyc. 

SAGES, see RishL 

SAGETER, see Kclat. 

SAGEWYN, see Pitt Strait. 

SAGGA, see Inscriptions. 

SAGGAR, fll?o Baddi Kandcr, Hind., of 
Salt Range, Ehrctia aspcra. 

SAGGINA, It. Sorghum vulgarc. 

SAGHALEEN, of the Aino ; Isokn of 
Aborigines ; Oku Yesso of the Japanese ; 
Sachalien of the Russians ; the Karapto of 
old writers, also Ulu-hata, also Augo-hata ; 
or Island of tbe Black River, also Amur ; 
Siebold and Keith Johnston call it Tamkai, 
but the usual nftme is Saghalcen from Sugaiin, 
one of the names of the river Amur. Tho 
lips of the women are tattooed of a pale- 
black colour, they part their hair down tho 
middle. They have metal ear-rings, and those 
on the coast wear silver-grey or spotted seal- 
skins, with long boots of the same materials. 
They have a leather waist-belt as a cestua 
veneris. — Arthur Adams, Travels of a Na- 
turalist in Japan and Manchuria^ Londen, 




SAG-I-AB[, Hind., Pers. Tlii? ottei-' are oLtaiued from tlieSiigus lBvi8,aiid Ai-enira 
ot'Buniioo. I SHvcliarifera ; a puiious kind of Birow-root 

SAGIG, the name given l)j the Bisflya, to' has long been made at Mergui from the 

a variety of the Manilla hemp. — RoyU, Fib. 

SAGI MATTA, Til.. Agave americaiia, 

same plant as that wliieh yields the sago, 
but medical men have decided that it 
contains pro|>ertiea which render it uusalt* 
able for the sick, and chcniicai analysid haa 

SAGITTARIA SAGITTIFOLIA, (he developed that it contains only half tin 
ari'DW-headiinoiieof thehandsomest of llritii^h I nntritious qualities of genuine arrow-rooL 
aquatic plants, whether as regards the elc- ' The Maluys prefer that of Sagus Invis.i'acil., 
gant spear leaved canes of glossiest t;reen, or I Blunie eiatea that it is obtained from S. 
the fl(^ivcr spikes rising in pyramidal form genuine. The Arenga saccharifera when 
from the buifuce of the wuter. This plant is ! exhausted of its saccharine sap, yields sago of 
extensively caltivatedumong the Oiinese, not , good quality. In India, sago is obtained from 
for it>« lieauty but for tlip sake of its edible \ thelMicenix fnriiiifera aiidtheCycas <rircinalis. 
rhizome, whiuh fixes itself in tiie solid earth . Bennet in his work on " Ceylon and its capa- 
below the mud and constitute? an article of ' bilities," (1843), states that sago is procnrwl 
food- — Art. Jour., p. lOH, April \86~; Smith. '■ from tlie granulated pith of the talipot palm, 

SAGITTARIA SINENSIS. Coryphu nnbracniifcra. 

Ti'ieku Cum Metroxylon tilarc, Afor/., a native of China, 

n,, . I . - ,'• 1 I T . ■ yields one of the inferior sago of commerce ; 

Ihis iilntit IS mentioned tiy Intarmov as ■ i . <-. . r m r 

'.,,,■ I . - I I -J . .!_ ' as also does the Uorypha cabanea, aiume. of 

growing in Chinii, but is applied to the ■ . j i b a-* i 

Chinese tulip species of Amaiyllis or tulip. — ' ' 


SAGIL, see JaUun. 

SAGI MATTA, Tki.. Agave aniericana. 
SAG-KARM, or Sag-Karauib, Hikd. 
Brassica oleracpa. 

SAG-LAHU, IIlN'D., of Bunnoo, the otter. ' 
SAGO. '■ 

The Sagua farinifera palm is grown ia 
great perfection in some parts of Borneo, 
and its tiago meal is exported in large 
quantities from the west coast to Singapore, 
and also by the Bugis boats from the eastern 
and southern sides of the island. In Borneo, 
the natives prefer rice, and the Milauowe, 
who live on the rivers Kgao, Hojtt 
Mocha and Biululu, who are the principal 
cultivutoi'c of the sago tree, always import 
considerable quantities of gi-ain for their owo 
Sago, and starchy mutter allied to It, is | consumption. The tree grows in marshy 
obtained from many palms. 'Ihe starch is ' place?, and rarely attains a greater height 
contained in the cellular tissue of the stem, than thirty feet : as it freely produces oflseta, 
and is separated by bruising and elutriation. i the supply Is easily raised. Amongst llie 
From the soft stem of Cycas circinalis, a kind ' Dyak, who grow rice, sago is very rarely 
of sRgo is produced both in the East and used as food except in times of scarcity. The 
West Indies. The finest is", however, pro- | sago palm of the Spice Islands is Ihe moat 
cured from the stems of Sagutt lasvis Rnmph, J plentiful but least esteemed, that of Siak on 


So-moh-mien, Cms. 

Si-kuh-mi, ,, 

Sagu, Sagu-cfaAwl, 



a native of Borneo and Sumatra ; and Arenga 
saccharifera, LciAt7/arf/t>re ; the Sagnsfarini- 
fera Gartn. of the Eastern islands of the 
Indian Ocean, yields a sago. Tlic starchy 

the north coast of Sumatra being the best, and 
that of Borneo second in estimation. Sago 
meal furnishes the principal fooil of the 
Javanese being baked into cakes, its native 

substance washed out of the stems of these | country is between Borneo, on the one side, 
palms is sngo meal, and when it is granulated I and New Guinea on the other ; Mindoro 
it forms the sago of commerce. The Arenga ! on the north, and Timor on the south : and 
saccharifera also furnishes a large supply of, though it is naturalised in other islands of 
sugar; sago, sugar, and palm wine, arc , the Areliipclago, is never found beyond ila 
procured from the Curyola urens : in China, ' limits. The process of extraction differs among 

sago is obtained from Khapis Qabelliformis, 
from which, also, r^ago is made for native use 
in Travancorc, Mysore, and Wynaad, in the 
peoinnula of India. The Cocliin-China sago 
seems from l^oureiro's account to be obtained 
from the Arenga saccharifera and Cycas 
inermis. According to Thunberg it is from 
the Cycas revoluta that the Japanese manu- 
facture it. In the Moluccas, large quantities 


many of the islands, as that of Mindoro from 
that of the Moluccas ; so also does the size 
of the cake ; those of Amboyna t>eing four 
inches broad, and six long ; while thos* 
of Ceram uro much larger. The people of 
many of the islands live habitually on Uiis 
nutritious substance. The mass of medulla 
extracted is immense ; 600 pounds is not 
unusually afforded by a single tree ; the 

S 4C 



refose, after tbe bi-ead is made, is thrown in 
heaps from whicb, a delicate edible musbrooia 
qriB^ up, and in the beaps, as well as io 
ibe decftjiDg wood, are geueruted worms 
of a white colour, held in great esti- 

tied tip in bundles of twenty. Tbey will tlien 
keep for yeura, can be eaten iu that state, or 
Boaked iu water aud toasted or boiled. A 
tree twenty feet loiitj and four or five feet iu 
circumreienre will produce nine hundred 

nation among t)ie epicureans of ttie Afolucca : pounds and a pound weiglit will produce tbree 
islaodii. Certain wood-worms were in the j cakes, and two of these uakes are snfiicieut for 
8une maoner prized by the ancient Romans ; I a man for a meal. Two men will finish a 
ind tbe taste of tlie Amboynese bas been I tree in five days, and two women will bake it 
shared by Europeans, after a struggle with I ail in five days more, so that for about 12 
prejudices, which are indeed, mere matters of ; shillings, one man's food for a year will be 
CDStom. I bad. 

Id most of tlie islands of tlie Archipelago I The sngo palm of Ceram, lias a midrib 
the sago palms are private property and sell at I 12 to 15 feet long, used in lieu of bamboo, 
tboat seven shillings a tree. Mr. Wallace I The lower part is as thick as a man's 

tells us that io making sago meal, a tree is 
tut down close to the ground, the leaves 
and leaf stalks cleared away, and a brood 
»lnpof the bark taken off the uppei* side of 
ihe trunk. This exposes the pithy matter 

leg, entire houses are built of them, they 
form admirable roofing poles for thatch ; 
when split and well supported they do 
for fioorin!>:, and when selected ofeqaalsize 
and pegged together side by side to fill up 

which is of a rusty colour near the bottom of i the panels of framed wood'house?, they have 

ibe tree, but hit;ber up pure white, about as 
bird as a dry apple, bat with wooden fibres 
niDDiDg through it about a quarter of an inch 
apart. This pith is cut or broken down into 
1 coarse powder by means of a tool coDStrucl- 
ti for the purpose, — a club of hard and 
bfivy wood, having u piece of sharp quartz 
rock, firmly imbedded into its upper end. By 
taccessive blows o{ tliat, narrow strips of the 
pith ire cut away till it falls down into the '. 

a very neat appearance, aud make better 
walls and portitions than boards, as they do 
not shrink, require no paint or varnish, and 
are not a quarter of the expense. When 
carefully split and shaved smooth, they are 
fonned into light boards, with pegs of the 
bai'k itself, aud are the foundation of the leaf- 
covered boxes of Goram. The leaflets of 
the sH<;o palm, when folded and tied aide by 
side on the smaller midribs form the "atap" 

cjlioder formed by tlie bark, leaving only a { or thntcli, in universal use, while the pro- 

akio, not more tlina half an inch in thickness. I duct of the trunk is the (Staple food of some 

These pith strips are then' put Into a washing hundreds of thousands of men. 

rroagb, made of tlie large sheathing vases of} Iu the Moluccas, the pith of the engo 

the leaves, and the strainer is the fibrou? ' paliu is prepared for use and exportation. 

covering I'rum the leaf stalks of the young It coiistitute» tlie principal food of the naiives 

cocoaiiut. Water is poured on the mass of I of the Moluccas, especially during their sea 

pith which is pressed against the strainer and | voyages. It is cooked by simply dipping the 

kaeade<l until all the starch is dissolved, and cakes into warm water whiih i-ofleiis them, 

foaiirs through into a trough with a depression | and renders them easily mastiuuted. It is 

OD iu centi*e, into which it is deposited, the | also made into a sort of soup, 

Eurplos water trickling away. When the ; The trunk of the Sa.jHS farinifoia, is 

trough is nearly full, the mass of stnrcii, \ five or six feet round, «nd it groiva to the 

irbich bas a slightly reddish tinge, is made up ' height of ubout 20 feet. It can only be propu- 

into cylinders, neatly wrapped in sago leaves, ^ gated by seed. 1 1 flourishes best in bb^s and 

and in this slate is sold as raw sago. Wlieu 
this is boiled with water, it forms a thick 
glatioous mass, with a rather ustringeut taste, 
sod is eaten with salt, limes and cliil lies. When 
sago bread is to be made, raw sago is broken 
op, dried io the sun, powdered and finely 

swnmpy marshes ; a good plantation being 
ofteu a bog, knee deep. The pith producing 
the sago is seldom of use till the tree is 
fourteen or fifteen years old ; aud tlie tree does 
not live lunger than thirty years. 

Mr. Crnwfurd says there are four of the 

(ifled. A small clay oveu with 6 or 8 slits, : sago palms, the cultivated, the wild, one dis- 
j of an inch wide and 6 or 8 inches square, ! tinguisbed by long spines on the bninchcs, and 
i» beatfd over a clear fire of enil>ers, the 1 a fourth destitute of these spines, and called by 
powder is Guety sifteu, the openings are : the natives female sago. This and the culii- 
eorercd with a flat piece of Pago bark, and in i vated species afford the best farina ; the spiny 
about five minutes the cakes are turned out , variety, which lias a sleiuier trunk, and the 
Milliciently baked. They are pleasant to eat. wild tree, yield but an inferior quality of sago. 
When not wanted for immediate use, they The farinaccons matter aflbrded by each 
ire dried for several days io the sun and ; tree ia very considerable, 600 Uia. being a 

47 S 47 



frequent quantity, while 300 lbs. may be 
taken as the common average produce of each 
tree. Supposing the plant set at a distauce 
of ten feet apai-t, an acre would contaiu 436 
treen, which, on coming to maturity in firteeo 
yeare, would yield at the before-mentioned 
rate 120,500 lbs. aunually of farinaceouB 
matter. The ttgo meal, tn its raw state, will 
keep good about a mouth. The Malays and 
Datives of the Eaateru Islauds, with whom it 
forms the chief article of sustenance, partially 
bake it in earthenware moulds into small hard 
cakes, which will keep for a considerable time. 

The Saffus farin^era palm is one of the 
smallest of its tribe, seldom reaching to more 
thau 30 feet in height, and growing only 
in a region extending west to Celebes and 
Borneo, north to Mindanao, south to Timor, 
and cast to Papua. Ceram is its chief seat, 
and there large forests of it are found. The 
edible fariua is the central pith, which varies 
considerably in different trees, and as to the 
time required for its attaining proper matu- 
rity. It is eaten by the natives iu the form of 
pottage. A farina of an inferior kind is 
supplied by the Gomuti palm, another tree 
peculiar to the Eastern Archipelago growiug 
in the valleys of hilly tracts. Perhaps several 
palm trees coutributo to produce the ordinary 
sagos of commerce. 

The stem of Sagus fariuifera, Gartner, 
before maturity and previous to the formation ' 
of the fruit, consists of a thin hard wall, about | 
two inches thick, and of an enormous volume of | 
tissue (commonly termed tlie medulla or pith), i 

easily broken. The sago of Borneo is the next 
in value ; it is whiter, but more friable. The 
produce of the Moluccas, though greatest ia 
quantity, is of the smallest estimation. The 
cost of granulated sago, from the hands of the 
grower or producer, was, according to Mr. 
Crawfurd, only a dollar a picul of 133i Iba. 
It fetches in the Loudon market — common 
pearl, 20s. to 265. the cwt, sago flour, 20*. 
the cwt. The Chinese of Malacca and Singa- 
pore have invented a process by which tbey 
refine sago, so as to give it a fine pearly lustre, 
aud it is from theuce supplies of this article, 
are now principally derived. The exports 
from Singapore in 1847 exceeded 6^ million 
pounds- The imports into Great Britain in 
1847, 1848 aud 1849 were respectively 1.930 
tons ; 2,758 tons, and 3,275 tons. A consider- 
able quantity of sago is, however, exported 
from Singapore iu tlie state of flour. The 
whole quantity made and exported there 
exceeds, on the average, 2,500 tons annually. 
Tlie estimated value for export ia set down at 
Mx. per picul of 1^ cwt. The quantity 
shipped from this entrepot is shown by the 
aunezed returns, nearly all of which was 
grown and manufuvtured in the settlement. 


1840-41, Pearl ingo. 41,140 

,, Sagu flour, 33.5ri2 

l»41-42. Pearl m«o, 46,226 

Sago fiour, 7,447 

1842-43, Pearl sajjo, 25,300 

Sago flour, 4,R38 

1IM3-41, Pearl uigo, 14,266 


l)i4.-)-44, Sago floar, 14,067 
1844-45, Pearl ngo, 18,472 

Sago flour, 36,141 
1845-4(i, Pearl (ago. 1S,333 

a-igo flour, 2G,98(t 
184G-47, Pearl lago, 40,766 

Sago flour. 9,0SB 

The imports of sago, into the United King- 
dom roi^e from 483 tons in 182G, to 4,494 tons 
ill 1850 aud the quuntity retained for home 
tonti to 4,197 tons, 

from which the farina or sago is obtained. 

As the fruit forms, the furinacous medulla i con.suniptiuD from I2K 

disappears, and when the tree attains full 1 in the same perioit. 

maturity, the stem is no more than a hollow 


Sago occurs iu commerce in two Btflt4?f>, 
pulveruleut or granulated : 1, The meal or 
flour ill the form of a liue amylnceous powder, 
whitish, with ti buffy or rcddiah tiut ; odour 
faint, but somewhat uuplcasont aud musty ; 
2, Granulated sugo of two kinds, i>earl and 
common brown, Tlio fonner occura in birtull 
Iiard grains, not exceeding in size that of a 
pin's head, inodorous, and having little 

Sago is now un cxtcitsivo article of diet, 
contributing largely totlio food of the nursery, 
tlic dicta oftiic invalid Hud the delicacies of the 
tables of the rich ; wheat ; siigo and rice are 
great food staples in the world. 

Calamasngus liii-iniosut>, GriffiUia, is sup- 
|K>sed also to yield sugo, but that known as 
*' Mergui sago" is niuuufuutured from the 
'J'ucca piiiiiutifida. Siigo of Mergui may bo 
seen in cveiy bazar in tlm Teuub&erim Pro- 
vinces, it is the produce of an iudigcnoa* 

They luive a browniith or piukish yellow tiut, : plant abounding uluui; the sea shorci^, the 
aud are somewhat translucent. Ky the aid of ixliintls, and c;|>cciidly ut Mcr^rui — a species 
a solution of chloride of lime they can be . (d' tacca, the t^amc pluut, that 1;^ common in 
bleached, and rendered perfectly white. Tliu I the South Sea Islands, whose tuWrs tlieru 
dealers, it is said, pay £7 per ton for bleach- j Hupply to tliu inhabitants the place of bread, 
ing it. Common browu sago occurs in larger | Considerable (luiiiilitics of sago nre niadu at 

grains, ab9ut the size of penrl barley, which 
are brownish white. 

Sago in its gi'iiuutated form is that usually i 
ciported. The beat sago is tlie produce of Siak, 
nu the north coast of Siimatrn Thirt is of a 

Mergui. A 8ngo wax uIho cxhiiiitcd iu tho 
Mudi'os ICxhiljiiidu of 1855, made froni 
the Cycos circinuli!.. The p>lh of Caryota 
ureus is much used a-s sngo meal in Ciilianit 
when fresh, and dciierveh atlentiun. Sago in 

li;;hl brown colour, the grains lorgi>. inul not ' obtained in (.'oi*hiii I'rotn >i pulin called kuula 
+« S is 




•alU Iktn for 2 aiiuna a pouQt), uid 

liw dat« pitlni fluur uud roed U 

afo>] Eeutlialkucroo. TUe bwt sago U midd 

ti Codbui from Ottlobvr to June, ai iu ilB 

prapantioo bright lUDgbioe is requii'etl to 

ttAlure the operaLioD. The Ist sort nisj b« 

dfelinmri on the sea ctmat nt R5. 4^ per minud 

(S5*lb«.>, tlie 3u(l Mrt Hi. 2| per nuuiid. 

bago IS nuMtc iti ^Ealabor from tjto pith of tbo 

Tklipoi p»lm, Ui« Coryphi umbrscutiferB. 

lu Java, Uio Araoga a«ccb«rifera is the 

«stj eoum of Mgo, which in usuJ iu cuu- 

■dmbie qoAoiitj ia ibe wMi^m aod poorer 

ibtrieu of th> ulwiil and in oflTereil for mle 

n all Um KiarfcMS. It is smnller in qoaiitilj' 

Ibaa ill tlie pith of the tiue ^ago-tiee, 

■one difficult to extract and iiifuriur to qua- 

litj : poMeashig a certaia peculiar Havour 

(nm wfaicb tbti farina of Uto tj-un m^^o in fioc. 

^anc trees wilt produce five or fix fenisle 

«}auli«es, beforu ^i^lding a ciogle Dial« oue, 

fudi tnaea arc cotis-idered uupiuOtable hy Iho 

OKlity coUeeioH, but io xhii caw it is raid that 

diiijr yield lago equal in quality, though not 

ia qaantitjr, to the Cyciu ciicinnliit, from 

«tuck. Iratli tu tht! East aod We<»t ladies a 

liud of aa^a is fvocoivd. Odd tree yieldrd 

■tfoat 150 Ibo. of R<M>d HfiO mcnl. The 

faiaatfootti |iart of Ihu U'uuk of old tii-e«, 

it ifan Carets orens or kittui palm in mnou- 

iutomd ioto eatEO, equal to (he beat furina, 

l<Mit{ liigbl/ oulritiouB. It ia ftuid, inde&r), 

ta W fqual to thttt of tho true *ago puliu. A 

briaatt prvpaixxl iu Brazil from the inside of 

tha tniitlt of iho " Ciimaulia," Co|>urni(-R ceri- 

kn. Tbe pithy fM>rttuu of tlio trunk of Uic 

(ra^An^ palm, Corypbn ^haii^a, Blume. 

fmU% a ftort of sago, n& a(M that of tho Sul>ttl 

! fc iaaaBBii, the sago [Milm of Now Irctund. 

The Kocpphalartoa is called *' Caflir Bread." 

TWmvJk of Dion edole, in Mcitico, yiolU 

•bi' '1 Balunuis and otiier West 

J»<1 i eago U obtAised from a 

•p*' luia. 

' -^nsn ia brought to China to Mmo 

■-■ewieli and is said to be tbt' 

-at;u« farinifprn which grows 

labuKtitiia audoo the we«ien) sideof Uuruco. 

jii*ritpelatfo. —Cmvtiur^ tells us that iu 

(be Ea«tam Archipelago, ibeie aro supposiyl 

t'] I -' ilii-^ (Mltn? produeiug (bia artiule, of 

<d moat frequently oiiltivittvd arv the 

irtnif«ra. lambaya, Malay : and the 

tvia, buuban, Mabiy. 8h^ troi-» 

ja every pai-1 of the Mnlayan 

and Phiti|)|)iuea oa far no 

16, whcrerer ihoru in n genial Hoil 

and tbid soil 4;<jnfial« of n marab 

■viioJofii' 111 fluil vogeta- 

" KS bal ■ '4 iiiUI action. 

aiti aaoat abunduiil m tbe 'ooattiru fMirtrt 


of the Malay Archipelago at tbe Molucca.^ 
and neighbouring ulandts with New Guioea 
aud Borneo, 4Qd,iu the Pbilippiues, UindBoo. 
All these palms yield an immense quantity of 
farina, the wood being a mere ibeU contain- 
iug a maafi of medulla, and iJte sagu from 
them is more or less tbe food of tbe inhabi- 
tanta of the Archipelago. Soma lago itm* 
propagato by Utciul 9boola,as well as by oeeds^ 
and only produce fruit once, eft^r which tbey 
die. From the first of their properties, a aagu 
plantiilion ouce formed is perpetual. When a 
plantation has once arriTed at malurily tbeta 
will bo a eoustant harvest. The trees are 
cultivated in small patchea, and a man and 
bi% family can manage a pbuilalion of aboat 
4O0 treex, in a spaco of 100 square fathoms. 
Tbe trees ai'e out down immediately bofors 
licaring fruit, which ia usual aliout tlie age of 
15 years. Tbe sago tree when cut down aud 
tbe top severed from il, is a cylinder about 
20 iucbea in diamtfter end from 15 to 20 feci 
in beigbt. Asaumiog tbia to bo tbe average, 
tbo contiuits will bo nearly 26 buslieix, and 
allowing oiie-balf for woody fibre, thoro will 
rciDftiii 13 bushels of staritb, which will givo 
about 700 pounds fureai'b tree, or 12^ busheU. 
J t may give some idea of the enormous rate 
uf this produce, if it bo considered tbut three 
trees yivld more nutritive matter than an acre 
of wheat and tix trees yield more than an 
acre of potatoes. Ati acre of sago, if cut 
down at one harvest, will yield .$220 bushed, 
or a<i much ati 1G3 acres of wliear, so thai 
accordiug us we allow 7 or \5 years for the 
growth of n tree, an acre of aago is equal in 
nniiuul producL- to 23 or to lOacres of wheat. 
Up till 1814 the Arclii|>elago used to export 
small quautities of tlio granulated form o( 
sngo, of ft dirty brown colour, but about the 
time when the trade witli Europe was 6fst 
thrown o[>en, the Chincne of Midui'cu began 
to prepare a much superior article known in 
cumineruu under tho name of pt^arl f^ng,o. Of 
thid uitd siigo flour, or the ungrnnulaUd starch, 
Siiif,'ii[)ore is at present tbe chief pince of 
mnuufucturo and principal mail, the Chinese 
being the sole mauufacturcrs, and the raw 
motf^r'uil being brought from various neigh- 
bouriug countries, bnt chiefly from the north- 
weaterii coast of Borneo and the nortli-easlero 
of Sumatra, with its adjacent islands from 
Siak to ludragiri. 1« the yfars 18-17-48, the 
quantity of sago exported from Singapore 
was about 80,000 cwt, worth on the spot 
about £44,000. 

In most poita of the Archipelago two 
kind* of alluvial soil are found in grealer 
01- loss iibuodance, one consisting chieily of 
sand ofl<.'n (Ill-own lip in long banks, and the 
other principally of decomposed regeuble 

y *0 



matter. The Utter is often a consequeQce 
of the production of the former, which serres 
to keep oat the waTes of the sea, and allow 
» rank vegetation to flourish. Id process 
of time, hy the elevation of the surface and 
the extenaioQ of a similar formatioD seaward, 
the older marshes are no longer subject to 
tidal invasion, and become gradually filled 
up bj the decay of fresh water plants. 
For ^ese two descriptions of soil nature 
has provided two kinds of palm adapted in 
wonderful manner to the necessities of man. 
On the barren sand she has planted the 
cocoaout, and in the morass the sago tree. 

Along the immense alluvial tract of ihe 
Sumatra coast from Siak to the Lampoags, 
and in the targe pluns of tlie rivei-s of the 
peninsula such as those of Rio, Formosa and 
the Muar, are hundreds of miles of B»go land 
unoccupied and unproductive, every acre of 
which is capable of yielding at the rate of 
about twenty thousand pounds of meal yearly. 

One or other of the kinds of the sago tree 
is fouud throughout the whole length of the 
Archipelago, from the islands off the west 
coast of Sumatra lo New Guinea. It is 
probably cajiable of flourishing with complete 
vigour across nearly its eutire breadth where- 
ever its natural soil occurs, and certainly 
within ten degrees north and south of the 
equator, a band which includes all the Archi- 
pelago save the Philippines. The ouly coun- 

gradually looses its thorns except those above, 
which also afterwards gradually fall off. The 
branches which become tolerably thick, have 
a broad base called guniru, about three feet 
long and a foot broad, being almost like a nat- 
ter which surrounds the stem and the next 
branch, and decreases to its top. The uppM' 
part of the branch is called gabba gabha and 
is about the thickness of the arm at its top and 
much thicker below. So long as the stem is 
immature, thorny branches at the bottom pro- 
tect it from the wild hogs who would otherwise 
fatten on the meal. Itgiveano fruit until all its 
strength u expended and its death appro^chea, 
and when the branches are strewed with 
meal, at which time small fruits like round 
pigeon's eggs show themselves in grent Dum- 
ber at its top, like a crown. These are green, 
and when ripe sour, and they finally become 
yellow. This appears to be Sagus fariaifera, 
Sumatra and Mntacca, Dr. W. Jack, in hia 
notice of the Sagus Isvis, eay* it rises to the 
height of about twenty feet, and is generally 
surrounded by numerous smaller and younger 
plants which spring up around it after the 
manuer of the plsotain or Musa sapientum. 
The stem, which is about as thick mm that 
of the fcocoanut tree, is annulated by the 
vestiges of the fallen leaves, and tlie upper 
part is commonly invested with th«r wither- 
ed sheaths. The leaves resemble thoae of 
the cocoanut, grow more erect, and art 

tries however, where it is found growing in I much more persistent, so that the foliage bi 

large forests are New Guinea, the Moluccas, 
Celebes, Mindanao, Borneo and Sumatra, 
being widely spread over tlie Moluccas, but 
confined lo particular partu of the others. 
In the eastern parts of the Archipelago it 

tiot the same tufty appearance, but has the 
more graceful ascending curve of that of 
the S»gU9 farinifera ; they are piunate,'aD- 
armed ; the luaflets linear, acute, carinatc, and 
smooth. That tree iii from fifteen lo twenty 

forms in many places the chief portion of the : years iu coming to maturity, the fructification 

inhabitants food. The sago palm^ do not 
appear to l>6 iuUigonoua in Sumatra aud the 
Malay Peninsula. 

Moluccas. — Amongitt all the trees whirh 
we have yet meutioned, says Valciityu in his 
account of the vegetation of the MoIucl-os, 
there is noucmore useful to iheAmboynese than 
their sago tree. It shows itself at fir!(t,aad fur a 
long timeafterwardii, merely a» abubli or shrub, 
cODsisting ofdifferent upright branches which 
are about 15 or l<i feet high, green, concave 
in the inuer .lide, co:ivex on the outer, and 
smooth. Ou the lower part of these, long 

then appearii, and it soon after decays aud 
dies. The inflorescence is terminal ; several 
spadi<*.es rise from tlie summit of the atemf 
envelo]>ed iu elieaths at their joint ; and altera 
natoly branched. It is on these brauches that 
the flowers and fruit are produced, and they 
are generally from five to eight inchea in 
length. Tliey are of a brown colour, and 
closely imhri<!Dled with broad scarioae scale*, 
within which i-t a quantity of deose ferngia- 
ouH wool, iu which the minute flowers ara 
imbedded and completely coDcealed. Each 
scale supportti two flowers which are henna- 

Email thorns are seen, which stand in order ' pliroditc, and scarcely larger tlian a grain of 

above each other like nee<11e9, the middle 
being always the longest- The leaves, which 
are very long and small, stand out ou both 
sides of these branches, art) longer, broader, 
and thinner than those of the cocoKUut, and 
have on the sidcn ^oft, erect Hpiues. In due 
time there risen from this bii^h a stem, which 
haviu? rparhf"! twic« the hnight of :i man. 

turnip-seed. The perianth is six-leaved, of 

which thi-ec ai-e inferior, the leaflets nearly 

equal. Stamina six, filaments very short ; 

; anthers long, two-celled- Ovaria three, 

I connected together iu the middle, each mo- 

, nesporu)'. Style none, Ktigraii small. Fruit 

single, nearly globular, somewhat depreaae«l 

at llin summit hut with a ^hort, acute, mucre 



« poiut 111 the c«uue ; it is covered wiib , AgooJ sugcilree prtxIucoflttlxjui^S tumuig 
ttaJaa wliicb ■!« iaiLrtcftled fi-oia llie Up to j or meal, wliiuh L«iug sold at from 0*76 Id 
tb« bottom, aiid are t^liintiig of a gi-c«uisb i O80 k. givna the tnaaufacturer a good profit. 

tOmw Fulour, of a rtiotnboidal >li«p«, and with 
a Imtfitadinat fun-DW ttown thuir midcle. 
Bdow tbc acalcs tbe riod lit of a epongy con- 
Mtonea ; miid the fruit iMDlatim a single se«d, 
of nilwr no irregular ?luf>e ; and haTing the 
ttabUicas slloated luterally a little above the 
Uaae ofUin fru'u. Ttie iirt^nu^s of the fruil 
Id v&iarity is vorr slow ; and is Mtid to 
MCSpjr About tinee jeiu» from the firt^t np- 
peaiing' of the <:|M<iifeti tn the final ripntiiog 

The DtitivM of the Moluccas prepare ths 
meal iu diflercut ways, chiefly hnirever, aa 
a bard bread, whkb, if kept diy, may be 
preaerred as long ai ship's biecuils, and is 
called Kago " lotnping." The tneial after haT> 
tDg been driod for wo or three days la sifted 
until it becomes toUrably 6ne hnt remains 
somewhat wlbesive. Ir is ihcQ fonoed into 
itmall Sat cakes which^ to the uumber of 7 or 
8, are placed in a mould of red eanh asd 

tf the fmtt. Dui'iog the period of iofiorea- ; baked to the proper degree. 

mce, the hraticbef of the spadix ure bniwD, 
lod apparently quire bar«. Al'teru-ards a 
aanbiir of imall green koobs appear above 
tlic hromi ^i-aleF, which grow enlargiug till 
iliey ai length acquire ihc sizcofa small apple. 
Bal few fruit come Iu maturity uu each 

The sago boruek or Borne the granular sago, 
is ilritfd for a shorter period, then sifted, and 
shaken by two men tn a pieco of cloth until 
it graiiuUtee. It is then smeared with fresh 
cocoauuL oil and heated in an iron pan (tatyu) 
until it allaiu a certain degree of hardness. 

brmaeh. In habii njid character this tree after which it is placed in the sun to dry- 


ittwim eoDfiderably from the true I'shote. Its 
prapHgatioQ by radii'al shoots, exactly iu 
Um MO* manner as the common culiivnie<l 
filaatain, i» peculiar, and is not observed in 
ike Ime palms, Ths lArtninnl jiilloreHcence 
aod ileatb of the tree after fruciifiealiou is 
■irr*hT* peculiarity. It is allied to Calamus 
by ita retim-ertely Imbricated fruit. 

Xkie species of the sago tree if! abundant in 
nOf pvta of iiumatia anil r1 Mnlouea, and 
(••Mployod in the preperailon of ssgu for 
food. rooBidemble qusulitictf are made at the 
Pe^ft; Islftode, lying off the wei^t coaRt of 
Sunatta, where in fact it forms the principal 
Cood ftf the inhabitants. The sago uf Siak 
ta remarkably fiue, and is alto, 1 believe, the 
indaca of this species. At the Moluccas 
th# apiooas sort is considered superior to 
thia. 11)6 Sumatra plantations coniains three 
lifo palms, one flpitioua both on the trunk 
md le*Taa "rumbia" (Sagua konigii) ; one 
•fBDOws era the leaves only, **eauka :" and 
IIm odm* without spines "biiniban," whtcb 
tf^Kan to be the femste sago in tlte Molucca!! 
and die aagna levi» of botanist*. Valeniyn 
«y» ibe meal of the female sago doe* not 
keep ao long as thai of the other species. 

Mnmmfacture tn Ambo^na. — The native 
■sde uf preparing sago, which comes entirely 

A third mode of preparation is the sago 
tetu-pala. The meat is aired until it become 
red, when it Is sifted, and stuflTed into an 
entire fresh bamboo, which ia placod in differ- 
ent rows above n fire until it bursts and the 
sago is roAsted. ^ogo thus prepared may be 
presefTod a loug tium if kept dry. 

The fourth mode is the " sago bnksona." 
The meal is mixed with grated santang kalapa, 
sagnr, and a little pepper and palt, enveloped 
in yoting uigo leaves, and boiled in water. 

To make the " stij^o bagca or kwee bagea,** 
the meal, after being dried in the air to redoeai, 
is sifted, mixed wiUi fresh kanari kernels and 
then baked iu young sago leaveif. '* Sago 
bamwa" are small sago cakes of different 
forms. The "sago sinnle" is the meal baked 
to a cake iu a poL The " oago uba" is the 
meal enveloped in fresh sago leaves and baked 
ou the fire. " Sago kalapa," like the leraping, 
is baked in motildi and mingled with nnch 
grated santang kalapa ; the outside is smeared 
with gula arcug, auil it ia eaten warm. Sago 
knUpn is even preferred by Europeans to 
bread at breakfant, and ranked as a dainty. 
" Papcda," *' sago bnbnr or pap" is preparod 
ID the same way as aiTowroot. 

Moluccat. — With the native of Moluccas, 
over and above extracting from it a wholesome 

witkin tUetr reach and nnderstaodiug, was andabuodant article offood,iK> part of the sago 

laagbt to lite Amboyneae by Rumphiua. Be- 
fore his time the Amboyneee like the natives 
si this day at various pUces on Ceram and 
Bon, arid also elsewhere as on the west coast 
df Somatn, uoed the Mgo mixed with the ela. 
Tie recollection of Buraphius amongst tbc 

IAaboyiHMet, was long continued, accompaoicd 
by a true rvcognittuu of the value of this most 
■eacBSvy niode of preparing an article of food 
ttfasch Datve has ao bountifully bestowed. 

tree is lost or suiTercd to remain unappropriat- 
ed. The branches, dried aod cut to lengths of 
6 to 1 U feel, and in the state called gaba gaba, 
soon guiu n fine bi'owo, shining colour ; the 
hard shell preserves the spongy interior from 
destruction when it is not exposed to rain and 
humidity. The houses are partly and some- 
times wholly made of gaba gnba ; the best 
are those of which the framework is of wood 
and the sides of gaba gabs. The branches 

S 51 





hftTiDg fl coonve sod a cDttrnx sitle %n 
futaned to etch other by smkll pin*, aDd 
mijie Ra good a wall as pbnki. Ituteail of a 
wall round tlie yard Ibij also asn the gB\>« 
gaba, which ]■ tnoile to reit od ■ low frame 
work or routitlatioQ of stone, und in protenled 
above, by a little atap copying. Tli« gsba 
gaba plneed oo a wooden framework giocr- 
ally buta from 10 (o 15 ycai-s. The IcaTos 
of tho tree, while itill grsMi, are mnde Into 
atnn, aud serve to corer dwolliiiga. When 
well laid on tbej lost aboul 7 yearn. Tlio liark 
of tbe treo furuishea k valuable fut*l The 
atalk of the leafetveii the well knnwa "Mpit 
lidi," like that of ibu coc(>armt aiiJ pomuli. 
The hard rind or bark uf ttie thicker or 
lower aide of tho bmiicli-stem ia made inln a 
kind of buoktft called fiuniiu, to which the 
aagawero liquor in c«llt^ted. Fitim the 
•xtr«mity of the branch, while it ia yot vcrj 
young and green, they prepaii' a kind of kadas 
which ii used for the sails of tmlire vesMls 
aud of orenibaai, aod aUo frvr mnking the 
thick and tnlddling saita called ayiti ayia. Tho 
root of tho tree which Umx been cut deWD 

Sroduc«a new alioots aud ia therefore uot 
ug oat. The Moloccas produce fire kinds of 
■ago treoa, viz., aagn-ihar, with all it« leavea 
dapeodiug and full of tfaonu ; a^u-luni with 
horizoatal leaves and leaa thorny ; taga-tnolat, 
flatitety direited of tborna : aagu-ninkaoaru, 
with leaves eomewhat bent down, aod PBgn> 
rotton, like the laat, bnt with a item mach 
bigfaor than the other kiodi. ForrMtniid hia 
crew, daring the voynge in the Tartar Galley 
tired much on ntgo, and bis eiperiencos as au 
actual Mgo-e«t<tr in tlie Mohtccan, enable him 
to apeak with knowledge aud discretion. Tbe 
foUowiug remark* by him will thenfore eom> 
plele t>K Dotieei of aago in Itie Moluecaa. One 
ITM will prodnee from two to four hutidied 
weight of dour. T hava often found krge 
pieces of the sago tree on the sea chore, 
drifts frvm other countries. Tbe sago tlius 
ateeped in tbn salt water, had always a pour 
dlaagrtcablp amoll ; and In tliia slate, I dare 
aay, the wild bogs would not taite it. Tho 
laaf of tho aa^o treo makea the beat covering 
for boaaea, of all tbe palm kind. Tfaoco 
trees of the palm kind, have all a heart like 
what is called the cabbage tree : otfd tbe 
head of tbA common rataii liaa a email eabbage, 
of which I have eat. The sago tree tliatch 
wUI lut aeven years. Coverings of the olpa 
leaf ur common atap, from the uipa frntJains, 
auch as tliey tiM on tbe south'Wnt court of 
Sumatra, will nut l&ti half th* time. When 
aago trras are cat down, fretb ones sprout op 
fron ibe root!, la Eump*, ««go fs aeldom or 
but In a grasula^ state. To 
bring it into ihia ilat« froia tfao flour, it mtist 

■ briDgi 

be drat moiftlenn!, and patie<>d throuf^b a •lirve 
Into a very shallow iron pot held over a fite^ 
which uiobles it to aeaumv u globular fblm. 

TliuA, grained sago is hall-bskcd, and will 
keep long. The pulp or powdvr, of wltich 
it in made, will aUo keep long, if preaei'ml 
from the air, but, if exposed, it prcMitlly torn* 

Tho Papua oven, for this Hour, i« maile nt 
carthenworr. It is generally nine infli 
square, and about four d<>np : it in divided 
into twn equal parti by a partiltAn tiamllel to 
its aides. Kach of thOMi parts i« •uKdivtded 
into eight or nine, about an iiicli hnmd : »a 
the whole contains two rows of cell*, aliou 
right or nine in a row. When the cell il 
liroBil, (ho sago i-nke tit not likely to be well 
bnk«d ; the best fixed evil is f>urh as would 
contain an ordinnry octavo volume upon ila 
edge. When they arc of such a sir*, (ha 
cakea will be properly Iwkecl, in the foUowing 
manner. Tbe oven itsnppoaed to have at ita 
bottom a round handle, by which dM baiter 
lurna the cells downward upon the 8re. Wb*a 
suflPlcienTljhealml, itia mrncd with the innuiJia 
of the cells up, and then re^t- u{K>n the Imndla 
(which is now become tbe bultnm) aa on a 
stand. When tbe oven is beating, tlie baker it 
suppood to have piepnred lii« fltmr, liy break- 
ing tlie liiinp^ small, moistening it with vraler, 
if too dry, aud puf^iug ttouee or twice tliro»gl| 
a p.ievr, at the same time rejecting any 
tbiit look black or nncll sour. Tbi* doD' 
fillf the cells witli the flour, kys a bit of e 
leaf over, and with hie finger prease* the floor 
down iuto tbe cell, then covers all up with 
leaves and puts a stone or piece of wood at' 
lop, to keep in tho beat. In about ten 
twelve minutec, this will be sufficiently hak 
a4-eortling to their thickness ; and bread tb 
baked, will keep, several years ; kept (i 
twelve uiouiha, Temln did not affect it. I 
mny cot be Hrataa to mix a liitle salt with 

Sago bread, fresh (tvm tho oven, eats jni 
like hot rollf. Forrest grew tctt fond of i 
as did both his ulDcers. If the baker hit bv 
timo tbe cakea will he nicely browned on eac: 
side. It the heat be too great, ihe romcm oi 
the cakes will melt into a jelly, which, w 
kept, becomes bard and homy ; and, if 
fresh provee tnsipid. When property baked, 
it is in a kind of middle slate, between raw 
aud jellied. A sago rake, when banl, reqaire* 
to be aoaked in water, before il be eaten, it 
then Mflniaaud awells into a curd, like bltteult 
soaked ; but if eat without soaking (unl 
fresh from the oven) it feelx diaagrveable, Itk 
•and In tlie month. Agrirultore is neglart* 
•d in a country, where the labour of fif a men, 
in felling aago tn»a, baating (ho floor, and 

S 5S 



lljT baking tlie lireail will mnintAin h . crnnmcnce)! ^uiinnllj nt ahoiit tli(> Age of Ci or 
l^d i my crew tnys KoircKt, would have \ 7 yenra ; after this p«>rioil, it pmrlually Itt«t?« 
pivfeiTvd rico ; ftnd vrhra mj Btnull tftock of j its Daoi!<((ire, and i» uo longer fit for ^ago wliea 
rin, wkicb I orrieJ fmm Balttmbwtgnn, was 
■iftr expentlLtl, I Iirtq licurd tlietit ffiumbtc. 
ant MT tDanti miiliaii roti Papua, "wt^mu^t 
■MO *mt Papun bread." But as I lonk nil 
«ppartooliii'> or liuklii^; it h'esli, txtiug nhnnflt 

oOBliamllT lu jwrl, ihe* wptd very wpII con- 

teotDiL Tbe espo brea<l inicudeil for imtno. 

jipa » vsc, iifvcl not >T kt'fit <)io long iu the 

area as what is it : r itfit u»c, in 

it Bay be «iii<i U : ' '' tiscuit. 1 hnre, 

he aayf, oltea reilertt^l )iow wull DHni[)iin*, 

Furnel, Roggvweiti, ami raanr otiic-r circum- 

Uie tre« ccrnien into Iwtirinp. Sago » ciilil- 
vnteil iti laigc pnk'hcs, tlivitlei) iulo lota Iho 
propci'iy of iudiridual", nnd as much ae one 
mnn, hi.4 wife nrul family <'hooec to look 
iifier : which is not bo irmcli u they could, if 
they would, nttnid. Ono mnn as ahovn rnu 
mnniifje 100 fnthomt f-qnare, iip/m thi5 hfi 
plnul!* 400 Mftlfi, ttiid Kiilisisis liimf'elf for iho 
6i-8t fi or 7 years on his monns, not niifre- 
qiiently Imrinj; the trees to lake care uf 
lhem»i>lvfi(. Miir<!<lcii fnyn, that Kaf^o ia Unt 
link* u^ed l.<y the SumntrtDB, and Crnwfanl 

M«ifatDr9 mif^ht hrnvts fartMj, when pAftHiif; pr(.'SUQi€i> ttint in thio, or tlio wetttern part of 

(fc^f m»j ia UiatifaR for provisioDii, had tlioy 
known wtiere to find the groves of sago trees, 
vith whlrh TDniit islaiids hem in low latitudes 
iboaud ; Morty, near fiilolorsppcially. fresh 
tnadraattr of sago flour, Ktid thekiina(a lanre 
ibaU l*b like a cockle) would hBvr> bct'n uu 
Udaapport ainoiig the Moluccas. Tlic kima 
li foawl in alittiilunee, of all aieei^ *>' '<>^ 
mUr, •-'' I'^i^'t* ttil«4, on the reefn of 

mlroc: .: experience, lequaUayabc, 

fctmh t<«kwi i^o bread to wheat bread ; 
■Itfaa kima stewed, ts aa good as moHt li'h 

Uie Arcbip^liit^o, the sago palm is an exotic. 
ItdooA not iMx.-m to eii.<!t in the native wild 
stale to the wmtward of Uomeo. The hcKt 
ftBgo prodiire<l fii the wcsteru islnnds of the 
Archipelago, is from tbeUtaotU of Appoiig 
and Piuiiang, which form the eaut hank of 
Brewer's Simira or properly Solat Faiijaug, 
and uexi in quality, is that from tliR rivei-a 
Mindhn, Kninmon, Goung Egal, Piaiidok, 
and Anak Strka, lying between thi; Kampiir 
ouJ Indragiri riven*, on Sumatra, or VhIo 
IVrcha, a? it is called by the Molaya. Of 

. oosCtra of it ; but it inuFt bo filowed least value is the produi^o uf the if^lands of 

WDMlme, or it will not be leiuUT. ita roe 
viU KMoatimes weigh aiit pounds ; the fish 
itUge<h«r, when cleared of the Bbell, weighing 
iTCBty or thirty poonds. 

7Ac Stiyn af Sumatra. — The Singapore 
Cbraaiclfl mentions that low inar>diy aitua- 
tkoa abut oal, bat at no great distance from 
tWaotf oad well waleral by fre&b water soeiu 
MM pc«daetive. The soil in such situations 
Id tka depth of several feet is geoerally a 
$aBtiA aovld, eompoeed chieily of decayed 
sH><alilj RutKi Bud extremely pervious to 
wvMr } balow iho above depth a etnilum of 
■Htaaforvntloo guneratly exists. Acrunling 
to Sir Sunford Raflle?. in Java this tree is 
ftiiBd eoly m a few luw BiDrsliy siluatioue, 
aU«f thnn l.^nng deep bog?, next to impoa- 
■Ub to one ntuuMiastoaied to euch walking, 
ml tb* preparation of eago from the uuturu 
of ifca Mtil iu the places wo have neDtioned is 
*cn aimiltar, euUiug down and burning the 
jasrk) is&ll ibc preparation rt'quin^d previona 
la pUaling the palm, at ahout 5 fatbomi 
afan* which Lt b€»t doue from tha aood, a 
aawU black not, ahoul the stzo of a pullet's 
s^. Phutatious hava been tried from the 
wwXtH, but the injury suetaincd by their 
noU ia ibe ieponttloo from the pflrent stem 
Im iavariably retarded their growth abovo a 
jmr. Froa tevea to ten years is tlie time tt 
takes for die trva to baar fruit, when planted 
fan tho Med IB tb« first isstaaoa ; the pith 

Buru, UngHh. and Kitndor, in theiitrail»or 
Dryon or Salat Duri. The sago palm ii found 
iu Mvoral other pianos in pmnll qoantities, but 
ia seldom cut down by the lazy poFseesors 
of it, to whom it probably do&cendcd through 
a k>ng line of equally sluggish aneestorF, 
from sonio lucb't of Zamao daolu, who Imd 
liettor notions when be planted it : each tree 
throws oQt from 10 to 20 suckors, which 
increase so rapidly that the owner is obliged 
to thin tbem cnnstiinily. A good tree yields 
from 40 to 50 tarapin, and the worst ever 
cut down about 25 j this is ou Appong. The 
tampiii of AppoDg is to that or Mati<lfa& as 4 
is to 5. It is a rough measure maiie of the 
leaToa of Uie sago tree of a conical form, 20 to 
30 inches long with a base of about 8 inches 
diameter, both ends of tliis are stufTod with 
tlie refute pith to prevent the escape of the 
farina, and tlie tampin of Appong holds on an 
average 19 pouuds avoinlupuia — thus 7 tam- 
pin very nearly equal a picol of I33J Iba. 
avoirdnpois. The aago of each place, difiers 
but a little in quality, lOO tampin of Appong 
may always be purchased on the »pot, cheap 
or dear at other places it matters not, for 
6-1-1 real orSp. Dra. 5-12, asa Sp. Dr. ora 
real is the same thing with them and both go 
alike for 244 doit or H2 cents of a Sp. Dr. 
of Singapore. If the person in qticst of sago 
lake doita, they must be of (be small kinrl, 
but thick. At ManUba, on iba Mme principle 





lite Mine uumbcr of timpins may be hid 
Tor Sp. I>r9. y-ai. Now tUr AppoiiR mea- 
sure vi<?Ma 14 picnic, 39 ciiUirs ; kikI Uie 
Mauiliia 17 pttiuU ti6 cattle* i I'cing a Oifler- 

oe kgaintit Appmig of Sp. Di-«. 2*61, and olt 
)ecaute ther saj it liu been the Rdat or 
i^toin bi Mil ilku. 

Ons porK>n is 6uffici«Dt lo cknr llic under- 
wnthl «w«y u it grow* up in everjr lot of 
1(10 fHtliomn squAre. The ^vbole rAiiiil;r are 
bovrcrvr M\y ocruptrd wlmi tlit-}* cut duwu 
the tffos for nianilfbclure wliiuli is always 
Uftnp Dti (he »HM»l wlirriMlie liet- is felled. They 
prepttro Utc titinil>cr of Umpin or meiuturcs 
required for llie rercpMou of iJie siago in the itisturiix', utiil put. tht'tn out in Jty ; tliey 
tlieti fell ihu tree, and f-\i\u it in hslres hy 
mcaiifl uf wed|;eii, build n {•'ni|Kti'ary liau»e 
oTur it and dig out Uim ptth wiUi liom inatle 
fiooi tlie liud of the tiwe- TL*-/ thoo carry 
tbn pith up iutu Iho houw ; lht< flixir of which 
ix lattic*<yd ao cloiw as jast to allow the flucr 
p«rta of the lucdulla Iu|w4 throiifih i>u heiog 
welted with walpr and inHldrii hy the feet, 
loto this hou90 the prmluce or two or three 
trees i« brought at a time, uud all the fiuof 
part* nri' carried doirn by llie waltT iutu ihe 
ttuiiksof ihv l^ce^ though 3 r>r 4 feet in 
diameter, which nri* cliitiiiy hollon-iid out oud 
l«rt below to receive it. In nrdt-r tliat no 
WMtage may Uko pluoe, ihey Irad ii mat, made 
alsooftbeleHTeKoftiie pilui, rroiit the door uf 
the work-«hopi!owQ ii.toihe»holl?>ofiho trcci", 
and this caiiree the water without »|iilling aiiy. 
Tbey ti'imple it until the wat^-r {latwcs Ihrou^'h 
clear of the farina, aod then throw away the 
refuic, merely keeping ftufflcieot to fluff ifae 
eudii of the tampiu. By the next day, the 
medulla liaA nettJed in Uie trunks of the tnee, 
leaving tfae water at the top } this it drawn 
off and the sago Soar thrown In its wet state 
into the umpiu already prepared, and left to 
sttvio itself : some rvruse jtitb u thea put on 
and the work is done. The stieli of llie tree 
is cut np for firewood or in slips and thrown 
ioto the marsli, to faoilitute its carriage down 
to the boaia waiting for iL This is always 
iho leilera duty. Sago ooee made is obliged 
lo bo kept wet or it would spoU iu a few 
days i again, kept couHtanUy wet the tampia 
iMTet sooo rat ; cnltiTsiora cannot Uierefon 
keep a stock ready, hot at great rink. Tb^ 
bavs a nalbod of fVyiDg tbo meal overtbi 
Dr« called tbere sago randang, which mIIb for 
a real or 82 eeaUof ■ Sp. Dollar, for 16 of 
Iheir gaoloog are equal to 20 of Singaporaor 
one picut. Tliits howpTcr, will not keep loog : 
as damp throwjt it all into a glutinous mass 
and in a short tinio spoil* iU At Appong the 
saga is made by Urang Utan or people of tlis 

woodv, who icpcak a jargon of Malay, are i 
mabometlans, and eat the hogK,dpei, &c^ will 
which their island aliouuilit. The inaiitti 
Malays who viiiit them for lago, are ohlij^ 
to be always uport their guard, and not ai 
frequently wait two mnutlis foi- a cargo of 
few hundred tampiu ; if tbey take uiooey 
pitiT-hsfle ihey get it much quicker, but 
' quire flddiiional raiilton in making advami 
Must of the«e people are depeodauta of Sii 
Bud Campar, tlte chiefs of the former pli 
I pnic:ti«iug a ey^rem of exiortioD and rapii 
eutfu^li to inducuauy other ela» of people! 
Arrnntotneil to it to desert the ploce : 
manage iotD»k(> tlioir oecape. The cultii 
iu tlie other iilares ara Mahiys nod 
superior, though their eapoiu are sevi 
lee«, aud traflicidf; with them is uol «u daugerwl 
oun or uiirei'lain. Apjioiig has 350 souls ei 
ployed and could produce 3,000 piculs. Tl 
Would atford under all thu diwdvaulngea 
wbicli they sell it Sp. Dollars 1,034 iteranuut 
a sum quite adequate to the demauds furl 
foreign luxurios of people who du not eat rior^j 
and live Hfion the prmlure of tlieir woods. 

Siak, — The |ieopIe of Siok wcie tlui cfaii 
iinputtcrs of sngo into KlalBCca, wbcac« 
neouUy it got ibe nnme of Siak sago, deaerfl 
ed as tliD best by Crawfurd : Siak itself 
ports no Bigo. 

Malays all agree that the cuIlivaUoii of aagO^ 
is the nio»t profitable of agricultural parsoill.] 
not yielding even to llie cultivation of cice hy 1 
Sawa^, for once iii bearing the trees are, adt 
infinitum, equally profitable and require litti* 
or DO labour. It baa been calculated tluu 
the profile of au English acre when the tree* 
were once fit to cut would amouut od a low' 
eaiimald lo 60 pounds sterling per annum 
after paying all expenses. The marittme 
Malays, who are almost the sole importers ot \ 
sago, are enabled generally to realixe from 801 
to \'20 per cent, uit their cargoes : they art 
seldom ten days at »ea, and not withstanding ' 
the oeeaaionat deteotious and anuoyanoes tbejr i 
experience in carrying on this traffic, mmtf ' 
with few exceptions, be well recompenaod,! 
Allowing an absence of two months, id • i 
boat of two royan, and five men, bringing 
back four hundred tampin, they have a clear 
gain on their return cargo of 1 T to 26 doUai* i 
according to tlio state of the market, giviog 
each peraOD a profit as wages, when' two U 
in demand, of two and a half Spanish Duijam 
per month, and potting aside 50 ecnta f«r 
wear and tear of the boat, a tnm quite adequaM 
for this purpoea independent of tha pMfflr>j 
eaca wbieh people bred up to a aca-lartMl 
life generally give to it over all other 
of more proAtable aubatstcnce, and 
aside the chance of a gain which tbej liava oq 



11m ni«le inhabiunta of Appon^r, by ralcula- 
(Mo oT their wagoa of labuur iind profila of 
■took, on • rt!)luc«d sc&lc roinpHtod wilb tbeir 
■oro ctviliieil laJ wvallliiei- ueigliboui-M, ihe 
Malnjn of Mniuthit nml other plticen, liave 
eootcnie*! Uwoiselres with ao uteratte rate 
■boat SO par cent, less, HVtJfudy itri^mg from 
Um^ poverty nud bnrtaroDd comliiion. 

Pearl SoffO.—TUe ^j-enter uuiuber of lliti 
Stt)gk|iore iDHnnrnrlunL'e aro pbict>d au lliu 
Alt groand between tlie bnsiit of PeorU mid Go 

i2 incliea deep, 40 iudien in 
dinmeter at tlie top and 6 incliea moiii at (lie 
bottum i tliey are bound by thre« linops, pa^li 
formed of about sis tbick iitiaoa twitted 
togetlter. A piece of tliiu vmttts cloth is 
fastened by its four cornel's over each tub 
when used, aod haags loosely into iL The 
moist sago l>elng poured iutn tbta strainer, nnd 
Uiere biokeii aud bruised by the hntxh, \s 
agitated uutil all its fine particles pass Uirutigii 
the cloth luiU dtwcend to the bottom of the 
tub, while the fragments of lenf, fibre aud 

Long's bills Olid IIk; uiuditig and brKllchin^ other itnpurities which remain iii the cloth, 


crsoks and mniils of the Singapore rivor, ■ 
litaatiMi admirably adapted for them, for the 
craoks briD); the siioo iitmts up to tiium in 
fraatuid ibu hill supplioii them from bchiud 
widk so abundance of pure water. To p('0> 
cur* a sanataul supply, wttlU arc diig on llie 
i'tirer elope of the hill, and iJie wat«r is lud 
turn tha mauuractorius by a sucuttssiuu of 
«oo<leo trr>oshH havini; their boctoms lined 
with elay aud wbicb are uupportrd by crotss 
ttxks fastened at the place of ooiilat't by 

are shaken into a round ma»8, which is taken 
up in A bowl and thrown snide. Tlic rapidity 
and duftuces with which this and all UlGOlber 
manipulaiions arc performed are vvry ^Iriking^. 
The s^o is uvxt stirred about with an oar for 
aliout au hour, aft«r which it is left to stand 
for about li hours, when the water ui ladled 
out, and the sago, which fills about half the 
tub, is removed to undergo the last puiifying 
process which prevedc(< Ibc giauulalinn. This 
is pcrforniL-il iu a mmle at onoe simple and 

ntaui. Tbo eaiienliaj filatures of every I ingenious, llio same principle being availed of 

aanttlAetory arr, ibe lauding; place where thu 
■go is taken from thn boats to a rnde shed, 
lAere it is removed from the sago leaves iu 
{vktch it is ettvelupcd, a sfwond slicd where it i 
I ti purified, anil ibe large bouse where it i^ . 
CtruMd into pearl Mgo. BevideM the tables, I 
brawcee* and Imta it<<iuire«l for the iwgo, tin- ' 
ktlcr coutaine die U'dj, stools and diuiog ' 
Uleaof the woi kmf!U, aitd ucL-a.«ioiially heaps 
•f boXM. Hitherto it ha4 t>eeti an alup shed 
naigbly put together and ofluu only partially 
rtoaad at the -iideis. Hut some of tlui niuvc 

■'- Niilaoturoj are now rnisiog aub- 

•r* o( brick and tile, and it istobe 

which serves tJtu gold and tin minci-s of the 
Arcliipi'lago to clean the ore; the moro 
preciona iiiuttur linfi]iciiii)g, in ult three cuHes, 
to Iw heavier tiiuu that wiih which ir is 
mixed ; ami being thus readily scpaiable by 
(he acliuu of running water. 

T»vo mbs are [ibicfil «r n dislaocc of ten or 
twelve Iccc from each otiiei; and conuvclfd by 
two tvoiighft raised by n framework altovti 
litem. Those trougbrt aro about 10 inches 
deep, 14 inches trwid at the top and II atlhc 
huLtuni, uue cud being cloficil, nnd tlie other 
ofien, but having grooves in its siUci* aod 
bottom^ like tliuHO of a sluice, into which a 

II.1 wtii aiM> iritrikducR into ihcir e»tJtUli!>h- ' scries of lioriEoiilal pieces of wood Or slicks 

mmttt a little atteoliou to ulcanliuess aud 
esmfon. At prest-nt the msM ofdocumpuK- 
mg ve^tabbi maitor which surrounds the 
Aris |iri>Jiices a ►nur llt^a^^eeKble Nraell. 
Tl»« 'nr" b'stvM and reru>te arcumulatiug iit 


fit, each being about ^ths of an iucli iu thlek- 
nen«. The end of a piece of cloth of ihn 
brfiuUh (d' the trough being placed over the 
[inwvca at tlie bottom, the »fhorte^t of (he 
sliekit i» prcs!H>d down upon it, and the cloth, 
:i>e lant 30 year.-, bavti there i thin* ftut^ucd, is made lo haug down over the 
bedit, Hprnigv at the top and •■dgcs of llie trough into iho tub below it. The 

tub at the other end now receivefl ihe fiago lo 
about two-ihirds of its depth, wlieii it in tilled 
up nearly Iu tliu top with water. A man now 
stirs up n portion of the 9sgo with au osr till 
tha water oblaius a milky appeAram^-, when 
he proecetls t» pour it into the irougbx. To 
prevent its fuUiag abruptly, an ioctincd piece 
of wood, eight inches broad, is fixed across 
the trough, so »s lo lesvc only a narrow slit 
between it and the end of the trough. The 
water iti jiotired on thin, descends into the 
trough, nnd slowly flowing to the olhcr end 
h it would K main impure au>! , depositn u ftorliou of t)ie sago iu it!) progre»!i. 
Kor thi* pMrpose strong tuba arc ' The !tur.peuded cloth, becoming tatoraied. 

IMH4 t>«iow fix or reven ftM>l in thickne-'**. 

The um pi us h'tvln^ been pUced iu hcupx 
'in the nhrd, tiie 6r<<t HtBp i<!i Iu open tlitfm, 
r-fe.i ■>>'• crtntcnia uu a plitnk frame alxint 12 
^r«, surruanded by a rim rising aimut 
. i»..u- > from the surface The 5Ago, masHod 
logeiher by having rcunnlued compressed in 
tha tampia. is here broken up by the eomtnon 
ckaokal, a kind of hoe. 
The i> 

6* th^l: 

: living hoeu thus mhde ready 
(V, ibe flrei process to which 
13 that of a fhoi'ongii washing, 



serves at ooce to maiDtaia and equalize the 
overflow of the ivater iato the tub below it. 
When the water is poured in, the firet waves 
advaoce rapidly and cany away much of the 
sago, but those tbatsuccued deposit the greater 
part of their more solid conteuts, traosportiog 
into the tub only the lighter fibrous particles 
which it is the object of this operation to 
separate from the farina, and by the time the 
man baa performed a similai' service at the 
other trough, and is ready to pour a fresh 
supply into the first, tlie water flowing down 
the cloth has lost its whiteness. This process 
is continued until the deposit rises nearly to 
the level of the stick, when the sago next to 
it, which generally contains some impure 
sediment, is taken up with the fingers and 
thrown into the tub. The second stick is now 
fixed above the first, a fold of the cloth beinu; 
interposed between them to prevent any 
liquid sago escaping through the eearo, and 
the operation goes on as before. When the 
milk in the upper tub begins to grow shallow, 
it is again filled up with water and more sago 
stirred up and mixed with it. During the 
interval and at otlier more prolonged inter- 
ruptions the water in the troughs has some- 
times time to deposit all its couteuts, the last 
being a fine fibrous matter which, if not 
removed, would leave a thin yellow layer. 
The surface is washed with the hand until 
tliid Uycr is effaced and held in suspensiou. 
When the troughs have been gradually filled 
up in the manner described, by succession of 
deposits, and the wull built up to the top by 
the last stick, the sago is left to consolidate 
for 12 or 14 hours. The farina which passes 
out of the troughs in the current in afterwards 
thrown into one of tlie tubs whose contents 
are to bo wasiied and deposited in their turn, 
and some of it may even be destined to panR 
througli the process many times Kefore it 
sinks iu the trough. In order to give it (he 
degree of dryness required, it is removed 
from the ti*oughs aud exposed for one day to 
the Hun in lumps about a cubic foot in size, 
which are placed on tables stnndiug in the 
open air. Larr^c kajaiig, which are mate 
made of the leaf of tim uiang-kwuiig, are 
kept in readiness to cover it when a shower 
of rain falls. It is next carried to the 
large shed where it i:i thrown in a heap 
on a long table and broken down into n pul- 
verulent state. It then passes through an 
oblong sieve, 30 inches by 20 inche% of which 
the bottom is funned of parallel fibres from 
the stem of the cocoanut leaf, kept in their 
positions by strings whicli cruKn them at 
distances of about 2 inches. The lumps 
which do not pass through the long interstices 
between the fibres are thruwu back iiitn the 



heap. The granQlatioD or peariing now takes 
place. The sifted sago is phu^ in ■ doUi 
of which the ends are tied to a long stick and 
which is kept expanded in a bag ^ape by a 
short cross stick. A horizontal vibratory 
motion is given to this, ^e whole' masa beiag 
kept in constant agitation, and every part 
successively driven along the aides of the 
bag. Some experience is required in dry- 
ing the sago to the proper degree prepara* 
tory to granulation. If under-dried or over- 
dried it will not gi-anulate. This laata for 
about a minute, when the new granular ti^ 
is again passed through a sieve similar to the 
preceding one, but the smaller graina which 
pass through are those which are now rqeet- 
ed. Those that remain are transferred to a 
circular sieve, of which the bottom is formed 
of fine stripes of buuboo crossing each other. 
The grains that pass through the square holes 
I thus produced form the peart sago of com- 
merce in the unroasted state. Those that 
are larger tbao the holes are thrown hack 
into the heap to run through the aame course 
again. To assist the men, the oblong sievct 
and granulating bag aresc»netimM suspended 
by rattans from the rafters of the shed. 

Tlte roasting takes place in a row of iroo 
pans, each al>out 2^ feet in diameter, which 
are built into a platform of masonty about 
15 feet long and 4 feet in breadth, covered 
with fiat tiles. The pans rest in an inclined 
position partly against Llie back of the platform 
which rises about a foot above its levej,and 
j partly on a small prop of brickwork on the 
' right side, an offshoot from the wall. Into 
I the top of lliis prop a plate is suuk in which 
j a cloth saturated with wood oil or Miniak- 
I krueng, is kept. Ueliiud each pan is an open 
furnace mouth, and a mau constantly at- 
I tends to the fires, keeping them supplied 
. wiili a few billets of bakau wood, and re- 
gulating them with a long two-pronged 
iron fork so as to maintain a modeimta 
heat. The [lau being gently rubbed with the 
cloth a man who sits in front of it on a low 
stool placed on the platform pours into it a 
quantity of granular sago. This he slowly 
stirs for a short time with a wooden imple- 
ment called ** wvhIi" having a sharp curved 
edge. Mure siigo Is poured In until it 
amounts to about two chupa, when aa it 
hardens he uses the weali more freqly. 
I After about three minutes' roasting, it is re- 
moved to a table and passed through a roand 
sieve similar to that before described. Tba 
grains that adhere to each other are tbrowD 
aside, and those that pas^ through form ft 
j smoking heap which is allowed to lie uudie- 
' turbed for about 12 hours. The graina ire 
about ihu same bixe u:t ihoy were before rout- 

s 5i: 



tl aDine rouiiu whotl; or [Mirtiullj tlicir 

Attd meiil/ npi>uruice, but tins ^Tenter 

prt bare becocno tiaosluccnt and glutiiiaUH, 

um] bU hnre kvquired a certain tlej^rcc of 

tot^hne^K, alLboiigU ettill a«rt. Tliift chat:gu 

to*p1>can to be Wougfat about id tbii4 wuj. 

BThe wat«r coolaiuoil iu the grauuIcK being 

HliMtcfl fint converts ilia incniv stnrcti into a 

Bjelly wad then eacapcsby eva)>oi^tion, leaving 

! thojelW tough. The seooml tiimifiiction drives 

ml tha reinaioder of tbo n'atcr. Tbe tiaul 

praceivia annthor riii»(ini;, which retulfi's tbL-m 

liBnlaad tough, and grcatl^r reduce tht^ir ^W-e. 

Th« pearl sago thux prepared and Gt for ex- 

portatwo, if jioiawny in large. open hin^ ready 

to be lra[i<trerred to boxes or ba<;ft whrn fold. 

_^ Tbia melhud of making pearl sago appeara 

■ lobave ander^oDC no ttnprovcmvut or vhuu^c 
H W^iatervr tinea il nos tnlruduL-Ltl lUU) Siiiga* 

■ |Mre m 1MI9. It wns tjiu|;ht to the first 
Cbituiec who tried it here, bj u wuinuu wiio 
cuae ^m Hiiiiil Batu, a plmT on the r< of 
Siak factiig the lar^u i«|f>Tt>J of Itciicoliti, aud 
faniouK for itfl great ti^hi^ry nf tJie tnilm, tlin 
roeoTnbicli is bo extfii>tivctj used. In Malac- 

liowcrtr, maiiuriictorics had existed for 

ly years Iwlore thep'(tfll)li>liiiieiit nf Singa- 

It ia crrlatu liowwcr tliat Mtilacca 

the. art from Diikit Ilatu, where it 

_ about the beginning of llio 19tlic«i- 

tury. Ic WAS loiif; kept secret, but iu Singaiiore 
it appean almont from the tir^ii (o have been 
tuojucitiU without auyat tempi at coiicoaimeut. 

From 2(1 lo 3(t meu are ernployud in the 
lirgvr manufactorieAr but if tlicir lahoars 
werv LOttSued to tiiu making of [learl eugo, 
16 tneb would suffu-o for a inniiul'nRlory ^iich 
u ila9criL>cU aborv, and tlii-y would pro- 
dace nhoiil -(.SO piculH pi<r motilli. Thvir 
wt;: ■■rito rojisteri and the mnn !i( 

iIk: . t ilol1ai>, and for the utli^r nieu 

2^ In A lixllitrri a iitonUi, nud they mreive 
tb-eir food beiiid**^. TIiu oHr;inal outlay ia 
|c«bahly from HOD (n 4(M)dnlUr3. T)i<- \>r«th 
«f course varif-i greatly ; and tlu* liir»iru'*s 
awnot br ko certaiuly lui imive as hus been 
wm*-'-'"'™ ^'"■'""■"'il, -■■inei.' ibi'h? Jiare l>ecn in- 
iku -- Tbt'ic wrre,nbouliheyt'iir 

l^ti, -:rir I .Miiesninannfm'loi'ieK in Sing/i- 

p«ib and two had rcc4*i)lly been cOTunK'iii-od 
by Raro{*raiie, nh'cr> |)owor to eoni|K-tt' mid- 
ccMfully wi<h < Itiixne, WHt doul-trd. tinleA; 
tlay rwn ifitr«dino a tnori- per'wt wa^liing 
teij gtannUlif <r proiMrafk, that mbijiretl at pri;- 
Mut tT'i III ting no iniidb Inlmui', nu<l la-iiig 
•ueiMJed tviih ao niiieb wante, that iiid(^« the 
full inirk be got from ibi* fhinost.' emplnvfj, 
tlwrt wilt bn liillo niatn for prnllt. The 
flhiiww tiMlbnl of piwcnliiit; iJt lorn of 
hbooT wbicji tbuy esrry ImIo niuft of tlieir 
itidonikiiHt* iff broii::hl iuM the wgn p<Hii>emH 

n7 5 

also. One of the principal iihambutders lives in 
tbe maoufactory, and the best workmen have 
small t^bartts in tlie promts be»ide» Ihelr wagoa. 
The Trade in Stigo. — A largo |)oni&ti of 
tbo sago itnpDvii-d into Sin(;apoi«t» the pro- 
duce of tJio marshes of 8iak nnd Indragiri, 
the low island of Rnntsii cutitnintng the 
most exteiD'ivc plantationa. It in punilia.«ed 
in Siak from tlie Malays and Oi-nn;; Sakai 
by Malays, cbielly uf Siak aed Siiiga|(orPt 
who resort llicrc iu Bmall boat» for tbo 
pui'iKise. Iu their liand» it^ cost is ener- 
mouKly enhanced, the Snksi ftelUng it to 
them at about [Orent.« per picul, and they 
selliug it to the Singajioro mnnurnciurera 
at from 70 cents to one dullar pir picul, Tbe 
plaritAliona liirlotig lo Mnliiyit who euiph)y (be 
Sakai as serfs in pinnliug Uiciii utid prepar- 
ing the Bago, allowing them oue-lmlf nf tlia 
produce. On thU and wild unimala they 
siilfsiiit, nud the sago wbkdt llify do not re- 
quire they ilispwte nf to HalnyH in barter 
for cloth, tobacco, &c. Tho Malays admit 
that by this uiode of dealing tbo cagn does 
not cost ilicra inuch tnorc than 10 cents per 
picul. This entirely agrees wilb the system 
adopred in titeir dealings with the Bioun 
of Jobore— (Jour. lud. Arch., Vol. i.) Tha 
Mnlays at tbo Siuk i.slandf, nud at the sago 
plftuiatioii^ between Kampar and Indrngtri 
where they havo no serfs, sell ibe sago on tbe 
spot at about 20 cents per pirul. The price 
obtained by the latter for pcail $ago was at 
liret ti dollars jier pieul. The Singapore 
manufaeturers having succeeded in improving 
ila quiilily by a iiioro ran>fiil inauul'actiire, 
and the demand inercB:*irg for esport to 
Kuro)>e>, the prieu roM.> in 1S24 to 7 dollars. 
Thin cnii-'^d tlic rstnhli^hmcnt nf srvenil new 
mnnufactories toward* ihc end of that year 
which at oure bmughl it down lo 3^ lo dit 
lioMarH. Ill |y2.5 the 'upply e\coedcd the 
demaint nud twoof ihepriuripid uiiinufnelorier, 
niieof wliicb hml employed .5.1 men, wcrcabpij- 
dnued, and llie priee fell lu •! lo 5 dollars. Jn 

I H26 it descended to ^ dollarR to 4 dDllarst 
and by 1851 it wa<> 2} to 2^ do}b>r». To I83S 
it wns iM> low as dollar I j to 1^, After itiis 
it rose again. In I84>j itwaRaboutS dollara. 

II U now altput 2 dolInr« Go cciitH., nud has for 
M^veral yeni'n rematlied between 2 and 5 d(»llar>. 
Thu inipnrtalioud during ihe em lier years of 
ihe ^otllement were aa fullows ; — 

IHIW— 22bwii.-, qunii- 
lily not iiBt:eituiiied. 

1820— .'i.f:H4 pieuls. 

1821 — lO.WH. 

IH22— ll,44.r 

1HS3 — no iniporlB. ! 
The following table.-. 

IK24— ll.GfiD, 


IH-ir,.2:— 17,7fi( 
I8l'7-2H— ttj.203J 
l.'<2S-2I>— I.^.HIft." 
fuiiii^bud by tUo 



nonoin|p|(> the Ke^ldcni CVitUeillur, will bhtivr 




the state of the traJc for the last 6ve years 
as far as the records of the Olflce of Registry 
of exports aud imports can be relied on, 
haviDg been carefully prepared by Deputy 
Registrar, Mr. Ilolloway. The average of 
the exports for that period is about 16,000 
picula of sago flour and 24,000 picula of 
pearl sago, or a total uniiuul export of 40,000 
piculs, of tlie value on the spot, at present 
prices, of 100,000 dollars :— 

Imports during the yeui" 1847-48. 












Neigh bourinR 














HAW 3A(;0. 










■Ia*«, K. 11. L. and Komhavra.. 



TEADL SA<.;i>. 


' I ExpoiUj for 1842-43— 184G-47:— 

I Exports during the year 1847 — 18. 


Slalaecaanil Pluauir.. 

Naw South Wali-3 

Unllcl KincJuni 

HaUtwr Co»«t 



Java, K. U. L. and Soiiibawa. 


Other l4lau(li and place*. 


Xurib America 


CoromaDtlel Coaat 

Cai>cur(iuo<) Hope 

llrL-mrn iiiUuiiiig Hamburgh. 


(^hln -Chi na 



Uklajan Ffuiuiuln.... 





3, "OS 47 








36 1< 



IniporLs tliiriiig the years 1842-3 — 1840-7. 

Il9l3 13 


l"ll 15 

HIS <« 

■ Mb 4T 



- , . 


. . _ _ 

RAW .1A00 


























From NelKh- 




iG.iv'.- iii.;3i 





] t^).3xli 

T1D,!>Oo' iPil.lUfl' .. 





I'la.Siiij, laxoinj . . 




.. t, 


K. C.IVnhi 


I. lift 

^.iOO: ., 
















r.lC7-.';ill9J,S07i 1,300 














<;re«t Uritain 
Foreicn Ku- 
















8,985 e» 



















(.real llrltaln 
Fureifa Ku- 

Uniuti sum 










































30, 133- 11 


















New South 
WalM . . . . 

Cape of Uood 






To Borneo. — 





Sagn IS nut ait article which cau ever dis- 
place the cl'I'chI.'', or which should be any- 
where Nub.ilitntf!d for them, but it ought to 
be produced in an exportable State at such 
u price us to be within reach of the poorer 
clu<4!scs, whenever n diminution in tlionupplies 
uf rice or corn dcprive.i them of n sufficient 
quantity uf their ordiiiary food. Tliis couhl 
(jiisily bo accoinplisliefi by Kuropeans po»- 
sc»Nod of II little mochniiioHt skill, who would 
combine manufactories and ptaulationts aud 
tlius save llie present enormous waste of 
liilioiir aii(l niw malerial, 25 cents per pieul 


sHms to be about the natural price of ^ago 
floor properly prepared at the plantation for 
exportation, anil this is nearly equivalent to 
10 pounds for a penny. The poor Sukai get 
only about a half penny for that quantity. 

Singapore itself is well adapted for sago. 
There are considerable traets of marshy land 
It present lying wast^, inallofwhinh sago 
would grow well, for it is in the very same 
kind of soil that it flourishes in theueighbour- 
)[ig islands along the Sumatra coast. Arrow 
ind other roots yielding starch are now 
cultivated with profit, and as one manufactory 
will serve for the preparation of all the 
varieties of farina, it would be found advan- 
ti^eous to unite the culture of these roots 
with that of sago. As all the marsh valleys in 
the island are hounded by tow hill range?, 
tracts of land adapted for the purpose could 
readily be selected. 

Forrest states the average produce of a 
Molucca tree to be 336 poundSf but Rumphius 
makes it from 600 to 800 pounds, and accord- 
ing to the writer in the ' Singapore Chro- 
nicle,' who seems to have paid great attention 
to the subject, good Sumatra trees jield from 
7W) to 950 pounds, and the very worst 475. 
Perhaps therefore 700 pounds may be assumed 
as an average for the Sumatra trees, which at 
10 feet apart (the distance stated by Forrest 
and followed by Crawfurd) would give about 
300,000 pounds for the harvest from one acre, 
sni], allowing that the harvests are 15 years 
spart, and not seven as Forrsst assumes, this 
will give an annual average produce of about 
20,000 pounds. We believe however that 5 
or 6 f(^t is about the average distance of the 
large stems in the Sumatra forests. When a 
plantation has once arrived at maturity there 
will he a constant harvest, because the 
natural mode of growth secures a continual 
saccessioR of new plants from the time those 
first planted have begun to extend their roots, 
and this succession can be regulated by the 
kuife in any way the planter desires. The 
sago tree when cut down and the top severed 
from it, is a cylinder abdut 20 inches in 
diameter and J 5 to 20 feet in height. If we 
assume 20 inahea by 15 feet to be an average 
fize, the contents will be nearly 26 bushels, 
and allowing one-half for woody fibre there 
will remain 1 3 bushels of starch, which agrees 
very closely with our previous ciilculation, 
TOO pounds being equivalent to I ^bushels. 
It may give some idea of the enormous rate 
of this produce, if it be considered that three 
trees yield more nutritive matter than an 
acre of wheat, and six trees more than an 
icre of potatoes. An acre of sago, if cut 
Jown at one harvest, will yield 5,220 busheU 
QT as much as 163 acres of wheat, so that, 



according as we allow 7 or 15 years fur the 
growth of a tree, an acre of sago is equal in 
annual produce to 23 or 10 acres of wheat. — 
Jour, of the Indian Archipelago, Vols, i ; iii. 
No. V, May \M9,pp. 288 to 313 ; Bennetet 
Ceylon ; Low's Sarawak, p. 39 ; Forreit's 
Voyage to New Guinea, p. 42 j Crawfurd, 
His. Ind. Archipelago, Vol. i, pp. 386, 393 ; 
Hogendorp, Coup d' (Eil sur Java ; Dam- 
pier, Voyages, Vol. i, pp. 310, 311 ; Rum- 
phius, Nat. Hist. Amboinensis, Vol. i, p. 
80. ; St. John's Indian Archipelago, Vol. i, 
pp. 129-30 ; Wallace, Archipelago, Vol. ii, 
p. 66 ; Roxburgh, Flor, Indiea, Vol. ; 

Voigt, llortus Siiburbanus Calcutlensis ; 
Poole's Statistics of Commerce ; Seeman on 
Palms ; Madras /exhibition of 1S55 ; Juries 
Reports ; Report of the Madras Central 
Committee for the Exhibition of ISSi ; Dr. 
Pringle ; Gri^th, Palms ; Dr. Mason, Te- 
nasserim ; Morrison, Compendious Descrip- 
tion ; Crawfard's Dictionary of the Archi- 
pelago, p. 372 ; Dr. fV. Jack, Malayan Mis- 
cellanies published at Bencoolen ; Valentyn, 
Ouden N. O. J. ; M. de Steur's Tijdschrift. 
Neei- L., Ind. Sih year, Srd part, p. 367 ; 
Sinr/apore Chrojiicle ; Malayan Miscellanies, 
See Cocoa-nut Falm, Food, Sago, Sogus 
lie vis. 

SAGOWANI, Hind. Da^mia extensa ? 
R. Brown. 

SACK A. To one of the families which 
bring up the rear of the Coleoptera, belongs 
Sagra purpurea, Ibiind on Euphorbia anti- 
quorum ; S. lugubris in Ceylon, is foond on 
the castor oil plant, and is also one of the 
Coleoptera of Hong Kong. 

SAGRI, nn Affghan tribe in tho country 
between the plains of Peshawar and the Salt 
Range nt Knia Ragh, The Sagri Patan 
tribe dwell below the Khuttuk. The tribe 
continued entirely independent of the Sikhs. 
They hold the country on the west bank of 
the river for nearly 30 miles above Kala 
Bagli, and also possess it on the opposite 
bank as high as the plain commencing at 
Ilussan Abdal. They are shepherds, and 
have numerous flocks. The number of the 
Khuttuk tribe is viiriously stated at 6,000 
and 8,000 itnned men. — Burncs' Kabul, p. 
105 ; Papers, East India, Cabul and 
Affghanistan, 1859, p. 21. 

SAGU, Mai.., also Sagu-Chawal, Hind., 
also S«gu-dana, Hind. Sago. 

SAGUERUS, pce Gomuto, Sagus. 

SAGUEIR, palm-wine of the Areuga sac- 
charifcra. It is m intoxicating as ordinary 
beer, or cider, 

SAGUERUS RUMFIIII, Roxb., syn. of 
I Arenfra saocharifcra, Labill. 
I SAGUL, Maeik. Horse raddisU tree. 
S 59 


llypoimitlieia uioriugH. Sagiil-kt'-jhar-ki- , 
jar. Its root 

SAGUN, HiJin. Tectoud Ri-anJia. 

Sagus UumpLii, IVtltde. I Metroxylon aagus, ifomj. 
S. npinodUB, Jloxii. | 

This PftK" P»l°» '" * Dative of tho peniu- 
Bula of Malacca au<l of tho Eastern Ar- 
chipelago. Ilri uiUi is ramie into sago flour, 
which is the etaff of life of tho people of tho 
Moluccas. The seeds are geneinlly ahortive 
and it [ti-opngafcs itself hy suckers from the 
rootd of the old trees. Ilartwig says that it 
forma large foreslB, grows at first slowly niid 
is covoi-cd with thorns, but posoon as its stern 
is formed, it shoots speedily to its full height 
of tcD yards, with a girth of five or six feet. 
The tree is felled befoi-o the fniit hegins to 
foFDi as otherwise the fartua would ho ex- 
hausted. Cossus saguarius, a large lamelH- 
form beetle, found iu tho pith of the aago 
palm, is cousidercd by tho nativea a great 
delicacy. — Roxb. ; Voigl ; Harlwig. 

SAGUS KONIGII, syu. of Metroxylon 

Sagua InermiB, Roxh, 
True Kieo P*'™! E>m. i Rmmbiya, Malax. 

This is a native of Sumatra, Borneo and 
tho Moluccas. The Btcm, which is from 15 
to 20 years in attaining maturity, is as thiek 
as that of the cocoauut tree. The petioles 
aad apathes uuarmed. This palm furnishes 
most of the eago sent to Europe. — O'Shaugh' 
neast/, p. 640 ; Roxb-, iii, 623 ; Eng, Oyc. ; 
Voigt, 6;(9. 

root of Hyperanthera moringa. 

SAGWAN, Hind. Teak. Tectoiia grandis. 

SAGWIR or Gomuti pahn, Anglo-Pobt. 
Areoga saccharifera. Gomuto. 

SAH, HiKD. Larix grilTithii. 

SAHAB, a place on the eastern bauk of 
the Euphrates, ncarKoorna, whence caravans 
load and depart for Ilawaizah. — Mignan't 
Traveli, p. 2W. See Sahal. 

SAHA-BIRI, Malat. Amhergria. 

SAHADEVA, one of the five Pandava. 
See Magadtia, Mababharata. 

SAHADEVI, Hind. Crozophora tiucto- 
ria. Sahadovi-bari is Souchus orixensis, also 
Vernouia cinerea. 

fnitescens, Roxb., also Sida acuta, Burm. 

SAHAJNA, Sass. Moringa pterygOMpcr- 
ma. Hyperanthera moriuga. 

SAHAL, see Kooriia. 

SAUA-MARANA, Hind. Burning of a 
widow at the same time and placo as her 
husband's body.. 


SAIIAN, 1'ai,icmbang. Black pepper. 

SAHAN-SABEU, Hi»d., Pbm. Hematite, 
used as a drug. 

SAHARA, Ar., Pers., Hind. A desert, 
a sandy plain, the saudy desert of Africa and 
Ceutral Asia. The iutenee heat and cold of 
deserts U owing to the circumstance, that 
amoug cryetalliue bodies, rock crystal, or 
silica, is the host conductor of heat. This 
fact accounts for tho steadiness of tempera- 
ture in one set district, and the extremes of 
heat and cold presented by day and uight on 
such saudy n'astes aa the Sahara. The sand 
which is for the most part silica, drinks in 
tlio noon-diiy heat, and loses it by night just 
as speedily. The influence of the hot winds 
from the Sahara has been observed in vessels 
travci'sing the Atlantic at a diatauce of up- 
wards of 1,100 geographical miles from Ibe 
African shores, by the coating of impalpable 
dust falling upon the sails. — Curiosiliti of 
Science, p. 165. See Khiva, Khanat, Rain. 

SAHARANPUR, in hit. 29" 57' ^, and 
long. 77* 28' 8*, is a large station in Hindos- 
tan where Botanical Gardens have been fixed. 
Bclville, one isilo south of Saharunpur ia 980 
to 1,013 feet according to Herb, and Hodg. 
above tho sea. The Botanical Gardens 1,002 
and 965 according to Roxb., Schl. and Jacq. 
South of Africa, Extra Tropical New Hol- 
land, South America beyond 23^* south laL 
Saharuapove aud Northern Doab have simi- 
lar climates. Tho gardens form a central 
dep4>t, from which the requirements of the 
greater part of the public gardens in Upper 
India are supplied. During the one seasoot 
no fewer than a lac and a quarter of finiit 
trees, half a lac of timber trees and flowering 
shrubs, and about two thousand parcels of 
seeds were distributed among almost every 
station from Calcutta to Feshawur. Large 
supplies of pine and other hardy timber seeds 
were .sent to Britain, and exchanges effected 
to the Ionian Islands, to Turin and to France. 
Many kinds of seeds, when acclimatised in 
this country, particularly those belonging to 
the umbelliferoul and cmeiferous families, 
degenerate in two or ttiree eeasons. 

SAHARA WAN, a district of Baluchistan. 
Tho Snbarawau territories are about 10,000 
square miles. The population does not ex- 
ceed 50,000. The borders of this elevated 
plateau, tlie more norlliern of the Baluch 
confederate provinces runs with the Afghan 
districts of Pcsbing aud Toba, dependent on 
Kandaliar, and is separated on tlie east hy k 
range of hills, from Uadar and Kach Gandava. 
It has ouly the Bolan river, and a few rivulets, 
bat the climate is cool, and the rain ensure 
good grains harvests. The Raiaani the moat 
respectable of tlie SaJiarawaui tribes (from 
S 00 



*' nii" Arab a ruler), are able to raise 200 homcduu tribes of the Jii<Iian desert, uf 
lightiog roen. The Brahui tribes in SBliara- which he is the terror. Tho Khosfia is a 
mo and Jhalawao, whose great chief is the , branch of the Sahrni, whom in habits he 
kbao of Khilat, ethnolc^ists consider to be of reeemblee, plunderiDtf on camels, but they 
ihe tamo Scytlnc stock as the Dravidian ! are cowardly and faithless. The name is pro- 
iicei in the souUi, and infer from this that bably from sah'ra or Sahara, a desert. 

tlie passage of the Di-avidian tribes from 
Taran was along the valley of the Indus. See 
Belui-hiatan, Brahui, Kelat. 

SAUASTRAPUTRA, Saks. Neliimbium 

S'AH-BUI, Malat. Ambergris. 

SAIIEE, a river near Furrucknuggur in 
tlie Delhi district. 

SAHCOTTAY OIL, from Canara used for 
cutaoeoas diseases. — M. S. J. U. ) 857. 

SAHHARAII, Arab. A wooden box, 
aliout three feet each way — Burtotii Pil- 
grimaiie to Meceah, Vol. i, p. 1 82. 

SAHI, Saya), Sarsel, Hind. Ilystrix leu- 
CDta, Syhea. 

SAHIB, Abab., Pebs., Hind. The res- 
pectfnl term employed by natives of India, 
tod by Europeans themselves, to designate 
■ Earopean of rank. 

S.VUIBAH, a lady. la Mewar, the title 
of the rani is simply Mahji ; at Jaipoor, 
where they have long used the language and 
manners of Delhi, they affix the Persian word 
Sabibah, or * lady-mother.*— Torf'j Eajat- 
than. Vol. ii, p. 380. 

SAHIBAK, Ar. The UHums. 

SAHIB-I-NASIB, one who lias eighty 
rupees in his possession for a year. 

SAHIB-I-QAHAN, a mafaomedan titular 
term for a sovereign rnler. 

SAHIB-I-TASSARUF, Ak., Pbrs., in 
tpecolative mahomedan theolt^, persons in 
the world holding supremacy over souls of 

SAHIB KRAN, a Persian coin, rather 
less thau a shilling. — Baron C. A. DeBode's 
frav. in Lurittan Sf ATahistan, V.\\,p. 233. 

SAIIO, also Sahocar, Pers., Hind. In 
fnilia a hindoo who deals in money as a 
banker, or iu exchanges. 

SAHO£. The northern peninsula of 
Gilolo, and the great island of Ceram, are in- 
hibited by the Alfuro of Sahoe and Galeln. 
These people are quite distinct from the Ma- 
layi and almost equally so from the Papuan 
nee- They are tall and well-made, with 
Papoao features and curly hair. They are 
Warded and hairy limbed, but they are quite 
u light in colour as the Malays. They are 
tn industrious and enterprising race. Gulli- 
ntiog rice and vegetables and indefatigable 
ia their search after game, fish, tripang, 
pearls and tortoise shell. 

SAHAJI, a rajah of Taujore. 

bAHBAI, the most namerous of the ma- 


S.\HRASHTRA, see Sumitra. 

SAHll RUD, see Koh-i-Nokrch. 

SAIIUT, Pkrs. Watches. 

SAHUKAR, HiNi». A money-leuder, a 
hanker, a merchant in general. 

SAllUJNA, also Sohajna, Hind. Ben 
Tree. Moringa pteiygospeiraa. See Ben oil, 
Moringa oil, Oil. 

SAI, Hind., of Chamlta, Deutzia staminea, 
also Abelia triflora and Loniccra quinquelo- 

SAI, spc Kediih. 

SAIA, Tam., HedyotiH umbellata, Lam. 

SAIDK, the modern Sidoo, is built ou a 
small promentory over-lookiug the sea, and 
has about 15,000 inhabitants. 

SAIDI, Hind. A kind of emerald. 

SAIFALI, a section of ihe Kabul khel 
Waziri, inhabiting tho independent hills to 
the westward of the Bunnoo thull. They 
entered into an agreement or treaty with the 
British to do all ic their power, as far as their 
own tribe is concerned, to check and prevent 
the robbery or murder of British subjects, 
and to caupo stolon property from British 
territory to be returned. Also not to receive 
property stolen from British territory by any 
other tribe, and not to give shelter to any cri- 
minal guilty of a heinous offence, also if any 
British subjects should make a pursuit into 
their country for the recovery of stolen pro- 
perty, or the apprehension of criminals, they 
will not interfere. This section of the Wa- 
ziri is said to have been loog unfavourably 
distioguished as receivers of stolen cattle and 
other property from the Bunnoo district. — 
Lahore Courant. 


Antilopo coluii, Smith. 

It inhabits the open steppes and deserta 
from tho Danube to the Irtish eastward, and as 
far north as 54° of north lat., found in Poland, 
Moldavia, about the Caucasus and the Caspian 
Sea, in Siberia, and in northern Persia. Their 
eye-sight Is said to be defective from the 
reflection of the dry arid plains upon which 
they mostly reside. — Engi. Cyc, p. 235. 

SAIGON, called Luknooi by the Cochin 
Chinese, is in lat. 10* 15' north, long. i06* 
43' east. The surrounding country abounds 
with timber and other necessary articles for 
ship building. See Kobo. 

SAIL, Hind. Slate or schist : a slate ; a 

I slab of stone. 

' SAIL, Ab. A flood. 




SAILA, or Sela, Hind. Muslin. 

SAILAH. A flootl of the great rivers, or 
overflow of waters from other sources. 

SAILABI, Hind. Land watered by flood. 

SAILA-DKVA, see Gujarat. 

SATLAGIRI, the famous Gridlirakutn, or 
' Vulture's Peak,' near Rnjngriha. 

SAIL CLOTH, Eng. Canvas. 

SAILEK. A river of llie Saufjor ilistiict. 

SAIL-AL-ARAM, also called Sail-ul- 
Mareb, tlic flood of Aram, 8 great calamity 

SAINT IIILAIRE, M. Barlhelemy, a 

French niithor of greatfame, the first historian 
of bud(lhi.<!m. 

siliqua, W. 

SAINTS. Buddhists, hiiidoos, jaiua antl 
mahomcdnus believe in !>aiiits aud worship at, 
and make pilgrimages to, their shrines. 


SAINT THOMAS' MOUNT, a military 

which bcfol tlio Arabs of Yemen, soon after station of the British, tcu miles south-west of 

the time of Alexander the Great, Abid-Shams 
suruaiuod Saba, built the city of Sal>a, after- 
wards called March, and made a great dam 
to form a reservoir. The water was 20 feet 
deep and was utilized for irrigation, but one 

Madras. It in famed amongst eastern christians 
83 the silc of the martyrdom of St. Thomas, 
and the church on the summit of the hilt is 
visited by pilgrims oven from Syria. It wo 
plundered in 1762 by the troops of Chuoda 

nigiit it burst and carried away the whole j Sahil), under Win son Rajah Sahib, and the 

city with the neighbonriiig towns and people. 
MuJiomcd mentious it in the Koran. See 
Artm, Balak, Mareb, Saba, Yemen. 

SAILING FISH, two remarkable in- 
habitants of the waters about Malacca mid 
Sumatra, were described by Riifllcs ; tlie 
sailing fish, called by tiie native** ikan layer, 
and the dugong, mentioned by Valentyii, and 
so long talked of as the mermaid. The in- 
habitants of Singapore aay that those had 
become very scarce. — Awertcan Ejrpeditwn 
to Japan, p. I 'to. 

SAIL-LEAF. For many of the Bunneso 
boat?, Bails are made of large narrow leaves, 
sewed together. They are the leaves of 
a species of screw pine, or Pandanus, that 
lias a trunk like n palm, which usually grows 
near the sea, an<l is very abundant. The 
fruit is used by the Karens, to hackle their 
thread.— jlfa50H. 

SAIMIO. A titular prince of Japan. 

SAIMME KIUAI, Tam, Caladium esru- 

SAIN, in Sind, is the *' fahib" of India, 
the " eir " of England. — Burton's Srinde, 
Vol. i, p. 143. 

SAIN, Hisn. The flying ."quinel of 

SAIN NOIN, see Kalkos. 

SAIN also Asun or Arjan, Hind. Pentap- 
tera tomcnto^a, I*. Glabra. 

SAINDHAVA, is Sindh and Balochist- 

SAINGRI, or Sangri, Hind. The seed 
pods of jliand, the Prosopis spicigora, one of 
the common shrubs of the rakh or preserves. 

SAINHIKEYA. lu hindu mythology 
an Asura or giant, who stole amrita or nectar 
when the gods churned the sea of milk, for 
which Vishnu cut him into two pieces, called 
Baho and Ketu, which arc said to cause the 

SAXNJ, an affluent of the Boas. 

advanced force of Ilyder Aii later in the 
century again plundered it- The little Mount 
is on the right bank of the Adyar river three 
miles nearer Madras. 

SAIR, An., Hind. Ti-ansit duties ; a due 
or tax levied on certain natural productions, 
other than cultivated lands ; such as on data 
tree?, fisheries and grass, &c. 

SAIR nlijo Sairi, Mahr. Bignonia xyIo> 
car pa. 

SAIR YARI, Pkrs., Tlkk. Promenades. 
SAIS or Syce, Hind. A groom. 
SAISON, IIiND. Autilopo cervicapra, 
Pa Has. 

SAISU-NaGA, or Ses-nag. Thia lodian 

race reigned 360 years, and we find aroongat 

them, n. c., 416, Niinda, Mahapadama, (b. c^ 

1602, Jones, 364 Wilson) regarding whom it 

was said he will bring the whole earth under 

one umbrella ; ho willh.-ivc eight sons, Sama- 

lya and others who will reign after Maha* 

I padma. He and his £ons will govern for 100 

j years. The brahman Kaulilya will not root 

out the nine Nanda. See Magadha. 

I KAIRINDIIA, ihe people of Sirindba or 

1 Surbtnd. 

j SAITILE. Dionysius, (Auc. Myth., VoL 
I iii, p. 226,) as rendered by Bryant sayi, 
i upon (he banks of the great river Indus the 
Fouthern Saithfr dwell. 

SAI VA, H sectarian hindoo follower of Siva. 

Many saiva hindnos believe in the three hiodo 

gods, Brahma, Vishnu and Saiva, as triane, 

and many Saiva are essentially polytheista 

but vuishnava hindoos arc rarely in accord 

in tlii!>, and the bulk of Ihe hindoo religionisto 

regard Siva or Ishwara, Vishnu and Brabma 

or Para-brahma as dii^tinct deities. The 

Saiva sect far out-number the Vaishnara, 

The essential element in the Saiva faith is a 

I reverence for or deification of the procreatire 

\ power and seems to be the same idea of 

> natural progrest>iou which is carried on by the 

S 02 



bodilbUt doctrine of gradual perfectabllity 
(raisiog inim almost to the ruuk of a god.) 
The VaishnavB or Vedic creed is one of a 
wparate creation of gods and their occasional 
iocarnation iq the form of man. If Saivites, 
baddhists and Jains be in some way connected, 
who they are who brought them is not known, 
the eaira are most in the west of India. 

The Saiva, are woi*shippers of Siva, in one 
of bis thousand forms, who, however, worship 
Siva and Bhawani conjointly. 

The Oanapatia, worship Ganeaa. 

The Sacta, exclusively worship Bliavoni ur 
Farvati, — Uie sacti, or female euergy of Siva. 

The Ganapatya and the Sakta are sub-divi- 
sions, or ramiBcstioDS of the Saiva ; of whiuli 
may bo traced these distinctions. — 1, Suiva 
proper, meaning the worslnppers of Siva 
sad Psrvati conjointly ; 2, Lingi or Lan- 
gtet, the adorei-3 of Siva, or hi^ phallic 
type, separately, and tliese are a very strict 
lad rigid ftect ; 3, Sacta, the adorers of the 
Yoni of Bhavani, or her symbol, separately ; 
4, the Ganapatya the exclusive worshipperii 
of Gaoesu, the first born of jVIahadeva and 
Farvati. The ganapatya adore Gaucsa us 
Quitiog in his person all the attributes of the 
Deity. The vira saiva, are very numerous in 
all the Caiiai-ese speaking countries and are 
ili^tingaishable by their wearing the lingum 
ID a silver or gold casket fastened round their 
arm or suspended from the neck. 

The Avadhnta or Abd'hut of the south 
of India, is a religious ascetic mendicant 
of the saiva biudoos, who, similarly to the 
Virakta, Viragi, has subdued the passions 
aod estranged himself from the interests and 
emotions of mankind, abandoning religious 
observances and wordly restniiutH. Tlie 
Sakta have two i-lasscs of these, one the 
Vyakla-vadhuto, or professedly free, the 
other Gupta-vadhuta who privately throw 
off the usuiil restrictions of caste. The 
Akis-mukhi is a saiva devotee, who ve- 
taiDS hiif head so long in the position of 
lookini; to the sky that he cannot restore the 
ceck to its proper position. 

Amongst vaishnava hiudoos, in the south 
of India the Suttulbavan, Tam., arc rigid 
Vtishuavi, are to tlie Vaishnavi what the 
Vira Saiva are to tlic Saivavi. They are 
flower Selling minstrels and vagrant mendi- 
cants. They are said to have a communism 
of women, but if so, the pruclicc is unknowh 
to their ociglibours. — Wilson Gloss. See 
Hiadoo, Kanchcliya, Kapilu, Karn-Lingi, 
Meodicants, Sanyosi, Sikhs, Siva, Vairagi. 
SAIVA NAGA, see Naga. 
SAJ, Aiub. Shorea robusta. 
SA.JI-KIIAE, also Ptpud-khnr, Hind., 
Pkis. Soda, Barilla, Alkali. 

63 S 

SAJI MATTI, coarse kind of bnrilla 
Dr. Royle alludes, to it, p. ol9, as the pro- 
duce of the incineration of some unknown 
plants. It is a mineral product very abundant 
near Moughyr and in the Doab. — O'Shaugh- 
nessi/, p. 525. See Sajji-Matti. 

SAJIRA SEED, Cumiium cymiuum, 
Cummiu seed. 

SAJJALU, also Gautclu, Tel. Pencillaria 
spicata, Swlz. 

SAJJI, or Sajja-khar, Hind. Impure 
carbonate of soda ; a soda salt manufactui'ed 
from ashes of plants ; 

Saiii-bhutni, 3ril quality of sajji. 
SHJji-butha-sirsa, 2nd quality of sajji. 
Sajji-chuwa sirea, let quality of eajji. 
Sajji-kangan>kliar, 2nd quality of sajji. 
Siijji-khara-sirsa, 3rd quality of snjji. 
Sajji-lota, best kind of snjji. 
Sajji-phul, a kind of sajji. 

In the Panjftli, the castes principally em- 
ployed in the manufacture of s.ijji are the 
chura, dhobi, nunari, and a few arura. The 
Sajimutti, or Soda ear rh is found in many parts 
uf India. It is called Dhobi's earth, Appli- 
{■arum, Tam., it is a coarse kind of iJariUn, 
gold in the Indian markets. It is also pre- 
pared by the burning of plants growing on the 
shores of tlie suit liikcs which are scattered 
through the Indian deserts. — Powell, Iland- 
hooh Econ. Prod. Punjab, p. 87- 

SA.INA, Pkks., IJrno., IIikd., also Sah- 
ajna, Hind. Ilypcniiithera moringa, Moriiign 
pterygodperma. See Moringn. 

SAJOU KARANG, Malay, Plocaria 
candiila, jNljes. See Agar Agai-. 

SAK, IIlNu. IJark of llie kikar, put inio 
the feimeiitiiig mass in ^ity'ii di^-tilling ; the 
term is also applied to other luirks. 

SAK, or Thock or Thak, called Cliatu or 
Chat by the Hengali, a small tribe who inhabit 
the eastern branch of llic Nal'-river in Arakan, 
in lat. 21° 20' N., nn.l lung. 21" 30' E., about 
25 miles oast from Elephant Point near the 
Koladyu river. 

SAKA, Sans. Vegetables. See Sag. 

SAKA, San.s. A braiifh. 

SAKACIIERA, Sans. Lawsoula iuenuis ; 

SAKADITYA, see Painlu. 

SAKjTi. This name frequently occurs in 
hindoo aniinls, and Colonel Tod believed that 
the Snka of the hiiidoo annals cannot be other 
than the Saca> or Sakai of classical geogrnpliy. 
They arc repeatedly named in various works 
and seem to have been known on the borders 
of India or in its western districts in the first 
century preceding Christianity. Yikrama- 
dityn, king of Ougcin, hecamo known as the 
Sakari or enemy of the Sacte, and as his era 
dates y-. c, 5f>, it would appear that about 


tliis lime some Dorthern tribes had settled 
theiQselTes along the Indus, constituting the 
Indo-Scjtbi of Arriati. Their attempt to 
penetrate further to tliu east, hy way of Kau- 
desh and Malwo, wa» not improbably ari^Hted 
by Vikramaditya, whence the cpitlict Sakari. ; separated and Dr. Moore has put forward the 


Ionian inscription, are believed to be the satne 
people, and Rawlinson supposes tfcem to be 
Scythians. Putya in Heb., means brdiec of 
God. Israelites, in Media and Scythiawan 
identical with Phut. Budii in Hkb. meaas 

The Sacae are supposed by Professor Lassen 

to be the Szu Tartar who wore expelled about 

150 B. c, from the Hi valley by clio Yue-tchi 

or White Huns, whom he supposes to bo the 

Tochari. After occupying Tahia or Sogh- 

diana for a time, they are further stated by 

the Chinese to have been driven thence also 

by the Yengar some years afterwards, and to 

have established themselves in Kipen, in 

which namo Lassen recognises the Koplien 

valley in Kohistnn. The Sakaa country was 

Turkestan and they seem to have been one of 

the Central Asia tribes to whom the vague 

term Scythian was applied. Little is known 

of tlio Sakaa and their mi(<:rations, hut they 

seem to have been widely diffused, occupying 

and colonizing countries remote from Central 

Asia : It is well known to geographers that 

the Se-ghislan of the Arabs, whence Sistan, is 

the same as the Sakcslam', or country of the 

Sako! of the Grectks. The Sukie arc ItH'atcd 

by Strabo and Ptoluiny on tlic north of the 

Ilimalnya but they were also on the soutii. 

Tho Suka:, were known its Sukko on the 

banks of the Chuban, in Assyria. Siikac nre 

mentionod on the BchiKtun iuKcription ; some 

tribes dwelt ueav the Jaxurtes now culled the 

Sar-i-Darya and penetrated early into India, 

making their wny in force from tho Ilinda- 

kusit into Orisi<a. Tho Kakac wci*e pastoral 

and warlike and buvu been supposed to 

give Ihoir names to the Sii^sani, Saxaui 

or Saxons. All tliu Sukao tribes nndoubt- 

odiy belonged to Suka dwipa or si-y(liiu. ; of tlio hriilnnuns 

The Suksi and Buddhii took po^scs^ion of i bitiUlliir^t. It was 

opmiou that the Sako; were Hebrews and 
Buddliists and that they airived in India 
about lOU years after tho rotuni of the 
Jews from Assyria to Palestine. The Sakai, 
who settled in Armenia were named S>- 
cassani (lib vi, c. 19) Saxons, the Sacoseot 
of Strab, lit. xi, pp. 776-7SS.—Rennetri 
Memoir, p. 185 ; Isndore Char, in JIudtom'B 
Geog. Minorca, Vol. ii, quoted in Ed. .Ar- 
rier. Jour., p. 428. See Afghan, Arian, Kft* 
bul, Kashmir. 

SAKA ERA, see Vikramaditya. 

SAKAI, a pagan population in the Mabj 
pciiinsuln divided into the Sakai Jina and 
Sukai Bukit, the latter being hitlmeo and 
mountaineers — the former more settled and 
civilized. Tboyaro strict woifhippers of tJie 
elements. Sakai is the Fahang word for aa 
aboriginal. The Halas is a branch of the Saku 
population of the Malay peninsula. They tat- 
too their face and breast, pierre their ears and 
iioso and iufcrt porcupine quills. See Kedidit 

SAKAI, tlic Isliaqzai of independent Tar- 
tary and Bokhara. 

SAKAI, in Pei'sian synonymus for glutton 
and drunkard. 

SAKALA or Snngals, an ancient town la 
tho Panjab now called Sanglawala Tiba. It 
'in the She-kie-lo of Ilwen Thsang. It was the 
capital of raja Milindu, was subject to raja 
Miliirkul, is tlie Sangula of Ali-xaudcr and 
hits long ago been recognized in the Sakala 
and the Sngal of the 
visited bv the ChiocH 

Kashmir, 340 u. c. some triljcs of .Suka; oppos- | pilgrim Ilwun Th:)unL,' in A. D. 630. Both 
cd Alexander. Others of the Sak:i! overran Ariliiu and Curtins place Sungula to the eaat 
India in tho reign of Asoka who, according to | of the Ilydraotes or Bavi ; hut the itinerary 
the Aiu Aklari wcrecxjiclled by his snccb}'!«or ; (if Ilwen Thsang !>hows that it was to the 
Jaloka. TheSuksc countries were, in those ugos | west of the Kavi, and as nearly ns possible io 
principally divided into Ilui^lika, Tu.-ilika and . the [>otiltion of the profont Kanglawalu-Tiba, 
Kauiahka. The foUuwing pa.ssagc o<;t:urs in or " Sungatu IMIt." Wilford, liaH three tinws 
D'AnviUc's Kclaircl.-^ semens C!(-ogrupliii|iie.<i doHcribeU its position in the Asialic Kescnrehes. 
sur la carle de I'lndc, p. 4:^. '* On ignore k- . When IIwou Th>ang visited the city there 
temps autjuel Ics Srytbi-s sont veiius ucrupi-i' < was ii nionnstci-y of one hundrerl monks who 
le Siudi. Dans lepL-ripIo dc la nier P2rythr(.V-, studied the Ilinayann, or exoteric doctrioefl 

la ville do Minnagm, le nu'nic <pic Monsora, 
est qualifieo de cupitalc de lu Si:ythie. Deuyn 
Periegete dit, que les Scythes mcridionnux, 
habiteuts sur Ic lleuvo Indus. Kustathe lea 
nomme Indo-Scylhc3 : ct ce que I'tolt'nu'c 
appcle Indo-Scythie, rcnionlc le long de 1' 
Indus ju«qu an fleuve Coob," 

The Budii or Boudioi, of IIcn>dotns. ihc 
Putya of the Persians, the Builii of the Baby- 

of buddhinm, nnd Iwside it there was a stupa, 
200 feet in height, where the four previoua 
Buddha had left ihv'w footprints. The bralK 
nmnii'nl accounts of Sakala huvetwen collected 
from the Maliablinrata by Professor Lap^cn io 
his 'Pentaf^otarnia Indiea.' Ai-cording to that 
pncni, Sukalu, the capital of the Madra race 
who arc al^oculled Jarlika and Buhika, was 
t=i(i)uted on the Aijsngii rivulet to the west of 





tb« Iiavati, or Ruvi river. The country ia 
ttaU well knowD aa Madr-dea, or the duilrict 
of the Madra, which is aatd by Bomo to extend 
from the Bias to the Jhclam but by others 
ooly to the Chcuab. The buddhist notices of 
Sakahi refer chiefly to its history iD conuection 
with baddfaism. There is the legend of the 
asTCD kings who went towards Si^L to carry 
off Prabhavati, the wifu of king Kusa. BuL 
the king, moanting an elephant, met them 
oatside the vity, and cried oat with so loud a 
voice, ** I am Kaso, that the cxclumatioii 
wu heard over the whole world, and the 
seren kings fled away in terror." This legend 

tnayhaTesome reference to the seven brothers Hiuy-ab of the present Jay, — which is at 

Dzuugiiriit, e^^titlilislicd the khojahs ot' the 
White Mountain ; but, after a century of 
dissensions, the CUiucsc iu 1757 brought the 
Turkestan states uuder tlicir rule. See Sakx, 
Sakitai . 

SAKAWAND wad iu the territory of 
Kabul, which belonged to Kamlu. It is men- 
tioned by Istakhri and Ibn Haukal as ono of 
tbe dependencies of Bamiau, along with Kubul, 
Ghazni, and Parwan. Idrisi gives it as being 
seven days' journey from Kabul aud tho samu 
distance from lOiou-i-ab for which Geucral 
Cuumughom reads Huriab, and believes it to 
be the Ii'yab or Irjab of Shiirif-ud-din and the 

ind sisters of Amba-Kapa, which is only 40 
miles to the east of Songala, Before the 
beginning of the christian era Sagal was the 
upittl of rajs Milinda, whose name is still 
fiuioas in all buddhist countries as the skilful 
opponent of the holy Naga-Sena. The territory 
was then called Yona, or Yavaua, which 
might refer either to the Greek conqueroi's, 
or to their Indo-Scythian saccessors ; but as 
Naga-Sena is said to have lived either 400, or 
jOO years after Buddha, the date of Milinda 
is ancertain. — Genl. Cunningham's Ancient 
Geog. of India, p. 1 79. 

FhalasampengaalsoManoranjitam, T£L. Ar- 
tabotrys odoratissimus, R. Br. 

SAKALAYA, see India. 

8AKAM KUZIRA, Japan. Grampus 
sikamata, Sehlegel. 

SAKAMUKIYA, Hind. An astringent 
extract of resin, properly scammony, but 
iwially an imitation is sold. 

SAKANTAI^, or the Eost-Ring, a San- 
aerit poem by Kalidasa. 

SAEAR, SiHD. An embankment. This 
gives the name to Sakar or Sukker, a town on 
the Indus opposite Rori, where is a natural 
fime-stone mound about 100 feet high. 

SAKARAN, a district in Borneo. See 
Borneo, Dyak, Kyao, Sakarran. 

SAKARI, a title of Vikramaditya, king of 
Oojein, given to him because of bis succcss- 
fai opposition of the Sacse, an ludo-Scythic 
tribe who settled along the lower Indus. 

SAKAR-KAND, Pees., Hind. Sweet 


SAKASTENE, see Arians. 

SAKATAI, or Chaghtai, the Saca-dwipa 
of the Pooran corrupted by the Greeks to 
ScTtbia, whose inhabitants worshipped tho 
MB, and whence is the river Arverraa. As 
tbe Chaghtai dynasty drew to its close iu 
Eutem Turkestan, tho priestly element be- 
gin to increase : in 1678, Galdan khan, 
Mvereign of the Eleuth or Kalmuk tribes of 

(55 S 

the head of the Kuram valley, to the south- 
cast of Kabul. Sakawand would therefore 
be at or near Jcllalabad ; and tbis position 
agrees with Idrisi's account of the waim 
ciiraate of Sakawand aud Hari-iib, at which 
places the palm tree did not grow, aud snow 
did not fall. Tho buddhist cstablishmcuU' 
mentioned by Fa Hian and Ilwen Thsang 
were no doubt still flourishing in the timo of 
Kumlu. — General Cunningham, 

SAKBINAJ, Hind. Sagapenum. 

SAKEEN — ? see Caprea;. 

S.:VKELA, Hind. An iron formed by 
forging and welding together bars of several 
varieties of iron. 

SAKELA WANLOO, Tel. Washermen. 

SAKEN, see Arians. 

SAKES, Arab^ Turk. Mastic, Pistacia 

SAKETA, or Ajudhya, tlic ancient capi- 
tal of Oudh, 

SAKHA, Sans. A branch, the branch of 
a tree. 

SAKHALAT, JUlat. Woollen cloth. 

SAKHALIN. The Tuugus are tlie native 
popnlation of tho Amur, but even including 
emigrant Chinese and Mantchu, the people 
are far from numerous. They may be esti- 
mated at 24,000 for the whole of tbe territory 
at present iu possession of Russia. With 
two exceptions, the tribes of the Amur be- 
long to the Tunguzian stock. The language 
of the Gilyak, on the lower Amur, differs 
from the Tunguzian dialects along the river, 
but tho features of these Gilyak are still 
Mongol, they have small obliquely sot eyes, 
prominent check boue.<;, and scanty beards. 
With the Aiao, on Sakhalin, the language 
differs both from the Tunguzian and Gilyak ; 
theii' features arc decidedly not Mongol, and 
they are distinguished by a great profusion 
of hair. The close affinity between the 
various Tunguzian dialects, aud the differ- 
ences existing bewcen Tunguzian, Gilyuk and 
Aino, will be observed iu the foUowiirt; voca- 
bulary : 


M 3 

aW-5 a s W a 

5" ** 

§ ^= 5 

3 3 a S 

3 2 3^ 

S i-, 

i 5 s kHis ilfs 

See !)Bf;alcen, Saghalien. 

SAK-HIANG, Chin. Aloes wood. 

SAKHI HEIAVA, a sect of vaiahnara 
biadoos in noi'therii India, who adopt Krishoa 
and liis mistress Badha for their special 
worship. They assume tUo female garb, and 
the dress, ornaments, manners and ocvupa- ! next sought out a celebrated abode of brall- 


pleaded the brahrainical notioD of the trant* 
migration of souls and ultimata immortalily 
with the idea that the spirit reluma to hia 
who gave it, — or union with God, u Uw 
highest state of man. Thus he recoQciled tha 
creed of the ratioualistic fatalists, who mM 
"so bo it" with a moralitj that forfaadt 
atheistic iodtfierence while it eueouragad 
the suppressiou of merely selfish d«siraa M 
alike inconsistent with the good of •oeia^, 
and tlie souls final emancipation Aom ain aM 
suffering. His original titular sectann 
designation is said to have been Saddharta, 
and the patronymics Sak'faya and Singha 
were added to it, the other tenn, muni mitaw 
a holy man. According to Tibetan booka^ ha 
died near the town of Kusha in Kamrni^ 
beneath the shade of two sal treea oa tba 
southern bank of the Brahmaputm rirer, tbai 
called Hiranyo, 

He was n Ksiictrya by caste, and of tin 
royal race of the Sakhya, who ruled at K^h- 
laTosto, a town near the modern Lueknow : 
he was born there in the year 59U b. C Ha 
was educated royally, in all the arts and 
scioucea of the day ; and he spent the Ant 
twenty-eight years of his life in tha usual 
enjoyments of a court, and in the company of 
hia three wives at one ofhis father's juilacw. 
In his twenty-ninth year, reflections oo IIm 
great problems of life entired him to solitoda^ 
i)eut on discovering a remedy for tbB evihl 
which he observed to prevail in the worM. 
Flying from the royal palace, he cut off his 
hair and dooned the yellovr robe, which mI^ 
sequeutjy became tlte canonical attira of Um 
buddhist priesthood, and he betook htmaalf 
to the fastnesses of the Rajmahal Hilla. Ha 

tioQs of women. See Hindoo. 

SAK'HYA, also styled Sak'hya muiii, was 
the son of the rajah of Kapila, and a contem- 
porary with Ezokiel. He ii one of the reli- 
gious reformers to whom is applied the 
title of Buddha. Of these, there seem to 
have been several, but the last of them was 
•Sak'hya Singha, or Sakhya Siuha b. c. 628, 
who incorporated all the previous writings 
aud it is he whom the buddhists of the pre- 
sent day reverence in China, Burmah, Stara, 
Thibet and Ceylon. The doctrines taught by 
Sakhya Sinha were a reQoement upon the 
worship of the elements, paramattha and 
the hosts of heaven, to which the Persians 
and some of the corrupted Taraelites are 
known to have been addicted : he did not 
honour the hereditary brahman priesUiood, 
who sacrificed not unlike the Hebrews. 
Neither did he symphathise with their oppo- 
nent.-, the Swa^ttika sect who promised to 
man only annihilation at last. But ho 

mans, on a hill near Gya ; but soon asoar- 
tained that their practices were naught aad 
their doctrines bootless. He then withdraw 
to a solitary spot on the Nitgan rivar, an 
affluent of the Phalgu, where, with a few 
disciples, he spent six years in fastings aod 
mortifications of the flebh. But finding timt 
his mental powers became impaired by auch 
lengthened vigils, he renounced these aaeetta 
practices, upon which his disciples deserted 
him aud fled to Benares to expiate the sin of 
their master. Thus left alone, Sakhya aat 
down, absorbed in thought under a budhi-tne 
(Ficus religiosa) ; invigorated by the mora 
generous diet he had adopted, he succeeded in 
attaining the highest sut« of perfect know- 
ledge and became a Buddha, or GalighteDed, 
For the next nineteen years lie wandered 
about Northern Hindustan, living enUrely on 
alniH, aud making converts. Hia royal birth 
secnrad for his dortriues a ready acceptaaca 
: amongst the upper classes of society : and 

R 06 

SACm A- 


njab^ of KosftU, Hinvsiti, and Ayotlliia ' braliiiiuus iu Uirit weakest ttnj luuel rnfntir' 
OutlU, vitiU with bif ovri) Tntlier iu crcotiu^ | nblc [loitits ; iu tttoir ini|i(oui lusumptiod 
nous vihikTo ur niutm* (trric« to rerfive iIim of nil mthlinUnn between msti mni Uh Mnke-ir. 
l«vulM« of llic new fmitli. Al'icr [tromulgai- ' ntid in iliuii* anognnt claims to lifi«di(iiry 
Bi; (luting; itiiA [leiiott, iJic iloojriiie^ wtiicli, i {xiosihooil. Hut fain bolUneu w&6SU(:ceiM>rul. 
to tbo }in!«t.-ut dny^ liavti comUiuetl the ! uiid liefui-c (Jit; cut! of hit ntivcr be bad 
ttost uumbcr or maultruil in tlic same b«- i seen bis priuciples zealously tad auccesx- 
tlm royal lefutioer aud truly giY&t man fully piomutgated by his bhihmnu disciples 
bia end approach iog, withdrew in ' Saripuira, Mnngalynuii, Anandu, and Ka- 
Jiy of a fflw ijiiicipin, txi a solitAiy | syapa, as well aa by tlie iraiByn Katya- 

ofial trees (Shoteit robutla) ueiir Ku*>t> 
oo Ott banka a( the Oaiiduk. auJ ibcre 
d hi* laHt, in the inorith uf Vaisak, 
TliftHvatem oflaitb taiiglu by liim 
feniely aiid tiuly charar^leiized by 
HrMlg«an. as " muuB^tlu; B^c(.>li<M9m in 
wml«, aiiil pliilosnphiuil Bcepticism iu r#li- 

ynuB Bud the ftudm UpAli. At ht<i dMitIt in 
B. c. 5i3, hU doctriacs had been fli-mly estab- 
lished, Mfiil the divinity nf bin misKton was 
fidly re*:ognt«ed by the eajfer claim^i preferred 
by king* and rulers for it'lics nf ibeir ieve-n*d 
leaclier. Hii nsbi-s were disiributt-d amongit 
eight i:ilie9, aotl the charrual froui the fuuBfal 
MBbr.mrd wa« born iu 5tJ9 a. it., he I pile was given to a ninth, l>ut ibe spread of 
aooun€«^ bifl mission in 609 at forty yeai*? i bis influenee is moii* ctesi ly sbowo by the 

tf ag», and died in ^4 when he wasftereuty- 
«. Iu a.. D. fj-lO, **r in ibii ty-one years from 
■ atttiCNitic4(neni of bis roiuioa, the ai-ros 
nd the relipuu of Mahomed bad spread over 
Um Boeient entpires of Egypt, Syria, and 
htma Tbr reli«;ii>us widtly axistiug in tJio 

meutiun of the nunieious cicie8 where he 
lived tiud preached. Amongst these bn 
Champa and Bajagriba on tlieeaflt, Siai-asti 
and KaUftnmbi on Ibe west. In the short 
spnceoftwooty-fivo years, this wonderful man 
succeeded in ealabliehin^ Wm {>wd peculiar 

Bortd from llic tirao of >uikbyn Miiui to tb:it ! doeirinoB over llie fsirest distrietx of the 
»f Mabomeil, wlth ^evfrul. In the earliest . Ganges, from the Oelta to the neigh iKiurbuod 
liiBMi (if which we haw any autbenricreoord, ' nf A^ra and Cawopore. This sun-PRfi whu 
Ika ArUa ncr, both iu Crr^ia and ludiit, wax ' pcrhnpt as inndli due to the early corrupt 
tUaelnd to tliu worp|ii|i of the sun. In Pervin, ' state ft( brahmuDt^m. as to the greater pnrily 
UwBcry elnnrni WB^ Htoki'dupun BB tiicciirrh- lanj more piacttral wisdom of bin own 
l^tvpe'of Mitbni, i>r lbt>l)fBve[dyorh :Bnd Uic isystcm. From Sakyn's time until the end 
lured flame wa^ kept cutuiuuitlly burning by | uf the long reign of Ajala^ti-n, ,119 e. c-, 
IhtMfegtaii prieithuod. But the worship of 

Ihe e1«i»eu<s yifa*i not unkuowu to tlie Per- 
tiaita, for HenMlotaii c^xpi-esaly states thni 
" they «afj-i(icv<l to tha sun and moon, to the 
noth, lo fire aud water, and to the wind." 

the rreed of ^luddha advauved slowly but 
surety. This socceas was portly due to tha 
polilic admission of women, who, even ta 
the east, bare always poueased much secret, 
though not apparent^ iuflaeuce orer mankind. 

In Noriliera India, the mwi popular sji- To most of (hem the words of buddha 
teoi was that of the bndimona and tlieir I pi-eached comfort in this life, and hope io the 
fAllotrerN, wIk> believed in tlie immortality ot I nexl. To the young widow, the neglected 
iba MHil after tratumignitioD, while their wife, and the cAst-off miBtrets, the buddhist 
ts, the Swastika, aSirmed that its teachers offered an honourable cni-cor as nuns. 
ee wai flnttc, and wts limited to its Iiistcud of tho daily iodigtiities to which 
tioo with the l>ody. The doctrine of they were subjected by grasping relntivAs, 
tgratiou of souls was one of tbo U'eacherous bii^bandu, and faitblet>B lords, the 
religious beliefs of the ancient world, mc^t miserable of the sex could now .•iharet 
iu Btu».'ptJiuee WB.1 tiutversut, and alttmiigh still in a humble way, with the 
It was denied only by the athfisiicRl ; gcmoral respect nccordcd to all who had taken 
rwwlika sect, for the brabmnn, noiwiibaiand- i the tows. TIk Bhikebuni wore indebted to 
Ibe d)fl«ranceii of tliuir meiapliY^ti'nl Anunda'ti intfn^esRinu with Sakyn for their 
l^ecd in beliering tbht tBaokind admission into the ranks of the bad*hi.ct com- 
tiesttued, by means of *ucrrw.ive rege- ' muuily, and thty Bhowoil their gi-atitude by 

to a prolonged ^xivlencu in iliio 

The migtaiiGQ uf aoulfl was the fun- 

{riaaicalal bHief of all cIbkw*, both buddhisl 

bnhmitiicjiL The principal differeuce 

FMA ibte twocref<J» lay in the menus fur 

Ig Stul exemption from migrulion. Ah 

ipiDfl of leligious liberty and social 

ity, bonever, Sakja Muni attacked the 


pairing their devotions prinripnlly to fail 
relics. The Pi-khieu-nr, or Bbikafihuni, at 
Matliura, paid their devotions chiefly to the 
BtupB of Anan (Ananda), because he had 
besought Buddha that be would grant to 
women, the liberty of embracing ascetic 
life. 'I'he observaucea required from the 
Duna are lo be found in note 23, ekap. xri. 

S 67 

SAKin A. 


of tlic Ko-kwc-ki. Tlio I'fiiuilt; iitscetic even 
of li IiimJrciI yciiis of ntrc- wa^ bound to 
leapcct u monk cvl'ii in llie first year of lii« 
ordiualioii. There lius been some misapprft- 
lieosion regarding tlicii' biiddba and bodhiRiit- 
wft of the buddhism of Tibet, the regencra- 
tiou of the Grand Xtamu being coneidcred 
as an exceptional case of a Buddha returning 
amongHt mankind. Mr. Hodgson, (pp. 137, 
138,) however, truly ca!ta the "divine Lamu" 
of Tibet, Arhanta, In i he believes " tliat a 
very gross superstiiiou has wrested the just 
notion of tlio character to its own use," and 
so created the " immortal mortals, or present 
palpable divinities of Tibet." Fra Orazio says 
the Lama semprc earn coU'istes&a anima del 
medeEune Ciang-c'iub, oppure in altri corpi." 
Rcmusat was not aware of this fact when ho 
stated " Lcs Lamaa du Tibet se considerent 
cux mumes comme autaut de divinitt'rs 
(Bouddhas) incaroecs pour le salut des 
hommca." But tho exptanatioQ which M^or 
Cuaningham received ia Ladok, which is the 
samo as that obtaiaed by Fra Orazio in Lhasa, 
is simple and convinciog. The Grand Lnma 
is only n regenerated bodhisatwa, who 
refrains {tom accepting buddbahood, that he 
may continue to be boro again and again for 
the benefit of mankind. For a Buddha 
cQiinot possibly be regenerated, and bence the 
famous epithets of Sathagnta, " thus gone," 
nud Sugata, " well gone" or gone for ever. 
The rclii^ious opinions of the hindooi^ have 
been greatly modified by the philosophy intro- 
duced by Sakyn muni which even yet forms the 
faith of about 220 millionH nf the human race. 
From its ri^e in the sixtli century before 
Christ tho doctrines of Buddha gradually 
spread over tlie whole of India. It was 
extended by Asokn to Kashmir and Kulml 
shortly after Alexander's inva-sioo, and it was 
introduced into China attout the beginning of 
the christian era by five-hundred Knshmirian 
missionaries. In a. n. 400, when Fa Hian 
visited India, buddhi-^in was Mill the dominant 
religion, but the vitishnavn sect with a 
mixture of the old Ariun creed, and the 
ftaiva faith, were already ri.-ing into conse- 
(jucncc. In the middle of the seventh century, 
although the pilgrim Ilwan Thsnng found I 
numerous temples of the twiva, who^^e doc- 
trines had I>GCn embraced by Sknnda Gupta 
and tho later princes of ratalipntra, yvt 
buddhism was stilt the prevailing religion of 
tho people. But though tiic faitli of Snkya 
lingered about the holy cities of Benares and 
GayD for two or throe centuries later, it was 
no longer tho honoured religion of kings and 
princes, protected by the stroug arm of power, 
i)iit the persecuted heresy of n weaker imrty, 
who were forced to hide Iheir images under 

G8 a 

ground, and were ultimately expelled from 
their inonnstL-ries by fire. In lH3r% Majw 
Cunniuglium excavated numerous buddbisC 
images at Sarnnth near Benares, all of which 
hnd evidently beeu purposely hidden onder 
ground. He fouud quantities of isbfM wiaa, 
Hud thei'e could bo no doubt tliat the buiidiDg* 
had l>cen destroyed by fire, and Major Kttto^ 
who subsequently made furthei excavations 
was of the same opinion. The buddhiit 
religion has long been extinct in British India. 
Its last remnants were extinguished, in blood 
and violence, about the fourteenth century* 
dying out about Trichinopoly and along the 
coast Hue from Viziauagram to Masolipatam. 
But it still flourishes in the countries on iti 
north and north-cast borders, in Nepal, Tibet, 
Burmah, Ceylon and China, and amoogit 
the Indo-Chinese nations of Anam, Siam and 
Japan. Its followers far out-number those 
of all other existing creeds and form one-fonrdi 
of tho whole human race. The buddbist 
faith was pre-emiueutly a religion of mercy 
and peace and charity, and benevoleneeL 
It had, however, the vital defect of not 
teaching or knowing God : — In the topes 
dedicated to tho celestial Buddha, Adinatb, 
the invisible being who pervaded all space, no 
deposit was made, but tlie divine Spirit, who 
is 'Light,' was supposed to occupy the interior, 
and was typified on tho outside by a pair of 
eyes, placed on each of the four sides either 
of the base or of the crown of the edifice. 
But the budd'hism taught by Sak'hya Muni, 
coming to the world in ages of strife and 
violence, of deifying mortals, and of arrogant 
assumptions of an ignorant priesthood, as a 
creed that taught gentleness and meekness 
and kindness to living creatures, it must 
have exercised a great influence over tlie 
community, must early have gained many 
converts amongst the peaceable and good, 
and largely leavened tlie minds even of 
those who did not oj>cnly become converts ; 
and amongst this class, must be included the 
entire populations from the primeval land 
cast of the Oxus to China and Japan in the 
furtliesit oast, to Singapoi'e and Ceylon in the 
extreme south. 

The doctrines of the hinnrh of the Aryan 
race occupyin:; India have t>ince been modifif>d 
by other religionists. Since buddhism dis- 
appeared from India, its nations have lieen 
overrun and conquered by raocs profettstng 
cieods, with numerous followers. Rapid as 
was the progress of buddhism, the gentle 
but .-rtcady swell of its current shrinks into 
nolhiug Ijofure the sweeping flood of mabo- 
medanism, which, tn a few years, spread over 
one-half of the civilized world, from the 
sands of (he Nile to the swampy fens of the 



hw*. Fiwii ebc liili .I'liimy whrij thfl 

\aniaiU into Iii.lJa. nf rii)ilHtin^t1iiiir>. Ituhd, h^ 

ftJobNitbo tht< pr<."-vut liinu wlien Llioy (ihi^bsm 

Miliag nuf. have iit llicir lurn tilmo«l iJissp. 

pc*re4 bofore clirUtutiis, lite .Svmilic Ainli?, 

1^ Aryan IVrainua, the 8cytbto Turlnra, anil 

(be Auplo^xon. haro succcsfively itwayrcl 

llie (fecUoiefl i>f Uic rncv^ who mti now ocrupy- 

tof^ Briti-h India, notl ent-h of the new 

cotoMra ha* Ui som<> pxtc-at moilifieil the l>e* 

lirfi BOil MH'ial ciialntnf of the ronqaered 

Aiyan snj Nmt.AryBti p«ople. Kor, a prc- 

iVailio^ tthamtten^lic of tho Aryau races is a 

vpecalativvnfv* or thrnrinin^ on th<? great end 

rf Dun, hU diitieit bi^rn aiid hiit hopes iu 

eternity, with a disposition to asceticism, as 

iLe beiutr meaDS of obtainiiif[ the future 

nwardaof a |e:oml lifr nit eartli. But great 

rhangfia have been rvlnrded by the cii'mm- 

■ttBee that the mahoniedai) and the nhvi^tinn 

(■■w atnoDgi't thcni ba warrioi'ji, with all the 

ficotwe which arc to be foiiod in camffS Aud 

lb** aiTo^aiiro and couteiiipt for utinti)^ 

thing* which youth tiiiKendem. And it is 

■•nly aiace a few yearA that iJie vuicvs of iht> 

rhristian mleeiouiirtcs, the mei'k folloivun) of 

tho lowly Jctfu*. have beru heard |iit>t:laiiiiiii}^ 

attMnpal Uie vnrioij uulioos, and to cnoh'or 

ibcm in thrir r>vn\ lonpati, the- ^ood tiJintr^ 

U( gr**** .i'^v. nhirh ftlinll I'l.' to nil pi'ople, and 

ii iry toGuii ia tlx; h>|!h<*!t, and on 

t . ifond will towjird moo." Uut 

PT« tu liii' tliiirl limi/ iliiriiii; whipli the 

rhn<liiin« hiiT€ bt-cn liibouriiig, thc^ vlfcct ou 

ilt« hioiion mind tuu hceu iinim-a'^uvable. 

^Im* Sr*L r«fcimiiii|! aocl tlmt anise anioitgt>t 

r hiudoo« ill thi' 19th ceiitui^. wm a Ihtist 

,)» ;.. r..l.-oifa. who Rtylcd tbcni-eUes llip 

t- ■ and thcii tin* HntlimoiMintui'h. 

txi r>>j,i ,ti iltrt rii» of binilouii who have 

III no £uf;Ii»li edu)*aliort and have never 

d thr Toii'o nf ihc mi^iicnnry. such 

I'l* nrn'i'rioc in^lritctinn fiom others of 

hrir own pcopbr who have bceti jo laii^bt ; 

ih^ infli.- hac hr-r-n co IcAvcned thai: 

' y amonp^i y^nuiliftil inquir- 

1 icpt >'iint' fonn of (iK-idin, — 

r !•• nciuowlvd^L' one of ihcir own 

whetlicr Visliuu or Siva, n^ llio 

II, or adopt an i<ii'al Supr«tiio 

llteir own crnatioii, whcitn cbi'y 

cloibe wHb ntiri>)utc!<. puixr, more joKt, and 

nan wortliy of rurereDce thao any god 

wUwh Um hindon panttieoa poescescs. Dud' 

•IhecD wu not finally awept away from the 

t^wnvala till ahout the 14th century of the 

'■i: " "11 centuries it had been 

^ :i of India hut wbttj the 

BBWi:iii»^ I lui rorrupt and 

lieiMe, brain. 1, mixed ^viLb 

Ac worahip ot u ^iv» uud a ViBtiau and 

erpry form of absurd fnUL-hisni gatlu-ietl iVotn 
lootl idolatries and <iii|wiraiiliou^. It U this 
inixtiiiti (t( ^I'voial cr»Hl8 \vliii:li ia now 
ftlyled hindiwitim and itx followpta liiudoo*. 
It in fouud atnougn th& people iu uvct-y 
variuty of belief, from lliu mildet»t dt<mou 
wor^ihip and rcco^icion of nuroisroua furtai 
uf gtidit, avalara or iiu-ariialions aud their 
idolH, to u distinct ihcinm : from tlit> gro<iffest 
i^nomiiee and ftu p<-r!>titi<iii to the miMt n-fiiieJ 
s{K!Culalivun«S8 ; perfnrmud and HMociatcd 
with bloody and mo«-t inhuman riles, and, 
H^iu, follo^reil with lliu »ieate«r ti^tudeniess 
for animal life. In Europe, tlio hiiidoo leEi* 
gion ia a term whioii is always employed iu 
a eolltMjtivc seu.iv, to ilebi;;nate faithfi and 
worflliipft of an nlmo»l endlessly diversified 
dusei'ipliun. An ciiily division of the hiiidoo 
fiyatitm and onu coufonnHhlo to the geniuft of 
pnlytbeifim, just ub ut preM-nl, is said to 
have Ke|)amtL-d tlie practinil iiml popular 
belief from tho sp'cul.'itivo and pliilosophiciit 
doctrines. And, whilst tliu common )»euplti 
addresiHNi Uipil' ho[H.-'4 and feitrs to atoults 
and !>t'inesand mnltiplied by iheir credulity 
and superslilioii tliu frrotewpiu nbjeeta of 
their veueiJilion. some fi'w of deeper Uiouj^ht 
and wider eunt^'uiplutidn plunged lulo the 
mynterieB of man and untiirv nml nssidtiously 
endeavoured to obtain jiihl no|.ion5 rf the 
eiiu^se, tlic cbarncter and tliti eonsequonce of 
oxisteuec. Similarly with Iruddhimt, for 
eighteen heresie* are deploieiJ in the MhUii- 
wan>o, witliin two eoutnrrea of Sakyn's «ie»tl», 
and disftinct eccls em-h rojoiein^ in the nnme 
of buJdhiete, are now to l-o tniced amongst 
tlic remnuLts of his worshippers in the Ka»l 
and South of Afta. In ilA migi-ution^ toother 
counliies since its viob-nt dispersion by the 
hrnhmuns about the eif>htb century, Uudtlhimi 
has luauRiud and exbibiletl itself in n variety 
of shiipca. At the prri^enl: duy, its doctrines 
hi cberUhcil nnumg the Jainu of Guzciat anil 
iCnjpiitiuia, ditlvr widely frum itii myftcries, as 
admin i-itered by theLamn of Thil>cl, and both 
are eipiftlly dintinrt, fiom the metapbybical 
doctrines pr(>|K)nndfd by the monki? of Ne|ial : 
or the philofopliy laii^bt in Durmuh : its ab- 
stmctions iu jnpaii, nnd ics observances havo 
undergone n Rtill more striking olccintiou 
from their vicinity to the Sintoo t^ect, nnd iu 
Chinn, they have been simUu'ly modified in 
their coutiict witli the rntinnali^m of tjiu-tftOn 
and (lie «ooial demonology of the Coufncians. 
but ill eticli and nil, the distiuctioo is ratlier 
in dc>rn!Q than iu ee,<jenco, nnd tlio general 
eoncurrencc is unbroken in nil the gruuii 
eeeentials of tho tyKtem. 

Of tho three great religious ayetema of tho 
Aj-yaus ibat of thu Hellenic and lAtin racof 
neemn to have originated in the'Enat, but !<.> 



I .- • - V . - ■,— * .1 . ■* . -'T :,i_-.*, :r..-,- T «w.- ui" die 

-- . . - ■ — - .: . ; I'.z. ■.T-^j 13« aarborilr of 

. .- . -- ■ — T ;- -^;-. I; ^-1 n J-Tr Tar* nt-xi to the 

- ■ * .- i -li-i -;.- u-T -'■■'7 -■:;-"--■* ^^rrr-t J =.-- •tor_T of Betf- 

i . . -.-. . -. . . ■ ;. ■'-.•. ■- .: - - .: L." - >.- liJ -iza; .- r :■» klag'f mm 

.- . . .- '■ - 1. ■-:■; V .. i, :.- T - i-T — -:*— -T-t- &i wli'.-ii he M 

: /^' . i . -■ ..- — : • ■ . I.. . T ir- iK i*: loaad, u hi 

I . ■---:.--; 1 T- - : rfTiz-- p^rioB from the 

■ • :- I ■. ■ - •---.-.•. " -:■■;• ■z.-::---r ri-- zjirvif to k lift 

- 1 -■ --"-" r. u.--?:: ' ic-i m>%<iiniMj |« 

■u-. .- I- ■:.=: ■-.■■ 'f>-- ■ ■ "■-•: :':':*'^: i=-i rte tneuciC 

.-,--■ .- - -- ■ A:- - 1.-1 .-i- -IT- - - -. i-rr_:r ;a.- & i,;-(;:«r i)i]e «aurit 

.■ •;■ . , .- ■ .-:' it--!.: - ■.: «-. . r T*T z<- 't \<anai let 

--..-» . ■- - , ■ . -, - - . _. -.-i It :t ,- c It ijine pfu» pare 

- 1 . . (. - Z. 1 - - - - - .1. -^ .- - : ■ B-.-iha. 

. '. ■ ^-.- M S- ;-: i -. M iir^L- Bjaioafaod 

i : . ■ -■ - » r,"'- .:'.! M_ --, ■:-i:-\ the nirrni 

.■•.■■---■ : ;y. . . _i - ■ . i * :-t »: :: Lilisiioo, the 

1.. - . J '" " " -"■ "''■ - --•^'«= J» "i" ■t»«ori^ 

^■■* ■- ■ - '.' ;■- : ■:>: r. ; -: . It .• t'ne iiin-rvated 

■. ■■' -■- i . -:.--. ^-^- ■:. ^ :«-.'** t:' [i4.-ace and 

. - ■ ■ ■: .■■•'..-- Tr: :'.■>-.- :'r j. e- . >:: ::.e . "^s of beiu^ ind 

;t .- r,.*- . ... . •-. .--.■-. - :.---". -'-I*'... ;i. r** s: :!v.e. Ti.!« doctrine M 

. . ■ - ,' -> ■: \ •'■■'■' ■'.-- «'.i.--VT; : -r:'. :- :be 'iefialr i>f Job aod 

i ■ ,• - ,■ '. ■- ■:.■■•.■ J ■ '■ AiT' :.'.-'.. ■.-■.T 't^p rje!ar,:hi.'l_T of Ecck- 

-* \ ...■-.■•... >■ %T-— : .J -.j.'T C:. -:?<:» o;* S-'jilioi-lei, tin 

,' ■ » , .-. ■: ■.---;. T At-. ■_- » ■;!* P »;•■ a:.! its ihe soiiloqur of 

■/. --•■ % .:■ ■■ '■..■<-'■ • •-■ rv-i^r.-. H»T..ri. yt: ::.;» ;,^» -_o wher* Let! lo saicid^ 

s« ii,c :'»:;. x-.- Nr^a _a. t-ai i.j fiftiDg. piVTer, 
a rri»-j:T:r,^, a.i f^i'-M-.nnce. But it wm 
oTfcici !■> r-;-i e wLo i.el-i lo the belief of a 
L^iLintl -.ioni'>rTa.iiT a^i ns^temssohjcosii, to 
'n'i.-.rii ijenih ifi'o.:k;hT co sure deliTeraace, bat 
i.iii'l.: iea-j lo i!=> premier thaa in this wbrld, 
Lr^r I'Tini of liuiiMD or brute life mora 
ini.-cmt<i>; tiiari what tlier liaj paii'eil throagfa. 
Tiic l'if'< >.>t' fct';:><a<rrttii-e of its fuunder, bit 
roluDUrr aci'ept:i:.L'e of {Ktrertr aiij his pro- 
oiamaiii'i: ot'ii uiiivrrsal I>i-oilier-hoo>l made 
firnii tiri; ■;-.i;'<'-i l>y Si'-;:" :iriil lla'j/. the war on ilie ca^ie i-vsieni. But binhmauism 
u:,' f ri ■■\ iii.:.'IiiY \^,\'\, 'H\'Xfm'\j ivi-c aii<I a?a:ii ro*e irinmpliiiiit aud drore buddhim 
\"^.\ : III ;■ •)>.Ni 'jf «-vll, iTjrjjjilii'.^ AiiiJ uc<:ii«- inlo otla-r laiiits, :iud the region of SakjR 
Iff/ , III ifiyr.Hil nii;."'!- mIi'> J'"i'iii t)i<; &rrnlr-« Muni's birtli and IqIm^ui-a berame a place of 
kill) -I't lix: pl'fiiiii'' ''.'' i)m: :;i't-iit Kin;; ; in n i>il:;rimane tn pi.>ii|)]e from ilistant coantriea. 
lie: 'if Iifi; firi'l n (f«- Iff kfinviU:th't ; ari-l a Many nations art included in the tens 
%tir\i-ut. til': cri'-rny el iiiiitj, tli(; ]'-uii'i*:l.n'-tiii S^-initi'-, Thxrucians Curthagiiiiaiis, S/riau, 
ti:i<ii-i| '•(' rlic ''fiiiiur'iii iunn-i iii y^AyxSyt-iyni, A^-yrims. whose reliiiions present formi of 
lln: lii>|i't of It '■•iiiiT(i''>ii lJ>:liv':rr:r, tin: (K:li(:f ill wor.-hip, B" ;; and sensuous as those of 
a pnra'lm- i'ur rlii: r'ltih. of thi: 'jyni und firciccc 'ii' India. I'ntil the return of lb« 
I tyhu—u*. Jf w-i fruin Babylon, llic pefipio peuerallj were 

U'licn till- ii'ist t'l'-nf r'-It'.'i'iii '•'■^aii it^ pronf; lo fall iiiln a woreliip of gods xawf 
'■(iiji '-, llic yii-;ii 'if (III: \'i:iiii>i )iA<l Ikic'iiiii} and lords inutiy, like- Ilie nntiniis arouod them* 
|ff'i vi'it'-'l ml'' :i r''V(iI(ipi[; pr>lyi)ii;i''rii willi ' wlii':li till! f<>w ihiiikiuff minds amongst them 
ru'tii H^ nil iiitiil<-iiilil<: tYMiiiiiy- 'I'li'^ itiH-lrinff ' could not prcTCiit. Their entira history, 
of iiii-h-iiipNyflio-in liH't n<-riin'-il n promiiiAiit fliiows that tlie people fell into the lower 
priMiiion ill all "rM'Riilntioris »^ lo thi^ ' licfnn;' j fnrmn of thought and speifcli. their very woiv 
Hiid " Hl'txi" of tliii I'Ai'thly Htnf(> from which j filiip of Jehovah became |>i)lythristic OTea 
Iht-io WMH iii> iciiily i-inNii('i|tatioii,iiii(| tliiiikin;r feliflie, in its nature, and it was in proteal 
iiiMiilr Wfrr lniif.'hl In l(K(k on lil'i! with :J1 il<i I ntrnin^t this thai their laW'giverii, propheH, 
iirnMMliriii'' anil i-iii>i'(;ii-i>, nx nil illu<-ioii. ' and pi^almistn iipoke and when .Mahomed 

Out of tliiK, liiidiliMii f;r(;w. Sak'hya muni in ibe scrculh century of the christi&u era, 

711 S 70 

t ' ' 

.'. ■ ' ,' •■•. W. vt."..' '..'1 "..•■ rv... 

' / 

', . I'/C. '"■. \- . \ - 1 . .l'!,l- 'A 

.■■-,.- .. >- - .-•.■.•, -n':.:,- •..- :• -.T.-y 


, .. ■ /- ■ , ■^ ■ :-.^.' or ■ -- ■ rT^fr. 


• I; .. 4 ■.• • y- . .'- '.'.i" :}.•; Ii- i----^- 


■'■-' .. I'A'.. i.'.T '.■. ti'.j- • ::'.•-■ 

, . 

•.■•■ra ty, • . 'i.i-ti •■■■■It -.'-'.i.Vr^i 

f , - 

i'tfl. Sir. i !-,*.• • : .~.i.;j ' ■■- ■■•■•:.-? 

l' ' ' ' 

V • , •■> :i' . ■-, ■>■..•■ 'T-. :■; »i.- :» lit o' 

A .1 

..: ifi. !i . W'l'i ». A:: 1 I.'il!!..-! -Ill W:- 

1 n'l 

fj ,. ,,. _. .,(,i 1,', 7.i,'U-r ai:d of 


appewed with a moDotfaeism, the most rigorous 
uul ezcloslTe that the world had witnessed, 
he «u (Hte of a Semitic race who were still 
poljrtheists and fetish worshippers. The Jews 
belwf bad} as a basis, not moDOtbeism, the belief 
iia duty, Dumericallj one, but ia a living God 
tltt Father and the King of men. But when 
Mahomed prochiimed that the Lord was One, 
he did so as reriTiog the faith of Abraham, 
who derired his knowledge through a special 
nrelation of God. 

The little prevalence of idoiatrj in Hindoo- 
jtu at compared with Bengal, is noticeable. 
large towns have their temples and gods. 
Bat each village, as in Bengal has not 
in tntelary Siva and Shuati. From AUaha- 
Ud to MToporee a bindoo traveller did not 
neet with one single instance of that indis- 
pensable of a Bengal villi^^e, a little round 
■tmie painted with vermillion and placed 
beneath an aged banyan or peepul tree, which 
irti as a gaardian dettj of a rural communitj. 
Ia one single street of Calcjitta there are 
Bore images of Krishna aod emblems of 
Sifa, than perhaps in the whole length of the 
Doab. A boddhist philosophy seems to have 
bHn since b. c. 1500 t. e., 850 years before 
Sskya Muni gave it fresh vigour, Sakya 
Sioha, is the household name of Gautama 
Baddba, It means the Scythian lion, Gautama 
Buddha ia another appellation. The epoch 
of Sakya, the fifth Buddha or Gautama, is 
determined by coDCurrent testimony of the 
Cejionese, Siamese, Pf>gu, Burmese and Chi* 
nese eras, which are all founded on the bii-th 
w deaih of the Buddha legislator, and though 
ill differing more or less, concur in placing 
him between the limits of 544 and 638 years 
before Christ. The Raj Guru of Assam, a 
pandit well versed in Buddha literature, fixes 
the Xirwao or emancipation of Sakya Muui 
in 520 B. c. According to Mr. Csoma de 
Koroc, the name of Kanishka occurs in a 
Tibetan work as a celebi-atcd king who reigued 
ia Northern India, at Knpita, which is sup- 
posed to be in Rohilcund or near Hurdwar. 
His reign dates about 400 yesrs after Sakya 
(about the end of the second century) when 
ibe followers of the Baddba religion bad 
become divided into eighteen sects (the Sakya 
tribes, or Sues) under four principal divisioos, 
of which the names both Sanscrit and Tibetan 
ire on record.— Prin. Ind. Ant. Vol. i, ;i. 
3S ; Perrif'sfiir^i £t/e Fi>u),p. 53 j ('soma's 
AnalyM of the Dulva, Res. As. Soc. Bengal, 
vot.xz.,p. 90 ; Fo-kwe-ki, chap. xvi.;>. lUI ; 
fra Oraxio, in ITouv.Jout. Asiat., t. xiv., p. 
108, ii ; Jour, des Savantes, Mai, 1831, p. 
263 ; Bkiisa T^ea, by Major Cunningliam, 

Ceylofty p. 327 ; 

pp. I (0 67 ; Tennant^s 

Rniew of E. H. Ptamptree of Max. Muller's seeds and entertain friends. 

71 S 71 


Science of Religion in Contemporary Review 
for Jan. 1868 ; Tr. of Rind. Vol. i, p. 375 ; 
Adam's Roman Antiquities, 8/A Ed., pp. 
228 to ;234 ; Boudha et sa religion, p. 5. 
See Ajatasatra, Ajataswara, Aryan, Asoka, 
Budd'ha, Hindoo, India, lascriptioni, Karli, 
Mahomedaos, Pali, Fradotya, Frad'baoika, 
Fyadasi, Sakhyn, St'hupa, Tope. 

SAKI. An alcoholic liquor in use in 
Japan. At an entertainment tliere, a pair of 
chop sticks was placed at each corner of every 
t:ible, in the centre was an earthen pot filled 
with saki, surrouaded with four acorn cups, 
four large coarse China cups with clumsy 
spoons of the same material and four teacups of 
tea. Cups of tea were first handed round, these 
were followed by very smalt cups of ^aki, which 
had tlie taste of French liqueur. — American 
Expedition to Japan, p. 218. See Japan. 

SAKI, Hind. The asti-iugent ba»k of a 
Paojsb tree. 

SAKI, Hind. The uiau who gives charas 
prepared to the drinkers. 

SAKI, see Indra. 

SAKI, Hind. Euonymus fimbriata. 

SAKIAM, see India. 

SA.KITAI, or Saka-dwipa. From between 
the parallels of lat. 30* and 50' N., and from 
long. 75* to 95* E., the highlands of Central 
Asia, alike removed from the fires of the equa- 
tor and the cold of the arctic circle, migrated 
the SakK or Scytbic races which passed into 
Europe and within the Indus. The Takshak, 
the Gete, the Kamari, the Katthi and the 
Hun came from Sakitai or Saka-dwipa, and 
from the Dasht-i-Kipchak crossed the Jaxar- 
tes or jihooQ and crossed the Paropamisaa 
niiigo into the plains of Hindusthaii. See 
SaksG, Sakatai. 

SAKITSCHIWAN, see Juniper. 

SAKKA TUNGHA, Tel. Cypcrus hex- 
astychius, Rottt. 

SAKKA RI, Tam. Sugar. 

SAKKEB, in lat. 27* 42', long. 68' 51' N. 
a town in Sindh, on the right side of the In- 
dus. The Dak bungalois 419 feet above the 
sea. — Schl, Rob. See Sakar, Sukker. 

SAKKYE, see Kedah, Quedah, 

SAKMUNIA, Guz., Hind. Convolvulus 
scammonia. Scammony. 

SAKPHA, Tibet. Tetrao hodgsonia;, 
also Sacfa hodgsonii, Blyth, 

SAKRA, a name of Indra. 

SAKRANT, also Saokrant, also Makar- 
Sankrant, a bindoo festival, held on the day 
that the sun enters the sign of Makar at the 
winter solstice. On this night, in ancient 
India, a horse was sacrificed to the sun or 
Bal-uath the god Bal, Hindoos now bathe 
in the sea, rub their bodies with sesamum 

See Sun. 


SAKSANOARI, SiNnn. Amtotocliia in- 
ilk-a, Linn., Roxb. 

SaKTA, u scut of liiudooi}, who worsltip 
the fdfnHlo priQ(;i[)le ncuoriliug to the ritual of 
the Taiiti-a. Oftlictie there urc two diviuioiis, 
the Dakdbiua chnri ur right huiiU rituulists, 
and the Vama churi or left hund rituulists. 
The worship of the right hand division it 
public, and is addrcdsed to the goddeu^es, iti the 
ibnasof Durpo, Bimvaui, Pnrvnti, Lukshmi, 
Maha Lakshnii and others. The left hiiud 
ritualists worship, iu prcfureuce, the Tautriuu 
impcrsonatious of Durgu, as Devi, Kali, 
Syama, &c., or a woman represieutiug the 
sakti. Their worbbip is private aud uuavow- 
ed and is much talked about. — WUton't 
Hindoo Sects ; IVilson't Glott. See Hin- 
doo, Kerari, Siinti, Veda. 

SaKTA BHAKIITA, worshippers of the 
female euergy who make the universe to be 
developed by an inherent power in niHtter. 
They use feminine t<.Tn)s and synibolti, aud 
practice the magical rites oftbe At'harvana 
Veda, which has been termed the black Veda ; 
and the whole is sometimes termed the Tan- 
trica system. — Taylor. See Veda, At'IuuTa 
veda, Tantricu. 

SAKTI NATH. The lord of Sakti, or 
the divine euergy under a female personifica- 
tion. Iu this sense Sakti is applicable to 
every goddess, but it is more especially the 
name of Bhavaui, and her lord or husband in 

SAKTI. Ill hindnism, thebitidoogoddesses 
are uniformly represented as the subordinate 
powers of their respective lords : thus Laksh- 
mi, the consort of Vishnu the preserver, is the 
goddess of abuadance and prosperity ; Bba- 
vani, the wife of Siva or Mahadeva, is the 
general power of fecundity ; and Saraswati, 
whose husband was the creator, Brahma, 
possesses the powers of imagination and in- 
vention, which Diay justly be termed creative. I 
She is, therefore, adored as the patroness of ' 
the fine arts, es[>ecially of music and rhetoric ; | 
M the inveutress of the Sanskrit language, of I 
the Devanagri writing characters, and of the I 
sciences wbti^h writing perpetuates : so that j 
her attributes correspond with those of Mi- ' 
uerva Munira of Greece or Italy, who invent- ' 
ed the flute, and presided over literature. 
Some of the Sakti of Uio hindoo gods and 
their avatara are termed Bruhmi, Mahcs- 
wari, Vftishnavi, Varahi, Mahendri, Cha- 
muuda and Chandika, hideous goddc*i8cs, who 
attend upon Siva an Bhairava, the terrific 
destructive deity, who is propitiated by 
offerings of wine and flesh. The Sakti '. 
worshippers ure almost nnknown in tho south 
of India.— Gs/cwan, p. 125 ; Uinti. T/ieat.,- 
Vol. \\, p -tl. See Kanchcliya. i 

72 S 


SAKTI-rUJA, orSakti-worbhip,ahinik« 
form of worshipping the Sakti. 

SAKUNTALA, name of a Sanscrit book. 
See Sakuntiila. 

SAKWALA, Sakwala-gala, see Myen-aa 

SAKWANTI, see Pandu dynasty. 

SAKYA GAUTAMA, sec Saky'ha muDi. 

SAL, ulso Sakhu, Hind. Vutica robustL 

SAL, IIiM>. A kind of sugar press iu tii« 
Simiii stiites. 

SAL, IIiNU. A year. 

SALA, Tki.. Vaticn robusto, 

SALABAT JUNG, son of Nizam ui Molk f 
his brother, Nassir Juug, in 1750, brought 
him into the Camatic a prisoner, but la 
February 1 75 1 , on the death ut Cuddapah of 
Muzuffar Juug, he was released and proclaim- 
ed Subah. He took Kurnool, and advanced 
to Hyderabad, where ho pacified the Fmcli 
troops and then iu May advanced to Aunu- 
gabad which he reached on the 1 Nth Jane. 
In July ho purchased a peace with the Mah- 
rattas aud proceeded against the Nirmul njah 
whom ho defeated, and after this he Bent to 
the Marquis Dupleix a eunnnd of Noliobof 
(ho Carnatic. In 1772-3-4, he was alter 
teiiiately at war and at peace with the Hih- 
ratta peshwah, Balaji Buji Rao. But in 1755^ 
he proceeded to Seringapatam and exacted 
52 lacs of rupees as tribute. In 1756, be 
came to u rupture with the French under M. 
Bussy, dismissed and pursued them, and 
sought the aid of the British from Madras. — 
Or (lie. 

SALAB MISKI, Hind. Salcp, the root 
of Orchis muscula, Eulophiu,and otiior plants. 

SALACIA, a genus of uuimpurlunt plonta 
of the natural order Hippocrates, the fullov- 

iog East Indian species are known : 

S. amottiaiiia, tVi^At, Malabitr. 

S. brunoniana, W. d- A., Pen. of luiUa. 

S. ceUittrifutia, Widl. 

S. luntHfi'lia, WuJL, Khauoya. 

S. macroBiwrma, IT. /. 

S- luilliflora. Wight, Mergiii. 

S. oblonga, WuiL, VfiQht, H«ii. of IndU. 

S. iKimiftfiu, IVoU., H'tyAt, P«n. uf ludia. 

S. prinoiilca, DC, Buncab. 

S. reticulata, Wight, Cuylon. 

S. roxburgbii, Wall., Khauya. 

S. verrucuML, Wight, Mergui. 

The Kost Indian species are often clasiied 
under Uie genus Johnia, the last named iu 
compliment to Dr. John, a Danish mission- 
ary, who was one of the founders of the 
Botanic Garden at Tranquebar, and sent many 
new plants to Dr. Roxburgh. The whole 
are formed of species which have little lieanty, 
but the fruit of Itoth the species of Johnia ia 
eatable. — Roxb. ; l^oight. 

SALADIN, PCQ Kufro, Salah ad-Din 

SALADANO. fvo Sapi 



SALAGRAHA, Fossil Ammoiiitef, sup- 
poiad by some to be the tctiles or oaglu 
aoats of th« •□cients. Tho principal sorle 
ire the Itakshmi Narayani, (whicb, accord- 
ing to Mr. Colebrooke, must be perforated 
in one place only, aod bare four spiral 
mrrm in Uie peHbration, with marks re- 
sembliDg a eow's foot aud a wreath of 
towers, whiefa is supposed to contain Laksh- 
mi MS Narayani,) the Vamuna, the Demoduru, 
the Karsiogha, &c^ &c., some denote. the 
gracious, aud others the vindictive incania- 
lious of Vishnu. The fonoerare much valued. 
Ur. Ward states that the Lakshini Narayaus 
is sometimes sold for as much as two thousand 
rupees. In an account of the meeting of the 
Asiatic Society of CalcutU in October 1830, 
iii a notice of a letter from Dr. Gerard of 
Soobatboo, who had discovered in a lofty 
position ( I AjOOO feet) ofthe Himalaya range, 
in extensive fossil tract of shell fonuation, 
of which he describes four classes, and of tlic 
fourth thus writes : " Belemaites and Ortho- 
ceratites mineralized by the same material as 
die Ammonites (iron clay and pyrites.) Their 
aboadance in the beds of mountain torrents, 
especially the Guudak, has been long known, 
asdiey form an indispensable article in the 
saera of the Hindoo Tfaakoordwari, under 
the name of Salagrama." This fossil, deemed 
sacred by the hindoos, is essential in mnny 
rites and ceremonies of the brahmaos ; it is 
Qsed in propitiatory oblations to Visliiiu, as 
well as in funeral and otiier ceremoniep. The 
Salagrama is also considered as a type of 
Mabadeva, as some other holy, particularly co- 
oical stones also are. Mr. Colebrooke, likewitfo 
informs us (As. Res. vol. iii, p. 240,) that the 
Sdagrama are found in a part of the Gunduk 
river, within the limits of Nepal. Tliey are 
Mack, mostly round, and are commonly i>er- 
forsted in one or more places by worms, or, 
u the hindooe believe, by Vishnu, in the 
liliApe of a reptile. According to the number 
of pcrforBtion^ and of spiral curves in each, 
the stone is supposed to coutain Vishnu in 
rarious ehnracters. For example, such a stone 
perforated in one place only, with four spiral 
carves in the perforation, aud with marks 
resembling a cow's foot and a wreath of 
flowers, ctmtains Lakshmi Narayana. The 
■toaes called Bac-liDg, found in the Nermnda, 
are, in like manner, considered as types of 
^ra, bnt they are not fossils, merely stonc« 
roanded by attrition. Tho Salagrama is found 
upon trial not to be calcareous ; it strikes fire 
*i!h rteel, but scarcely at all effervesces willi 
Kids. SoQDcrat also describes the Salanrnma 
u a petrified shell, of the species corues d' 
tnraon, very heavy, commonly black, but somo- 
(ioes riolct, OTtl, or round, a little flat; nearly 



' reiicmt>liug a touchtitone, aud hollow, with 
only one small aperture ; within, liu 9ayf, it in 
almost concave, with spiral lineH lemiiuuting 
towards the middle. Some nro supposed to 
I'eprescut the gracious iucaruniions of Vishnu, 
and aro then highly prized ; but when they 
border a little on tlio violet, they denote a 
vindictive avatara such as Narosingn, when 
no roan of ordinary nerve dares keep them in 
his house. The iHissessor of a Salagrama 
preserves it in clean cloth : it ia freijuently 
perfumed and tiathod ; and the wafer thereby 
acquiring virtue, is drank, and prized for its 
6in-ex|wning property. They are common 
water worn Ammonites, and though hindoos 
are averec to show them, Europeans who 
attend to i'ucli thingH can always meet iu witli 
them. Venerntion for stones may be traced 
nmouE^ almost all nations. The following in- 
stance from our scripture reminds ono strongly 
of hiudoo simplicity : — " And Jacob rose up 
early in the morning, and took tlie stone he 
hadputfurhis pillow, aud sot it up for a pillar, 
and poured oil ou the top of it." — Gen. chap. 
xxviii, V. 18. The Grihadova or household 
deity raroly bears any specific designatiou : 
is Bometiracs represented by a water pot, a 
rude figure, a Salagrama, or a Tulasi plaut.— 
Cole.Myth.IIind.,p. 176 ; Moor's Pantheon, 
pp. 309-10 ;• Wilson's Gloss. See Hindoo, 
Saligrnm, Sri Sampradoya, Zonar. 

SALAHIIC, a beautiful village in the sub- 
urbs of Damoscufi, lying at the foot of tho 
western mountains, about a milo from the 
limits of the city. — liobinson's Travels, Vol, 
ii, p. 116. 

SALAH-UD-DIN, the leader of the 
armies of the kliuUfK, who encountered tho 
eruFuders and Richard Ca^ur do Lion of Eng- 
limd, near Jerusalem. His tribe are still 
numerous in Kurdistan. Caliph Mamun, in 
A, i>. 814, caused a degree of tho eorth's 
surface to be menf^ui'ed. This was done on 
tho sandy plains of Mesopotamia, between 
Palmyra and llie Euphrates, by which 66'66 
miles were tlxed as the equivalent of a degree 
of the ciu'tli's circumlcrcnce. Caliph Ma- 
mun, son of Huruu ur Raebid forced an en- 
trance into the pyramids. Later, Salah-ud- 
diu, the Suladin of Europeans, used their 
cubing?, at least, as stone quarries. Caliph 
Umar, was the socond caliph in succession 
to Mahomed. His time was a period of great 
extension of maliomcdanism. Tlic battle of 
Kadesia was fought and won by his general 
Saai], and put an end to the Fc-vi^iuu empire 
of the Parpi. He imposed the khiraj on 
Syria, ntid died and was burled at Jerusalem 
where his tomb still is. — Bjortisfjcrna's Brit- 
ish Empire in the East, p. 97 ; Btirisen, 
Vol, ii, p. 150. See Acre. 

J 73 



SALAI, u i')V(;rruuuiug near Xuriidoul iii 

8ALAI, Ukki:., Hind., Sans. Boswcllin 
{{labi-a, U. scrrotft, B. thurifera. Satai-goud, 

SALAI, Tam. Ad idol. 

SALAJIT, HiKD. Lignite. 

SALAKA, Jav. Silver. 

SALA-KUUHOO, Bbbg. Colocasiu for- 

SALAM, Ahau,, Hkk. Peace ; Salnm-alai- 
ktim, Puace l>u unto you. O alaikua salain 
and UQto yuu Im pence. Saliim bolu, »ay 
unto liim peace. Toucliiiij; the breast and 
forehead or lips aod foi*ebcml : kittahig of the 
lips is nut known with men, only the cheeks 
and lihoulderti. The n>;ht check firs^ then 
the left and some times the clieekn niouo 01*0 
kissed, but generally tlie slioulderx, qIho as 
Gen. 33, 4 : 14, 145 ; Luke 15, 20. 

Kissing of the hands is common as iii 
Math. 23» 7 : Maik 12, 38, and rising to 
receive as iu Job. 29, 8. 

The not returning " Salara" is a sign on 
the part of the Bedouins that they were out 
to fight, and not to make friends ; but the 
dromedary riders, generally travel with- 
out much to rob. After the first salutation 
of peace, iu conversation you say, " Is your 
illustrious disposition welV* and the reply is 
" al hamd ul Utah." Thanks be to God, or Ap 
ki mihrbaoi se, by your favour, and if assent- 
ing to a proposition, " Insha ul illah," if it 
please God. Salam Alaikum, is the Hebrew 
Shalom Alechem, Peace bo to you, of Luke 
X, 5. Give my peace to So and So, oa part- 
iog, where one says good bye, or God be with 
you. With peace, go in peace, Ex. iv, 18. — 
Burton't Fitgrimage to Meccah, Vol. i, p. 

Balamander of Japan, lives in the valleys of 
Ktpbon between 34* and 46* N. lat. It re- 
sides in rivulets and Iskoa formed hy the 
rains at a height of from 4,000 to 5,000 feet 
above the level of the sea. It grows to about 
three feet in length. 

SALAMBHA, Hind. A kiDd of salt. 

SALA-MISBI, Tam. Salep. 

SALABAS, or Silajitu, Tel. Ophelia 
elegans, R. W, 

SALAMLIK, also Salamji, Tdse. The 
place of assembly in a house. 


Sul AmiiioniHC is a compound of ammoaia 
i and hydrochloric acid, a hydi-ochlorata of 
ommouiu, although tho older term, muriate of 
ammonia, is also used. The Bubstauce froa 
which this salt was first obtained, was the 
soot of camel's dung ; by sublimation ioEgypI, 
near tho temple of Jupiter Ammon, whenn 
its name. It is now manufactared l&rgd/ 
in Europe, by combining hydFOchlorie add 
cither directly or indirectly with aB> 
monia obtained from the decomposilioa of 
animal matter. In France, bones and odwr 
animal matters are distilled in large iroa 
retorts, for the manufacture both of aaiiul 
charcoal and of sal ammoniac. Coal soot was 
formerly used iu Great Britain as a soaroe of 
this salt ; but since the establishment of gas 
works, it has been chiefly derived frmn tli« 
liquor obtained during tho preparation of ooat 
gas. It is found native at Etna and Veanvia^ 
in some of tho Tuscan lakes, in Penil^ 
Bokhara, in Mongolia and lie from lakes and 
the vicinity of extinct volcanoes. That in ooa 
in Clfiua was formerly obtained from Lan- 
chau-fu and Niug-hia, in Kaa-soh, but tlw 
country of the Tih or Sijung and Toriaa 
formerly yielded it and the fissures in the 
volcanic mountain of Peh-ting in Turfan. It 
is met with in commerce as large cakes of ft 
semi-circular form, ti-anslucent, and ctJoor- 
less, with a sharp, saline, cool taste^ but 
no smell. It forms a considerable article of 
trade in Karnal, where the manufacture hai 
been kuowu for ages. It is important as a 
source of most of the compounds of ammonii^ 
and is used at Lahore for the manufacture of 
solution of ammonia, for snake bites, to a 
considerable extent. It is extensively enft- 
ployed in the arts, in the preparation of aqna- 
regia, in soldering some of the metals, is 
tinning iron and copper, in the preparatioa 
of dyes, liquid ammonia, and In variooa 
chemical manufactures.— 0'5A., Mai. Med. ; 

Urmena, Aa. 

Non-ahk ; Toog-ilu, Chin. 
P«h-titig-«h« „ 

8el AmmonUc, Fa. 

Sklnudk, Gbb. 

Nowngnr; Nvmndar.OtiZ- 
Stls Amnumiaco, It. 


Sftl AmmoDiM, Lat. 

8^»r, Mai-at. 

Nowihulnr, Pebb. 

Nuehatur, Kcs. 

Nowndur, Sahh. 
V»yv«guTa twin, Sioau. 

NsTMbuum, Tah. 

of China-, PawtlTs 
Faulkner. See An- 

Paoicum miliaccua. 

A balk used for 

Smith's Mai. Med. 
Handbook, p. 1 10 ; 
monis, Dyes, 

SALAN, Hind. 
Penoisetum italicum. 

fibre in Kangra. 

SALANG ISLANDS, see Jnuk-Seylon. 

SALAKGOBE, in lat. 3* 20' N., long. 
101' 12' E., lies on the south side of the 
entrance of the river of tho same name. Thia 
place was formerly frequented for tin and 
other articles of trade. Salangore is separated 
from Perak by a small river called the Bnn- 
kup, a Httle north of tho Bimam stream, is 
about lat. 30* 59' N. Salangore, according 
to native authority, comprisos tliree divisions. 
Tho Bugi occupy the coast.— iVeH'&o/d's 



BriiiiA Seltlementt, Vol. ti, p. 27. See 
Kedkh, Qnedali, Semang- 

SALARIAS ALTICUS. Near tho rocks 
of the CeyloD coast, are multitudea of 
the Salarus alttcQS, a canons littlo fish 
which posaesses the faculty of darling 
■long the surface of the water and run- 
niog op the wet stones and across the 
sand with the ntmoat ease aud rapidity. 
Mr. Goase has seen a species of Anten- 
nariain similarly running qatckty to and 
firo OD the sarface of the great beds of 
floating sea weed in the gulf stream, pro- 
f^ressing with the utmost facility by means of 
its pectorab and rentral fins, quite out of 
water. By aid of the pectoral and ventral 
fins and gill-cases, they move acrosR tho 
damp Kind, ascend the roots of the mangroves, 
ind climb.up the smooth face of tho rocks iu 
search of flies ; adheriug so securely as not to 
be detached by repeated assaults of the 
wavet). These little creatures ai-e so nimlile, 
that it is almost impossible to lay hold of 
them, as they scramble to tho edge, and 
plonge into the sea on tlie slightest attempt 
to molest tliem. They are from three to foui- 
incliea in length, and of a dark brown colour, 
timost aodistingui^hablo from tho rocks they 
freqoent. — Goase, pp. 122-123 ; TennenCs 
Sketeke$ of the Sat. flitt. of Ceylon, p. 332, 
Ko/. ii,ji. 493. 


SA-LAT,BuRM. Calpicarpum roxburghii, 


SALATAH, Arab. A favourite dish 
made as follows. Take a cucumber, pare, 
Eliceand place it in a plate, sprinkliug it over 
with aalt After a few minutes, season it 
ibnndantly with pepper, and put it in n bowt 
containing some pepper-corns, and about a 
pint of curds. When the dish is properly 
mixed, a live coal is placed upou the top of 
the compound to mako it hind, as the Arabs 
uj. It is considered a cooling dish, imd is) 
oteemed by the abstemious, as well ns by the 
toper. — Burton's Pilgrimaye to Mecca/i, 
Vot.i,p. 198. 

SA-LAT-NEE, Bubm. Graptophyllum 
bartenset Ifees, also G- lurtdo-snngniiiL'um, G. 
bortense is also called iu Burmese, Gnwn;-bau. 

SALATUBA, the So-Io-tu-lo of the 
Chinese pilgrim II wen Thsaiii; the birth- 
place of Panini tho grammarian, hits been 
identified with Lahore, near Oliind. IIwcu 
Thsang Tinitcd it, be says it vfim 20 li, or 
3| miles, to the north-west of Obiml. In 
January IH-iS, at tho village of Labor, 
which i^ exactly four miles to ihf nortli- 



oast of Ohiod, General Cunuingham pro- 
cured seTcral Greek and Indo-Scythtaii 
coins, from which it may be inferred, with 
some certainty, that tho place is at least as old 
as the time of Panini himself, or about it. c. 
3oO. Ho therefore, identifies Salatura with 
Lahore. The loss of the first syllable of the 
name is satisfactorily accounted for by tho 
cliange of the palatal sibilant to tho aspirate 
accordiug to the well-known usage of the 
people of western India, by whom the Sindliu 
river was culled Hcndhu aud Indus, and the 
people on its banks Hindus or Indians ; Sala- 
tura would, therefore linve become Halaturn 
and Alatur, which might easily have been 
corrupted to Labor ; or, as Geneni! Court 
writes tho name, to Lavor. — Cvnninghaiu's 
Ancient Geog. of India, pp. 5-8. 

SALAUKEU, Hind. Alalia triflora. 

SALAVA MIIUALU, Tkl. Cubebs, Pi- 
per cubeba. 

SALAYKli ISLAND, called by the Dut<:h, 
Bocgerens, is about 36 mileH long, of" modcr- 
atti height, well i>eopieil and well cultivated. 
Its north point is iu lat. 5* 47' H. 

SALRRA, HiNu. Salvia officinaliH. 

SALEM, a revenue district or colleotorale 
of tho Mailras Pre»iden(ry formed out of tho 
Barah-mahal, in tlie south of the peninsula of 
India, Salcm town is' situated in a valley, 
aud 870 feet above the level of the fca. Ft 
is the chief town of the revenue district, to 
which it gives its name. The Salem colloc- 
torate has a population of 1,196,377, is part 
lowland, but it includes the Bataghat, of the 
same height as Mysore, aud a rich plain of 
considcrablo elevation known as the Barah- 
mahal. The Shevaroy hills are near the town 
of Salcm nud attain an elevation of 6,000 feet, 
Salem is celebrated for its steel. See India, 
Kemla, Silk, Steel. 

SALE, It. Salt. 

SALE AMMONIACO, It. Sid ammoniac. 

SALEMANTA, or Challa miinta, Tkl. 
Fluggca leucopyrus, IVilld. The same name 
is applied to F. virosa. 

SALENDOXO, a silk scnrf of Singapore. 

SALIMOTE, a silk scarf of Singapore, or 
sometimes embroidered with gold thread. 
The Saloiidong and Salcniotc with and with- 
out gold thread and silk arc in use through- 
out the Archipelago from Sumatra to Timor. 
Timor is the nioct remote of tbu i-u.-'teru 
! islninls, in which textile fabrics tuc luaiiu- 
faclured, the (■ouulries beyoinl producing 
no other cloths than those of l>.irk beaten 
out. The texture of tlio cotton cloth.s niunu- 
I'acturcd in Timor nnd the ailjucent islands 
closely corresponds with those of the Biitta 
of Sumatra and the Dyak of iioriico. Tho 
' niiumfiu'tiire is cviiicnily of gri'ttt rinti- 

S 7.> ■ 


quilj. snd mini 

beoD mtrotlucc'l bcfui 

lIuiL <>r Juvu of Ui« |ir«>i;nt time, vrliioli i^ of 
liintloo (Origin. Cotton Htid dycH ure ftr^'^i' 
111 Tuiior. Ttio silk LbrtMils iuti'inlitccil oro 
nindt! TroiD niw-Kilk iiapnitcl frarii CliiuM nuti 
the cootincDl of A=iiiL — (W. Ex., IMrt2. 

SALKNDRA, Mah-I. Ily&bix: louuuTa. 
— Sffke*. 


^Mllb misri. \a.. DUK- < S^lop. 
Kftktp mini, Ilnii., ['kb«. | Sola mJari. 

Tiic tiiW-r^ of the Ordiii! ^m^culu, Eulo- 

pbia and other pUuiUi receive this uamo in 

works on plmnuacy. They nro comprctsed, 

ovoid, riitiior (laiiFpiiicnC unO cuui|nih() 

chipfly of bftXRorinc, aoluMo Kum, imJ a 

Itti^e piopotrioii of nrTiyl;ici-oite tnitUer oi 

ittafch. Hoyli- ctal*;* tliiit oiio *hiichra of 

tlm povTiicrcJ root tti|uiro{i tiO Jraclims of 

iMiiling wHtcr Lo affi-ct Ws Bolaliun ; two 

ilrnchmfl nfforUa HulHcIoiitnicul for au innilkl ; 

{^oil t«.ilep vui'cfiilly firepnrvil in in truth one 

of lIiu best nrticles of (]ii>t o roni-utcdcont con 

iisv. In India tltu snlup ol Co^hiiieru ii 

i-ockon(«il t)i(- best, nnrl is ohuiint^l cliicfiy nt 

i\\ty Iliiidwar fair from the Cashmere nier- 

Inilin," Vol. iv, part I,) states that the Tnni 
pUnt sbouDils iit certain parts of tlic pruvitim 
of Arnioin, whore the Mu^graco prepare thp 
ftiriiia for export to the Chiua market. AfW. 
rcmoviug the peel, tlie rout is grated ou a 
fikin, nml the pulp having been straloi 
tbrongh a coarse cloth, ja wn&lied tliree 
four tiineaiu water, aoJ then dried in due MiC 
Mr. NutiatI, (American Journal of Phanoaey^ 
fR. ! Vol. ix,p^ 3US,) sayei the Otuht-itu salep 
Tah. obtaiofnl from a new epectet) of Tarra, whirl 
In; ii.inie>< the T. Oueauii-a. Oriental ulep, W 
prubiilily obluiiicd from Kulophin vcm nnd t. 
iMmpestris. European ealcp is obtained 
Oreliid mnsculii, //'.*, O. lalifolii^ 0. mnriu((| 
W. ; O. militflris, W. ; 0. papilio«.ii<:-ii, ti"', n 
O. coriopboiraf /Vrj, and O. uuilulatil'olii 
Prrs. — Simnwnd'* Cnmmcrcial HtoHmH^ 
0'Sftan(jhne»ty, p. 653 ; M. E. J. R, |1 
Faulkner ; Aina. 3fat. Med., p. ^O ; Te 
ttMon. See Eu1o|>liia ; Orchis^ Tacco. 

SALKr-l-SUAlTAN, Fem. Couiuio 
maculnlum. Cicuta viroM. 

SALEP MISUI, or Sateb Miiri, Ai 
DuK.^ Guz., HiKD., Pebk., Tam. 
Eiitophia rirenst. Sniep, frt>m Rocpon^ call 

cUnnU ; fnmi llin (KTulinr »hfli>i> of the tnbcin, bchehaiidi, when pnlveriaed, resembleH arttii 

it hnn f;Hiiic<l in)m"nM\ but moot uiimeritcd root, and it* made nso of bj nitires on fa 

catabrity ojt nn flpliroitiiiu': icmedy. Tbo I dxyn. prepared in various wayo. It a uli 

saiDfl circnmNtnnrc liH<t ^ivtiu the plant its taiiied from the glutinoua matter wbicfa ismc 

nnmo lK>th in llir'C.itM.'k anil Ambic laugiinge- from llie stemit of u jun^'e platil, after 

At the MiuiriM ICxIiiblilnti uf IK.15, there sonktnl in running water for pnnie duyi>. Tl 

wcrL' Ihrtii^ luiuipleit .if "Sulrp misiec" con- Gonds prepare liie bchchnndi. It can bo 

irjbuted hy Dr. KidiluU from tJie Kunnor in any quantity in the Jubbulpore Ijacaar, bu 

IlilU nepr Aurun^nbiid — Mild wlicn gTDcu, moel of it comes from Muiulln ami Scooi 

iind frpfh dog op, at 2 picc per MCr : and The epecimcnK seem to consist of the dri( 

fn>m linot^aunh llillii in [icmr^when freaili 
dug in liold by the Uliil at 12 »e«r« for the 
Kupea. TlicM were hard, and Itad a homy 
ap|M!amiirOt tJio two lirsl were dirty grorn 
ami tlio tliird of n yellowish wlnto color. 
It in iinpiirtcsl fruni thn Pci-siou Gulf, but is 
indi[;couQ?i in itome pnrL^ of tlie We»lern 

Reetions of a farinacecuA root containing 
Mrtn, and allied iu compoeilion to BaJep.— J 
Br. .■ JV. Ir.. 

UALEP TACCA, Emg. Taoea pinnaUfi< 
hinn^ Forth. 

SALESI, a Koll tribe of Central rudin. 
Raj, ijatefi, Tunkri, Uhuurand Dui^giUi Kol 

Pref^i>Ictioy. tliouf.'h for wnnl of cultivation, ! reside iu the Altavcci>y, and in tlic Wtiu, Dal 
llic tiilter? ute scarcely wortli the trouble of dory and Naitt-ik diatriel*, and worsbip f[ 

prociirini;. Xiiilve pracliiioncrs prct)cril>e it 
iu conjnnu(i')n with niiuliib iiud auiuv utiier 
ini;riidirnt'«, in hiicIi raftw a-* rc«piirn Cmiictt : 
in EilglAQd, it 14 0Up|XM5d llu eliiK'ulnlu 
makers grind it up with cocoa. Profcasor 
Boyhi Htnteii ihiit the ealep of Kafitiniir is 
ohtaiwd from a opceies uf Eul(r|ihia, prolnibly 
E vimnii. The price nf luilcp it nlkout eight 
guiueav pitr owt. in tlut l^omJon inut-kol. A 


Tied from ConrLintiunpic, ox- 

19 from lhi)< quarter wen; ^bowu 

' 'lupiirtfuuul «r iho Great 

It wa- formerly mnph 

miioli « 

, r D. \\ 

nu<l llntt. ^itc iii 

hicidoo dcitien Kbandobn, Bhniru onJ it 
wBui. A few Raj Koll are notlletl in 
Koiikan and •lowair. Tliey are tbe aai 
lieoplc, an offshoot of the Mubadeo Koli, utti 
iiaid to have been ospelled for iome olTet 
Tboy are farmera and labourors, but il 
Dboiir arc the lowest iu ciTilizalton, are 
greatest druukanla and eat the flesh of ani 
mala which have died a natural dcutli. 
are ruled by chiefs styled unilc. 


SALGAR, Iltwp.of Kmigrn, thuarmadit 

SALCI, Hind. Dnrk (p-t^n colour. 

SAL-fJIRAII, 1'bks., or Dura-t-ganl 
lliNo. Tbo RHuiverBary of n pcr-oo'ii birll 
on which n knot in added on a elring kept fa 

S 76 



the purpose. A girra years are numbered by 
a sUtct loop or nog beti^ added /early to 
the garduii or silrer neck riog. — Uerkl, 

SALHE, HiHD. Boswellia glabra. 

SAU, ID Boar, silk weavers of sarhi and 

SAUBABOO ISLANDS, or Tulour, lying 
between Mindanao and Celebes, are three iu 
Bomber, of considerable size and moderately 
elevated. Kabroaaug is the uame of the moat 
Motherly, and has a peaked mountain on it. 
Its southern end ia in lat. 3* 47' N. and long. 
127' 11' £. Tolour or Karbalang ie tbo 
larger and more northerly island, and lies 
from laL 4' to 4* 28^ N. 

SAUCACE^ Lindt. The willow tribe 
nf plants, comprising 1 gen., 2 epecios, of 

A curioos little bird of Abyssinia, apparent- 
ly e«]geaeric with the Tribura luteoventris. 
—Sodffsom ; Mr. Blj/th's Report. 

SALl CHETTU or Koriti chettu, Tbl. 
riecosperniom spinosum. Trie. 

SALICINE, a crystal! izable, bitter princi- 
ple, obtained from the leaves and young bark 
of the poplar, willow, aspen, &c. It forms 
anall white silky needles, and in some res- 
pects, resembleb tho vcgeta-alknlis, cincliooa, 
and quina, having febrifuge properties ; but 
it diff^^ from theoi in cotitainiog no nitrogen, 
and not formiug salts with acids. — Tomtinson. 

SALICOQUES, a family of Crustacea : 

Fam .— Saucoqukb. 
Trite, —Alphibns. 
Alplicas brcTiroBtru, Edw*., New Holland. 
., Tentroans. advrt. , iixaniixia. 
„ bidcns, EdtBt., Asiatic Seas. 
,, chiragricas, £duu., ilo. do. 
„ TilloHua, Edms., New Uollftnil. 
„ frontalii, Edm., do. 

SALICORNIA, of this genus, Wight givcP, 
io Iconei<, Saliconiia brachiata, fniticosn, 
berbacea. and Indica. See Chenopodiaces;. 

rikmo, Abab. I Chook, Hind. 

AnUAn glauwort, EsG. Ghaiul, Fsita. 

Cfanbuck-sowych. Hud. j 

Grows in the Sunderbuns and on tho Co- 
rtonandel Coast, and barilla is made from it. 
See Barilla. 

Koyala, Tel. 
This perennial plant grows very abundant- 
ly in the delta of the Ganges and on the 
Ox-omandel Coast, on low wet grounds over- 
flowed by the tides. It yields a barilla for 
Map and plaFS. — W. Ir.., Roxb. 

Joiinpalong, Ekhg. 1 Koyya pippali, Tel. 

Jkdu palong, „ 1 

A very common plant on such salt grounds 

»are inundated by the spring tides. It ia 

eT*cially plentiful on rfie Malabar coast and 

7? s 

is still burned there for barilla. But tlio 
probable value of this article as an lodiau 
export has been much depreciated by the pro- 
gress of chemical science in Europe, whore 
tho purest alkali is manufactured by decora- 
postug common salt by sulphuric acid, and at 
the low rate of 10/. the ton of 30 mauods. 
The Salicornta, Saisola and Sueda genera, 
cover every patch of saline land iu the Fanjab. 
— Eng. Cyc. ; Roxb. ; W. Ic. ; Voigt. 

SALIGUAM, fossil ammonites obtained 
from Nortbero India, held iu high estimation 
by Hindoos. They are found in a part of the 
Gunduk river, within tho limits of Nepanl. 
They are mostly i-ouudish and commonly per- 
forated in one or more places by worms, or, 
as the hindooB believe, by Vishnoo, in tho 
ahnpe of a reptile. Some are black, others 
are violet and oval. The possessor of a eati- 
gramu, preserves it in a clean cloth ; it is 
frequently perfumed and bathed, and the water 
thereby acquiring virtue is drank and prized 
for its sin-expelling property. It ia always 
placed near persons when they are about to 
(lie. A garden or plantation is consecrated by 
the liindoos by marrying the Saligramma 
stone carried by one mau, and represent tbo 
groom, to a branch of the tuisi tree carried 
by another to represent the bride. It is tho 
usual marriage ceremony, somewhat modified 
after this consecration, the fiiiit can be eaten. 
Mr. Duulop found two extensive lias ? beds 
at Takuli Shera, in Hunde», with numerous 
saligram, which are thence taken to Badrinath 
and Kailas. — Colebroohe, in the Asiatic Re- 
searches, Vol. vii, p. 241 ; Major More, Hin- 
doo Pantheon ; Wilson's Qtoss. See Hindoo, 

SALIK, (lit, a traveller or pil^'rim) a class 
of devotees. 

SALI KAMPA, TiCL. Stylosnnthes mu- 
cronatn, IVilld, Arachis fruticoea, Roxb , iii, 

SALIMBOW, see Kyau. 

SALINDEE, a river nearBudruck in Ba- 

SALINE SPRINGS are found in Siud and 
in the higher portion of the Puujab ; llicy 
usually contain common salt with some sul- 
phate of suda nad small quantities of other 
salts, when they are not simply brine. Traces 
of iodine arc found near Kangra. Through- 
out Rnjpootana and in sumo parti; of tho 
Panjab, the wells are abundantly impregna- 
ted with soda. Some of tbo springs in 
Kemaon coutAin mineral impregnations, but 
scarcely to an extent to bo considered saline. 
Scarcely any strong saline ones are thermal. 
The few thermal enlincs arc cliiefiy cal- 
careous, and one or two t^iliciuus. Sec Salt, 
Kalar, Reh, Saltpetre. 





((■nfkobUobft, £init. | Olugku, JaF. 

A tree of Jopnn, much caliiv-afcJ in C'liiiin, 
tiiiil fouuil ill iiuiiiy garUciis iti Europe. 
Fiuo olJ Bpccimens mny )>e sffV-n at Kcw nn<l 
id tho Apotliecarics' Garden at Chelsea. lu 
curi^^iiinl rtiiiiatos it nllaiim tlic size of t\w 
LWalfiflt. It is remarkable for tltc ('oiiii of Hs 
tavcB, wbicli tire wi'«l<;e or faii-sLaped, Jef|]l)- 
Evut in Llm ci'titrc or liilolxsl, hihI finely nirinled 
'■wiUt veins, linviri;; some rcscniMniioc to the 
lenvf.'u <^f Koinu bimh-il's of Ai]i:iiilum, ■ whctici' 
it tj commnrilv mtlcd MniJcn-Iiair trc-c in 
liltijjluiiil. Tliu pulp of tita frtiii is nti^tcrc 
l^tcil, biittlielnrgn kcniet in-sw^-rl, witliflnmc 
of hiftcrncfls when raw, hut Jiprccnlik' 
HiH a Uus&crL wlivti riMuted )iko cliL-KiiuitA. 
Tbcy ftto murli eilcn in China. Mr. Koiinitc 
mot with lar(;o li-ccs of (licSnIiaburiaadinuti- 
folia, tilt! Urgost and rnmt Mtrikiti^ trtni in 
seme parts of the couaiiy. It h eommouly 
cnlk'd tho Muidon-hnir ttuti frum the rcM-m- 
Itlancc \is leaves licnr to ii ft-m of thnt iiAtnc*. 
The Cliiiifsc urc fuud of dwnrlhig il. an-] it is 
nfton AeiMi in liint »<tatc in tlioir gordcnti. Itft 
fruit is Held iu (he mnrkcts in all Chinese 
t4iwua hy ltt(! iinirn' of " Pa-llwu," miil is nut 
tinliko dried almoiuls only whiur, fu[li:r, and 
mora round. The unlives »Qvm rcry foud of 
il, although it i*^ rurtdy crntcn Ky Kut-ct[M>Biiti. 
— Eitp. Vyc- : Fortftti-'i ft'tiHilerivQ, pp. 
129, 248 t Roib i 11. H. I'oight, p. 5*60. 

SAUTAII, Hi.NiK A canvNiie Khi-ct iiscil 
Co coutaiu tliu iirUi-lfd compoaiofF a cimcl'v 
hind. Tn cutd wrathcr it is (-onvcrtinl into 
n blanket.— iVi/r/07/5 SrhtitCj Vol. ii, ;i. 43. 

SALIVAHANA, wo* tlio son of a |iottvr. 
He headed a su<'cepsfol pojiuhir movvmcni 
nod bee/inic ihtichicf of a iwjwcrful nioufirt-hy 
in Mnhnrn-tlitra. lit- ruled iit Alitiiji-Pnilhiin. 
The lulcj' M'boin ^;fllivabtllla avcrihretr was 
VikiiiiDaditj'ik. He gi>ve origin to a new 
eru, wlin-h ia still curriMit in Imlia. The ern 
reckons from A. H. "S, iht,- ^oppn^etl dale of 
hifl death. It nuniben* the »ulnryeni-*. ns llic 
cm of Viknimaililyn mimljvr^ the luni-wtlnr 
years. Tod df.-tcriU.*H Salividiatm ii» uf tbi< 
rnkhtiak ni^t; nnd Ktntt'x thnt the Snlivolmnn 
era set u»ide thnt uf the Tuar in the Oekhan 
Salivultana lind three butidrvt) nriwt* trt>m 
whom (be H'-im ItujpiitA oro Ui>»i'i-[idcd. Sit 
Era, Jtilus VikTiitfludityiL 

SAIJVEUl. T»v. Cit':«j'rcd. 

SALIX. iliu Willow, of which there iirc 

1 ' in Tudia,— o in the penin^uln, ) in 

Ii frntu f))idr, nnd titu tvBt in the 

a^'iu Tl ■■.lOiilitinof tho willow 

tJir 1' wd.'if tin- l-T!ic!i(r- 

■I' pnbn trcrm and the tiuit^hi 


of thick trees, nod willows of (bo hroolc, 
to rejoice before the Lord tlwir (Sod 
days." At » Inter {wriwl, the r#nlmivi .!«♦. 
cribes the captives a» thue> binieiilitif; — " Ity 
the rivurs of Hnhylou, tlicre we nat down, 
yen, we wept, when we rcmombicred Zion. 
We Iu)n;;|e4l oar harps u|)on the willows in the 
tuidst thereiif. For ihcro Uiej (bat ennivd 
as away captive re<|uh-oU of ui a eoug ; nod 
tliey that wni-icti ns n-quireil of us mirth." 
The willow id not romnioidy found Wtow 
i<,000 feel elevation on ibe Sikkim mnuniniu*. 
where it grows on ilie inner llininlnya only, 
and fomc kinds ascend to l(>,00(> furt : like 
tho poptiir>', the willows arc vahioble for tbdt 
tiinliers, for economic purpofCR. Of thtagt^i 
Wight, in Icoiies jrivuB S. ichnit^tiirliya, at 
lelranpernm, T>i-. O'Shnngbneiny rareful^ 
exntiiincd Sulix tetrn>pern)ii, lb» only willc 
found in lower Iten^nl, but ronid niH deii 
in it any trace of eoUcioc. Salix Imbyhtnic 
nndS.a'ijrypliaea, (ICbilnfbhnlki, AtcAii. Bni*. 
mooHhk, 1'bkh.) oi-rwr in gitrdi-ns iu Up[H.-r 
India. Sulix lindb'vnnn, or dwarf wllloit, 
oceutK at 12,(K>0 to VA.OiW fret >->n rhi.> llima. 
hiya— S. chita and rotnndifolia in Kuniiwurj 
The willows of rTii)Hi)i, ar(>, 

HaIix jaimniea, Tkf^j. V^nWx Milniii.i Aniftrt. 

,. ftlb», L. „ II'. 

„ (uliin4;Uik,^n«I(n. „ ,. JVa 

,i |iuryun-s, L. 
„ pRdifalU, L. 
„ viridaltt, Andm. 

Sntixnrlioionc, S.elegan:*. Wn/t. 3. fniffilii 
L^ nnd S. vitnitinlir, X., lulhtl l>eif> bi 
bt>d, bids huli, yir, Imdri and hiL-^biil, grow 
heiuhl4 in llie Punjnb llirnnlAvn from H, 
and flornuof them in Ludnk to I l.tNMI feet nixl 
the twij;'^ and lenvi-s of mnny of fhitn uiv tcrd 
tinr fodili-r. The wiiod isnol valued. S. Hitl.r I- 
Inri?, Am/s, S. bn^tnlA, Tj, .S, n\yftiqia, ^«(/, 
hisa, buitlmn, jongul bcli, ber. miilhi, l>nk »l 
>buu, blinil Aud Keli. are found nl VHrioi 
eloviilion^ in the Funjulr Ilinniluvn and 
fhm 'MMK) to U.(XKi feel and ihi< Iihiv 
Sii:, of Bevcral are uai-d as fodder. In S; 
liii.<<kels iip| III l>e made from tlie Iw 
tine of the ^ubstauoCB kmnvu us mntitia, 
iH'J-kbist, Ufed iih a luxntivr, i/j, crid to bo 
pr<Hlu< t on M )>[KTiett of willow of IvhwmsBO 
l>r. J. h SifH'art liad not niel with It, 
l>r. Irvine tlnfes ihnt it i.seaid to he prouu 
on a dnrk-lotrked rnllivaird willuw in Turki 
tail. In ihu \. W. Iliinnlayat the twi 
ii)HvieB of willow, the bi« of iIm>!4> rt- 
nnd a plntil of Knj;hnit, urc ufvd lor 
work, — Clt'ihurti't I'uiijnb Hrfiort i Bt 
O'Stiiiii^hHcsji}/, /». lUHi ; iit. JvfiHs Foi 
T'tx^ oj' Bfitiiiu, Or. iliHthrr, Ilka; 
rnuriml, lot ii, ;>. 2M) ; Dr. J. {.. Sfi 
Di. //nntn., 7'^ir/tfjtw s<nrt in iJir 
rnl. \,j,p. »«.V.13i». 


IIiiti>)onl»(, L. 




BeJ-i-vntk, PKB8. | Khagawala, I'uaflT. 

Cnltivated at Lahore for the Uislillution, 
from the palms, of an aromatic water, which Ib 
fflgefa Dsed in the hot season. 


Bvlun. UFrssCHEKAB. Chikmmft, Ladak. 

Tir. Chaiig, „ Kalcbing, Walchang, „ 

Cwttiu,C^EtAB,LADAK. Chims, EnxAwAB, Pant. 

Ba. JmLCif. ShftD,HndMiu, „ ,, 

Twir, Kaohajt. Khwinil, Tkaks-Indus. 

ChumiM, Ladak. 

Dr. J. L. Stewart believes that there is 
uoaiderable tlonbt as to this species, but it or 
u allied one appears to be common in Kash- 
■lir, Faogif Lohoal, and Ladak, &c., occa- 
tknallj in the last, from 5,000 up to 14,500 
feet, and it seems to occur Trans- Indus. It 
b generally planted, but is probably in many 
ptaees wild also. It reaches 8 and 9 feet in 
girth when well protected. Moorcroft men* 
tJoQs one of 16 feet, hot the largest trees 
ire Teiy often hollow. It is planted round 
iliDOSt every village and along the water- 
EDBnea of the Chenab, The slender branches 
iDt] kaves serve as food for sheep and goats. 
In Kashmir the willow is used largely for 
buket-making ; in Tibet many of the houses 
Be made of willow wattle and dab. Twig 
bridges of willow are mentioned in Spiti, 
Zinakar, and Ladak, where Parrotia is not 
fooD(L In Kashmir, willow twigs are em- 
{doyed as tooth-sticks. There also, aud still 
norc on the Chcnab and in Ladak, the trees 
ITS severely and systematically lopped, the 
jooag shoots and bark of the larger, removed 
t^ band, being used as fodder. Willow tim- 
]xt is not much used in Lahoul, but in Tibet 
the whole plough except the point which 
ii inn is generally made of willow. In 
A^ianistao willow wood is generally used 
For building, ais insects do not attack it. 
On die Chenab, pails, &c., aro rudely cut 
from single blocks of tJio willow and accord- 
ing to Moorcroft, combs, to remove the fine 
goot^s hair from the animals back, are 
mde of this in Ladak. The wood is most 
nnfbl in Thibet and Spiti, and employed for 
botrding. The small twigs are used for 
bttket work, and the leaves are highly 
nlaed in winter for food for sheep. — Dr. 
Irvime ; Mtchtion ; quoted by Dr. J. L. 
Stewart ; Moorcroft't Travels, Vol. p. 


Eads, BtunVh, Beu. 

Bud», Badda, 

We«piB« Villow, 









Saii-i-mAJDOOD, HiRD. 

MkIdud, ,. 

Bed-i-mftjnun, Pkkh. 

Katir», „ 

ChimK, PahJ. 

WUIa, Posbtu. 

Khw-Willft, „ 



A tiiiKill tree of Greece, Aaiu Minor, com- 
mon on the tiidea of all the rivers and canalii!, 
OB well an in the gardens of the Chinese ; 
is cultivated in Nepaul, gardens at Ajmir 
and Calcutta, common in gardens in north- 
ern India, as, also, S. .^Sgyptlaca, white the 
polyandrous S. tetraspenua, Roxb,^ is found 
in tho Kheree pass, along the foot of the 
mountains and in other parts of India as 
Ajmir, Bengal and the peninsula. This and 
S. tetraspcrma are abundant at FcBhawur and 
in the Hazara district. The weeping willow 
tree is very common planted in the plains 
throughout the Punjab, being frequently of 
the graceful " weeping" type ; it also grows 
to 5,500 feet in tho hills including Kashmir. 
Near Chumba Dr. Stewart saw ti'ecs of 12 
feet girth. It grows rapidly, and is easily 
raised in moist plnccs by cuttings, up to 
stakes of considerable size which are often 
planted to consolidate the banks of water- 
cuts, &C. Its branches and twigs are largely 
used for baskets, wattles, weirs, &c. Good 
cricket-bats have been made from it. The 
leaves aro reckoned tonic ; contain a neutral 
principle, called salicine, and tannic acid ; 
some consider it nearly equal to cinchona, it 
is also said to be anthelmintic. Colonel Lake 
writing from Jhullauder, says wood soft, 
smooth and while ; the large wood is used 
for cricket bats, the small twigs for kiltas, 
baskets and rope bridges. — Trousieau ; Dr. 
Irvine's Medical Topography, p. 210 ; 
Royle-B III., Him. Bot., p. 343 ; Dr. J. L. 
Stewart ; Powell's Hand-Book, Vol. i, p. 385. 


Dcd-i-mashk, Pebs. | KhaKawoIa, Fdshtd. 

Kbikf-ibolki, „ I 

Cultivated at several places in the Punjab 
plains. Tho large yellowish catkins of flowers 
appear in February, and are collected and sold 
at about 6 or 8 rupees per maund to per- 
fumers who distil a scented water from them. 
This, mixed with water is drunk as a sharbat, 
which has a rather pleasant though some- 
what medicinal taste. — Dr. J. L. Stewart ; 
PotDelVs Handbook. 


Bed, Bailho, 
Lailft, Laili, 

111 the Panjab this is less common than S« 
babylonicfl, but is planted in the plains, and is 
occusionnliysceninthe outer hills to 4,000 feet. 
Madden (?) mentions that it grows to 5,000 
or 6,000 feet in Kitmaon and on the banks of 
tho hill streams of Kumaou ; is common at 
Rangamully in the Terai, in the Khereo pass, 
and along tho foot of the mountains which 

S 7D 






1 , 


Bis, Bida, 

Jhelum, Bavi. 




1 > 





IS n finifular fnct, ns tlic ceniii in i-linrac- 
tct'ictic uf mid BD't tin:(iu UilihiilL's, iiinl tto 
s|M»ie3 i» fouuj hclow 8,0(X) fret clevnlioii 
on the Sikkim tnooiilains, where ir firaws on 
the inocr HiinnliiyH oiiljr. sumo kiii'lb BM-un<l- 
iiig to 16,000 feet. It ^lowa in IUMit;iil nnd 
tho pcnin^iilii of ludiii, likowise in liritiali 
llunnali. Ittt TTootl h emnil but tougli and 
clifliCt hut i» lint u»oU in Buimali. A cubic 
fool vrcigl>» lbs. ST. In a full ifrawii tret'. 
oa good soil llio Kveragc lenf^tli of (lie triinlc 
1(1 lli« fint Itracrh h 111 fvc-l, nnd nrcni-o 
girtli mouiure*] •( 6 fopt fmm tlio groaml 
IB 3 foct. It U rc-nilily \ii\ife-] by ciitliiigfi kdiI 
grows mpidly t« » mzc. Dr. 
Stcvrart linJ s«n trees of fvtt girtli. Tho 
Qami'ii nf (lii*-<o plaiil6 ttiila nml mnjunn, are 
olliiiliiia to llic woll-kiiowii rrt'-lorii love Htory. 
Mr, Tkomptttm ; DrM. Urumiis, Hoifkcr, Utai, 
JoMr., Vnl. i, ;i. -lOO ; Ih-. Roj/le's HI., Bot. 
Ilim., p. 3 13 ; FoiffI ; Dr. J. L, Suvart, Cal. 
Cat Er.nfim2. 


A bnrlM-T. 

SALKtl, Abaii. Scni'illuntion, practised by 
liiQ Arabs uf llejftz, ** a proof of tnniilincs*. 

SALLA, lIiNii. AbicM Smiiliintio. 

SALLA, Siirl, llist>. In tin- Himnliiya 
Wyond the PiiDj4<i, Pinus longifoUa, long- 
ICATcd pine. 

SALLA. Trt. Btittrr milk. 

SALLA-ULTDATA.Tr.t,. IlibiwusMrlns, 
X. W. and A- Hihisrns pha-nitt-'us, Eoxb. 

SALLA-UDA, Tki.. P.iuicum liulopus 
Trin. V. hirmtuK, Mojb. 

SALLAWAITV. bw Pitt Su-niL 

SALLK, HlNU. Picca Welibiaim. — fiooher. 

SALLL'Iti lIiKI*. Abiwi Webbimiii, Honh. 

SALM, Ar. Ho 'iid envc, hetice Fnlnm, 
gnlumlron of pearc : Islam, wving ; Muslim 
(finj-). Mussulmin (pi.) ravnl. Sw Saliiiu. 


BucdImx ccitu. Bitm. 
„ gmaunpiiiua rulm, 



BomHix BuUbuun, DC 
„ bvi>ta)ib7lliivi ff«>S. 
„ |<cnbipb]rllani. 

R«kla abimoul, Unr*}- 

Lot-pati, H 

MuH.Uto. Ca«. 

Reil cotton trrr, Km. 
Cottan tre«, « 

B«4 aiUt ctfltoti lr«0, „ 
Bcnwt. •tftiiM. UlMU. 

Thill is n IniKP tree, with flowers of a 

lirantif:]) n»l r«|«nr, common in Itic wanner 

1 and from ctie cod of India to 

n-ulurly alittip tJit' fiMit of lli6 

aja niuuut;iiu«t nnd it is ntif of (lie mint 

it of ilie ftirctit tirrv uf TruflaMrim : 

I Zidamlrur oiid llic WytiMil, il \* U0cd 




^balmfttl, M 

KatiH..lub(Nl-sa> SiROFL 

RlafRin tiionun, Tah. 

I*UU ntATMIt. .. 

Kond* httvafE, Tsi> 

nnna bnntsft, ,, 

for buihlinp. The wood In light, ^nH, «pon^ 
and very inlerior, but UH'd by nuMnliicn lu tlicir 
work, nnd it st«ndft well Dudcr water. The lire 
SrowH rapidly, and is ocnuiuually fuuod 30, 
t<) 40 fpel in girtk. The tree is immetii 
ciillcd S, puaiApyllunQ, whua the loboft of 
lenr«» nro o, iusivad uf 7, but ihure is nu 
ftTvnce in Hpocivs, for the trt-c'S fn-^titntlj 
cnrry both kinds of leaf. When very lal^t 
thrir apiwnratico is magnillcent, tlie tlii(' 
6tein spreads out towards the liue. At inl 
mis iiilobuttrcfs-liko projovtions etrvnjrti)! 
ing and supporting (lio luatQ stem. In th| 
vpitii'; H'a^ou, llie ircti is covtt^ with hu( 
mnznolia-!'liap<;d s<.'arlct bloRSomi : tho Mlk;f^ 
duwu that envelopes tlie !^H*d, is used lo F-taff 
matirO!4ses and pillow.-*, and has oceaftutmlly 
been inn<lc into cloUi, ilic youb^ trt*c« aad 
iiraii«hi'-9 hnvt' clmrt Hat ilionis. The yc*ou^ 
flower buila arc cooked and entcn in acmia 
plncos. Ill Ihc Jliallamlnr it grows vrry 
nnd straight^ tlic length of tliu trunk, 
jirst branch is 30 Tm^ and girth IS feet, 
it atlflius its full size in 60 yuars, itA whil 
light, brittle wood, tliough not strong, is tlic 
uMid for box««, scabbards and doora, 
wnlcr conduits ; whitQ antn readily attack' 
the wood. Learcs used i\» foddr^r : its gma 
in the monvho-iiin of tliv hnzaar. tho rool» nf 
young trees produce tlie snfeil musli, which 
is used to niakt; u cooling bevcmge.- 
Dr. Cleit/iorM nnd Mr. Mrlror in M. 
J. R. ; JJr. Mason, Voi^t i Thn^ritcs Enut 
P{aHl, Zeylonrnitis, Pmveirt Jland- 
Econ. Prod., Punjab, Unntcf' Knngra 
mcnt Rrport, f/nrn. 1 57 ; Roorkxc Prl 
Piipers OH Ovalior Timber, ji. 35. 

hALMAN, M*e ICanind. 

SALM ANASSAK. king uf tlw Ab»| 
in the year 7IU B. C, scixod upon 
and trnitapivrti'd llio iiihabilaul^ into llie IDS 
remote villngo of Medio. In 67fi, ». 
Ar«nliariuMoii dli{M.TKod tho reiiuiaot of 
kingdoms of Syria and l^mrl o%*er Pt 
Media, and tho distant proTini-cp of (ho 
in B, c. 0O6, began tltu captivity of Babyl 
when Ncbuchadnczxar cai'rie<I vn».y 
givatcr pari uf llio Jewish uation, nnd 
them, tJic princws pi-iostit, nnd even 
into bis own dominions, wliicli at that 
cictcndcd m far tut Media.-//Me'i CAri&ti 
Vol. i. p. 2. See Jews. 

SAL MARTIS, Lat. Iron. 

SALML\X. Gkr. Sal ammoniac, Hjr^ 
chlumtc of nuimouin. 

SALMON. Ebci.. Spaw. 




The Bultooii of Northeru Seoa docs 
iohnhil any of the aoaa south of Ai 

Fk.. S^'CTtn. 




thoDgh sereral of tho Sshea S. and E. 
of Aaia have a resemblance to the saKoon. 
It is one of die most remarkable facts in 
the zoolf^ry of Asia, that no trout or i^almoii 
inhabits any of the rivers that dcboucbe into 
the Indian Oceaii (,tbe so-cnllpd Himalayan 
trout is a species of carp). This widely dis- 
tribated natural order of fish (Salmonidse) is, 
however, found in the Ozus, aod in all the 
rivera of Central Asia that flow north and 
wnt, and the Salmo onentalis, McClelland, 
(" Calcutta Jour. NaU llisL" iii, p. 283), was 
eaa<;ht hj Mr. Grifiith (Journals, p. 403) in 
tlitsBamian river (north of the Hindoo Koosh) 
which flowd into the Oxus, and who^e waters 
are Kparaleil by one narrow mountain ridge 
from those of the feeders of the Indus. Tho 
central Himalaya rivers often rise in Tibet 
from lakes full offish, but have none (at least 
during the raioft) iu that rapid part of their 
course froni 10,000 to 14,000 feet elevation : 
Uloir that, fish abonnd, but, it it; believed, 
Innriably of dlfierent species from those 
found at the sources of the some rivers. The 
tutaro of the tropical ocean into which all the 

I Himalaya rivers debouche, ia no doubt the 
proximate cau!=e of the absence of Salmoninse. 

' Sir John Richardson (Fishes of China Seas, 
Ac, " in Brit. Ass. Rep. Ac") says that no 
species of the order has been found in the 
Cliinese and eastern Aeiatic ecus. Chanos 
irgentcus i.t a salmon like fish oftlie Sfalahar 
pond ia which Hyder's fish have been spe- 
cially protected, but the number of predatory 
G:-ti is so great that that piece of witter 
«ui scarcely bo used for multiplying the 
htter, for the purpose of distribution. One 
perch-like &*\i. in particular is unusually 
natncrous, and the protection which has 
habitually been extended to this one pond, 
Ecema to have licnefitted the wrong fish, the 
red perch rather than Hyder's salmon-like 
fijii. Ba-minu, or Sower fish, in a name given 
il random by tho nations to several fish, sim- 
ply because they nreconsidereddcUcateeating. 
It is a sight tosee a silvery salmon. like fish of 
20 pounds or thereabouts face the line with a 
tpring that clears boats and stimding men and 
oprai^ed nets. — Mr. Thomas Hooker, Him. 
Jour.,\\, IS2 ; Drs. McClelland, Richardson. 
SALMO ORIENTALIS, Pallas. Accord- 
iRg to Adams, p. 187, occui'S in the Gulf of 
Pe-che-li. The Hippogtossus olivaceus ia the 
Japanese halibut ; fish arc abundantly cured 
(without salt) ia Til)et ; they iire caught In 
the Yaro and great lakes of Ramchoo, Dob- 
toh, and Tarbru, and are chiefly carp, and 
allied Seh, which attain a large size. — Adams. 
SALXA, also Salun, Hind, Curry, Sal- 
nay, pl. cnrrica. 
)i&LODf Hind. AraVm cachcmirica. 



SALOHA, Hind. Pueraria tuherosa. 

SALON, Mautchu tribes on the upper 
Saga I in. 

SALOO, a cloth of Eanda, it is dyed with 
al-root, with a mixture of castor oil, in the pro- 
portion of one pao to every piece of cloth, 
each piece of cloth being eight yards. Besides 
castor oil, * Bussee,' a kind of earth, is also 
mixed, and goats' duug and alam. The cloth 
is first rubbed for ten days in the castor oil, 
' Russce,' and goats' dung, and then dried in 
tho sun. After ten days it is well washed and 
dried, and then steeped in the oil for five 
days ; afterwards washed and dried iu the 
sun, and after u third application of soap and 
water the cloth ts ready for sale. The coat of 
dyeing different kinds of cloth is as follows ; 

Nynsook cloth sells at 1 anna per yard ; 
mulmul at | anna per yard ; and that used 
for the pugreo or turban at \ anna per yard. 

It is not easy to ascertain the extent and 
value of the quantity of ealoo cloth annually 
manufactured. It is exported to other parts of 
India, and its use is general, and not limitod 
to particular castes. The wholesale market 
value is about 1 rupee, 6 annas, 6 pice, per 
piece according to the quality of the cloth 
dyed.— Cfl/. Cat. Ex. 1862. 

SALOTAR. A work is extant on veteri- 
nary medicine ; it is said to be by Salotarwho 
is said to have been the tutor of Susruta, It 
was translated from Sanscrit in the year 1381. 
But professor Max. Miiller states that Salotar 
is not known as the author of Ruch a work 
and lie adds that Salotnriya is a name of 
Panini, aud that the teacher of Susruta is 
suid to have been Divodasa. — Miiller's Lec- 
tures, p. 142. 

SALOTAR also Salastrl, Hjnd. A ve- 
tcriuaiy surgeon. 

SALO also Toplenoo, Res. Tallow, 

SALOPA, UitiA. Caryota urena, Linn. 

SALORA, Uria. A tree of Ganjam aud 
Gumsnr, extreme height 22 feet, circum- 
ference 1 foot, and height from the ground 
to the intersection of the first branch, 5 feet. 
A common tree, only used for firewood. The 
leaves are eaten. — Captain Macdonald. 

SALO WORWANNOE, also Wonvan, 
Rus. Blubber. 

SALPAN, Beng. Desmodium gangeticum. 

SALPETKR, DuT. Saltpetre. 

SALPETER SAITRE, Gkh. Nitric acid. 

SALPETRE, Fb. Nitre. 

SALPIGLOSSIS. This genus of showy 
plants, one of the ScrofularinciB, requires much 
care iu their cultivation, the situation in which 
they are grown ehould bo slieltered and 
partially shaded, for if exposed to tho sun 
they become withered and die suddenly, the 
colours are purple, red, white, and variegated. 





When grown \u pota, ihry shoulil be fre- 
quoutly diifted into oliter |>oUi, tmtj A liltio 
liu-ger Uuu tlie pro^iotu cues, so as to make 
lIiQ plautH bushy, tlio aoil should be Iduiu 
niixm! with Baiitl. — HiddeU, 

SAL ritUNiO^LA, a (erm applicU to 
nitntto of polosli, fustxl ouU rasl iuto balls 
rcsurabtiDg pruocs or plums, and aomeiirnea 
coluurcil to reseiable them. — To/nUn$on. 

SALPLTB, TIic Jit priucc orSalpur im sup- 
posed to have beea tbe pr£tlc(-cft«or ot' the 
Yadu Hhntli racm.^ Tod's tiajasiAan, Vol. 
ii,/». 212. 

SALSA, Beko. Shrubby ialuocarpus, 
IchtiorarpiiH frutcocetis. 

SALSAFY. Tragopoffon porrifolm". 

SALSAPARIGLIA, It. Sai^aparilln. 

SAL^F,I'AUE[|.Lh;FB. Si.rsn(.arilla. 

SALSrn'E. Tb« island that the Bfilu'h 
call Satsrtle, is named SuHhiti ur Slia^tA, by 
natiTCi, a namo supposed to bo dcrii-vd 
from Shc-asCe, mcaiiiug, in MahtuttH, ci};)ity- 
•ir, it having formerly contninod, it ia 
said, thai Dumber of viilniEeft. It ia much the 
largest of tbe many islands near Ibo i^liuid of 
Bombaj, and lheii*Iet4ofDi'&Tce&LU Vei'vovn, 
are juat off the »hoi-c of Salscite. Stilftctto 
and Basftcio were taken by the Hritij^h on the 
28th December 1T74, and SaUottc, Ba<<mn 
and the rovenucK of Baitxiph woio ceded by 
R&gliohah on the 6lh March ITTo. Dr. 
Buist wril'iDR in Uio Uombuy Times of 
January IHlV, niuntioiK^ii that m piuir, wbilo 
crossiut; from tlto prc^moutory in Salsctie 
called tho ' Neal'b Tungue,' to iii-ar Sewrre, 
ttboul sanfiet, hoard lung dt.oiinot snunds like 
tbe prorincted buomiiiir of a distant bell, llie 
dyiiif; cndouce of an vV'oliau linr|», tlic nolo of 
a pitclijiipe or pitch-fork, or any other toog- 
dntwn-out musical noti', it was |>crceived to 
nria« fVom the surface of the water nil round 
ihe veuel and tbe boatmen at once intimated 
thai tbe Bounds weio prudueed by li^h. 
aboimdiDg iu the muddy crocks ami ^lloaU 
around ]{uiiibr.y and ^i|llAelto ; and ihuL tliey 
were pcrfcetly well known and very ofuiu 
beard. Accordingly on incJiniugthceariownrdi 
tho Burfaee of the water ; nr, bttter stiti, by 
pUctDg it close to the ptoiiks of the rctf.'^cl, the 
notes appeared loud and distinct, and followed 
each other iu coubtaut ^ucccMiun. Tbe 
tK»atm«fl next day produced apecimeos of Ibc 
fikh — a cifhtuie closely rcfcnibtiiig tn size 
and fihapo tbe fi'c«h-wii(tr perch of llio norib 
of Eurofio — and ^poko of ihcni as plciiiirul 
and perfectly welt known. It i% ^uppo)?ed 
that iJbe fi^h are confined to particular tocall- 
lies — >balluWB, ratuarte\ and muildy crt-vkn. 
r>' T . of Feb. Ki. IHVJ, r.m- 

.:ioa from Vizaga[iataiii, 
muAiuil MUtids liko the pruluujgeil ' 

82 S 

note? on tlio harp" hnTing been heard to pro 
from under water at that stalion. Bassein aO' 
Sal»ette were obtitiued from RagbnlNi pcflhwa, 
by treuty iu 177.i. — Dr. BniH in Bombay 
"^nes ; '/Vrtncnt's Sketf^es of th* A'alurtU 
History of Ceylon^ p. 38^. 
SALSfJLA. 5yi. 

OftkroJaacD, Siva I Kh*rti 1u»m, Rixa 

Koalm-lAave, | 

A genus of plants liclongiag to the oatural 
order Chenopodiuce^, named from ' saUu^,' 
fiilt, iu con«ti|ufncu oi many of tbe hpeeioi 
yielding kelp and barilla. The s{»cclec aru 
chiefly found ou tbe sea-shore in tcmperata 
(HirU of the world, and alRO io hoi p&rid of 
the world where ihu fioil is saline, or whem 
thvre is sidt water in tlie vicinily. Various 
.species of SulAolacear, abound in the more 
^nliuu diy |>arts of tfit! Uubins of the western 
Punjab. Tlie .SaUota kali of Buropo aud tb« 
colder parts of A>ia ia mostly found ou eandy 
shores, 01 arid di'serts ; nn annual bushy plant, 
with stiff thorny ciuutnelled tbavea. 'Jlta 
dried plant, when ruduevd to uhhra, yields 
2o to 30 per cent, of carboiuile of soda. — 
0' ShuuijUneiisi/, p. i2(». 

oxylon Gritlitbii, Moq. 


Kllft-kuru. Tei- | Ooniarl-kocray, X*M. 

ll»-kiira, „ I 

I Thi>, with specie? of Salicomcat, and otlierof 
the Cbenopodinrcir, are iialiv«8 of (be r«tt 
ninrshemind grounds near the sea, QoweriuKtbu 
grcAtur part of the yi>ar. The gi«OQ leave* aro 
univei-sully eaten by all claiuoa of natives 
who live near tbe sea, and are reckoned very 
whole«)ome. The leaved of lliis plant uloM 
saved many thousand lives during lIic farallM 
to India, of 1791-92.93. Itisa small pn^* 
cuiiib«nt weed, with linear shaped lenTcv, Is 
used u« gi-ecns, and Is a very plca&ant vegeta- 
ble. This is occasinnalty used b<t a vegetiible 
and bi-ing naturally "alt, hnw giveo riiw to 
llio Tetiiig 5»yiug, " tho carping hH^band 
(finding fault without can)^) Niys to bia wife, 
there is ;io miU in the Ilukunt. ft growt m 
Mnluliur, wlieio barilla is made from JL— i 
h'oj-b , I'nl. ii, p. 63; O'Shattghnetsy^ p. 
'(25 ; J"Jfrey. Seo Vegetables of Soutlieni 
India, Barilla. 


fUraluulA, TSL. I R«7]rt-k»ila, Tn. 

Tbi« \t A onliv« of s«lt barrad landiDMir the 
xea, and floweret during the greater part of tha 
ymr. Thi-'itteni»nre pereimiul, niauy Kpreadinir, 
clu^fe upon the ground, and often striking nwt, 
ra<iiiin4, t-Eiremilies of thebrniiches awcadloff. 
'file plant is only used for fuel, but Roxburgh 
believes it would doubtless yield excelleuc 
Mda. — (y Shaughnetsy, p. 225 ; Vmigt. 






Iblh, Ab. 

Utx1>, Bau, Jat. 

Sliih-yeD, CRm. 


Zgat, DtfT. 

GoviiiKHi Salt, Eko. 
Ilnrut« of Sodm, „ 

Chloride of Sodiua „ 
Sol, Fk. 

Sdx, Oeb. 




L»T. Poet. 8* 


Meet, Hit 


Ohanm, Garun. Ual&tT 










Tilt., Tku 



Two kiadfl are distiaguished, rock and sea- 
alt. When found native in immeDse masseB, 
which only require to be dug aad reduced 
to powder, it is termed rock salt ; and when 
obtained by the eTaporatiou of sea-water, 
eoouDOQ or aea-aalt Sea-sail is exteasively 
maDnfactared on accoua t of the Indian 
GoTemment at many places along the coast : 
the process is not everywhere exactly the 
Hme, bnt generally the sea* water being raised 
by means of pakottas is run into shallow 
beds or p&os and evaporated : additional 

In the Bombay Presidency the mauufactare 
of salt is carried on by iodividuals, but subject 
to an excise duty of 1 rupee 13 annas (3*. 
Hind. 7^rf.) per maund. Facilities are also afforded 
for the export of salt to Malabar, Travan- 
core, Cochin, and South Canara. Salt is, also, 
extracted from the saline soits of several parts 
oflndinnnd used as a condiment. The natives 
of tho Bellary, Kuroool and Cuddapah dis- 
tricts of tho peninsula, and those of 
Ghazipoor in the villages of Tuttalapore, 
Rntouly, Sahoiy, Chilar and Becompoor all, 
in this way, obtain a useful condiment. A 
brine spring exists at Dyhunda, North Berar, 
from which salt is manufactured. There are 
also salt springs near Prome, in Pegu, from 
which salt is made. lu Bellary salt is manu- 
factured from saline earth in the same way 
as saltpetre is procui-ed ; only in the salt 
manufacture the water is not boiled. It is 
extensively consumed in the district, though 
the peopfe prefer sea salt, the greater cost of 
which is however a bar to its use. 

The supply of salt in Bengal is provided 

water being added as the evaporation goes on. ' P^^'l'^ *"? raaQufacture, conducted on account 

The salt is raked to the side and conveyed to 
platforms or raised places where the salt is 
beaped in quantities of tea or more garce. 
In some places, a proportion of the salt water 
is obtained from wells dug near salt creaks ; 
in others the salt water is dammed up in the 
iDoaths of rivers, where it is partially eva- 
porated for aometime before being run into 
the pans. In Bengal the sea water is gene- 
rally evaporated by boiling. At the Madras 
Exhibition of 18S5, there were fourteen 
■peeimens of common salt exhibited. That 
from <me locality, was salt which had formed 

of the government, llie manufacture is car- 
ried on, not by hired labour on the part of 
tho government, but by asystem of pecuniary 
advances ; the parties receiving them, being 
bound to deliver, at a fixed price, all the salt 
manufacture. Probably 100,000 labourers 
(called molunghee) are engaged in the manu- 
facture in the Sunderbuns. Partly also by 
importation, and iu one instance, as, formerly 
with Mr. Prinsep's salt works at Narrianpore, 
partly by private manufacture, under a sys- 
tem of excise. The duty is levied at the 
time of the clearance of the salt from tho 

OQ an extensive plain to the south after the : ^°'"^^.'^ warehouse. On tho imported salt, the 

eraporation of the water driven on by the j ^"'/ '?.^'*^« ""^ t ^"^'■""" """P^* *".'; '°"^** 

^ inds, it was very white, the cystals I ^^ ^2 lbs., or nearly one penny per lb. The 

ui- ~.^«.« — ,1 -f _ i„«~* „: Ti.„ ' same rate of duty is levied as excise on salt 

manufactui'edby private individuals ; and the 
government salt may be purchased at all 
times in quantities of not less tlian dOmaunds, 
ut a fixed price, which is composed of the cost 
price, with the addition of three and a quar- 
ter rupees per maund, or a little above Id. per 
lb. Tiie salt agencies are located along the 
iicad of the Bay of Bengal, viz., at Hidgleo, 
Tumlook, Chittagong, Arracan, Cuttack, 
interDaTcOTrumptlonatt^ror^^'^p^rma^und, ' Ballusore, Khoredab The average cost price 
- - r r ^f production is about rupees 80 per 100 

maunds, or a trifle below one farthing per 

lb., thus making tlie government selling price 

. over a penny a lb. The supply of salt is no 

longer a monopoly ; its manufacture and sale 

I havo not been relinquished by government, 

' but individuals participate in its provision, 

both by importation and manufacture, under 

I a combined system of customs and excise. 

S 83 


remarkably perfect and of a large size. The 
nit of the Ganjam coast is particularly fine. 
At Nowpada the crystals are large and pure, 
lad so hard do they become when stored, 
tlutt, according to the officers of the salt de- 
psTtment, sparks of fire are elicited from the 
(^dbesps, when they are broken up for sale 
with a crowbar. 

In the Madras Presidency, salt is manufac- 
tared on account of government, and sold for 

or over one halfpenny per lb. The doty 
00 imported foreign salt is now regulated by 
Act No. 13 of 1871 of the Imperial Council, 
u under — 

Salt haported from nj jitee witMn or without 

(m) uto Kifiah Biuath TU. 0-6-0 per maand. 

(») iiitoLow«rPrDvinoMo(B«i«al,3^-0 „ 
(c) iata *ii]r oihsr put of Britiab 

ladim.. „ 1.13,0 



The RyBtt'in of fixcil price* nnJ ojicn wbtb- 
faoufus, comniOuced in lh'if*-Z', wli.;u ihc 
proviatm syBtcai nf fixeJ (luantillt't' iiinl ]if,v 
I'iodieal sofea wns al»uli»tn.'it, iw rocommcmM 

cutis iilcrnltly ailulteniicil. Tite coiiitumpt 

of ftiUf in India has t>e«D rakulatcii i^u hi) 

iiB 2) to SoffiB. Si'imys on foreign -icrvicy grt 

12Jt'H H liny nr I71!l.i. : on L>oiir<)t>liip they gel 

hy liie Si-lect ('oiQUitttcc of lUu Uou^e of J loz. a diiy or 22^IbH. Mr. W. II. tiayley in hi« 

CtMDmoiia ill IS30. I trftmo. on i^ult itB>umei* I8lt». m- u**«i-ly 2 lU. 

During ihe aovc^ jeArs commencliig with ' \vfi<;hl |K-r Uiem : (vlitcliinlluwiuj^fdrirhililrvn, 

ltt37-38 aail cubing with 1X'|;1.-I4 tho duty 1 niuy lie retliiceil to i^Ibs. Th« imlivitlunl cou* 

on sidL Was Us. 3-1 per miiuixl. The niiauul , ^ntuption of sail in lodia is, however, uiiually 

bverajjo qiiaulity oi' salt M>!t1 nml iinpiirlod 
dtiria;; that pbrickl wti» -l.ti^T.OSO mituiuU 
of 82 IK-t. In KoremWr, 1844. tho duty 
XSM roddced to Its. 3 jier mnntid, aiid thv 
nnnitld nvcrnOT file iucrva-^ud to 4^(>(),yi7. 
In Al'lil, im", thu duly was furthtr ruductjd 

(0 B*. 2-12 per mnniul, ndd (he nD:iu»t Nile 

y w. 

e^tiiantud at 12 lbs. pur head per aiinuin ; aud 
nseiiining Uiv n'ugOB of an ngricultund Ial>uur«-r 
at Ihivu rupt-ue pur ruoiiseui, it would, at Cal- 
cfitla, aliKoi'U iho iiiL-omc of dve day^* labour 
to pi-ovido tha qiinrility reqtiir<sl for n yrar. 
'i'ho HtiU <hit.y thus i]|H;ral(.'& uf- n tax of aiiuut 
1) per cent, upon the lebottrci's wa(r*-9. if bo 

amoanlvd to 5,4.^2,1)00. [ii April, 1849, the | hare tiotiu hut himnclf to provide f«rr. 
duty WHS nij;niii sulijpctpd tn rcihiolion, whoii If he hnvi' « wil'o or children, thf p*«r-oeat«go 

it waa Gxed for 5 yc^ir» at it« prcscui rate of 
Us. 2-S )KT mniind. 

Thus in the flvo )>criod« nhoTo advcrlrd to, 
the reduction eflccloO in the tf'M tax amount- 
ed to ucjirly '2H jh-T i-eiiU But iii Di-Cfrnher 
1859, the duty wna ngnin raised to 3 ru|M>(.<« ; 
and in March It^fil, to Uiu original Ugum 
of rupees 3-4-0. 

Th« supply of salt to the >'orih-We«l 
Proriacea is furnished partly from tlm lower 
prorioccft of Bonjtal, partly from Ui<> Snmhhnr 
Salt Lake, in 1lajiJ<itiiHi]A, tind partly from 
ttie ro<-1c-flall, of the Siili Hangc. 

Punjaub. The exci:^e duty ou salt at tho 
Puojaub »ilt luinM hai been Dxud at tlirce 
rnpeee per niaund. 

English salt, it \i Mlid, may he laid down at 
Cftleulta &t i-ii, per ton. or ah-jut 1^. Nn per 
100 mauDdi!. But n<-cortl!n;* to the Cul 

will of course l>c iut^rea^ed by the amount of 
their eon sumption. It iit to he uhserrcil, i 
bowe^'er, on tho other Hide, Uiai the wife nnd'i 
children would ^niTolly cnntnlmtr lamc- 
thiiig to the comniou fuud hy tho eaniingi of , 
tla-ir Inhour, and thus agaiu reduce tho per-] 

AtBenai'esin ]U47theparchn«eortheHne'| 
qtinittity of trait (ISIba.) would atMorb Im 
days' eiimintl^ limit consiilttlinu a charge of I 
3 por cent.on thu labuurerViui'oniH, Tbcdif*' 
femice in prit^'o ix oecm^ioned by ihc eosl of 1 
eonveyanee, profit^) of trade, wastage, SiC^ th*] 
ordinary chargoa of commerce. 

The presMure of thu ^alt-tax on the )nl>onmr ' 
is s«vere, although it is tfa« only ^^'ay iu whi ' 
he contributes to thu pecnuiury ni>i-e&EitieB 
the Slote ; in nil other ix->tpcci« he It not 

.w maiimii.. i>ui a<com.»K ,o u,e v-m- ..coetMirily suhjeet to l^aUon. 
CUtta Koviow,— lis. b.i per IIX) mannds is the \ , , t. , t n \ 

lowest poMiMe rate nt which tlie trauMiciion 
conUl be eSl-eted. Bnt, linlt from the Persian 
Gulf Knd other Arab States is laid down nl 
CalcQtta at Ua. 40 [Xir IDO maundd. It it; 
therefore tlie high cost of |rroducing Itt/ngal 
aalc (Rs SO iier \VrO maond*) which alone 
ennblcs English salt to keep a fuutiug iu the 
Calcutta market. 

In Bcugol, ^olt U ohtaiDcd hy boiling tlj« 
wo-watcr. In Bouibay. and Mmlnit, ibu pro- 
cesB ia that of nolnr eva;>oi'ntion. In thi* 
Punjaub, it in r-sirju'trd in a pure s^tale from 
the f>alt mint-*. The SaitiMiur tah Inkv, in 
Bajpootano, overflows during the raiiits, and 
when tho waters HubTiide, a di-ep inttruHtatinn 
of Htlt IB dopoatted on iu aboi-ca for Bevcml 
milce round. 

la 1847. talt por'^hasif) at Catcnila at Id 
]v-r " ■' ■ •: ■ tiimcot price, wo-H nold at 
h from CnliMilla, where it 

coni'-i f.>n)i" 'itkn v;Uh llin «alt from 
Ki^pootuia) ol \'J IU. tt i III} ><>., or 2d. por 

In tho Madribt and Bombay lerrltoriirs, tho. 
duty ou salt t-^ only about out-third uf tbat.l 
which proTuil^ in Bengal. 

A compartdou of the amount of »ill pro- 
duced with tlw numbcrB of tho populuiiou 
couBumiug it, will idiow that tliu eettmats 
whicb nssigUH 121bei. as ibu ordinary annual 
<N>nsumptiou of au individual, is ucnrly in 
rjnrcspondciii'u witli faoC Tho quantity of 
salt aold wholciMile nod retail or iinport«<l|j 
was, in iy4G--l7, aa uudor : — 

IleoEkl r..l0^.2.V)| MfttliM ..'I.MI 

N. W. Pnvlua<^^.■l,^V^^.•J^Ui\ RtmUy 

i;i,Bd6.r>ili MnuiiiUnf XZ ibt. or I.311,fl9(}.< 

If tJiu entire popuhiiion of British ludlabaj 
n'^umud at one-hundred [nillinn", the abov^, 
mentioned quantity ot'«ilt would ull'.ird lo each . 
individual about 12 lbs. the facts collected by 
htatisliral research thus eorioboiiiUng an J 
eMimate founded oa obMivatioa oJ' tho lubiUj 
of tho people. 

Tlie following table exhibits the qnautlty 

from all 

inortMfer, it i: ilattd to be then of ealt imported into Calcatia 
81 S 84 



If and slso from Eagland, for the 
■n 1844-5 to 1850-51. 

itfadcs salt made In ex- 

el»Ml K<>Ielu. 

iM am six montbi of) 

Irom mil 
ooun tries. 







352, M5 


' seers or aboat 13 lbs. per bend per onDum. 
Salt Lakes exist ia the Megam pattoo distrkt 
Id Ceylon, anil its jtovernment derive a reve- 
nue of about £42,000 aumially, from the salt 

' III thd officinal yenis 1860-61 to 1869-70 
the revenue of British India derived fiora 
salt was 

»^ "f 

5 3 3 

3 a" 

S ^ S £ 
a »i et o_ 

Ski vS nnBvionatMV 

4 D fr. 

■a» oo ^ o> 
|S S 3 S 

1- « r. 

g r— ^ ^V V^ VI ^ ^ *- .^ «rf ^ 

MS 3 ;5 3 :£ 2 s s a" s s 

1860-Gl £3,805,124 
61-62 4,563,081 




1865-66 £5,342,149 
66-67 5,345,910 
67-68 5,726,093 
68-69 5,588,240 
69-70 5,»<88,707 


S S S S S 

-3 S S 2 S S 5 i 5 a 

5S rf rf »f t t rf 9 « t 

«s S ;! 

m ca n '« 

S 3 

g-s s s s s ti i ^ ^ i i. 


S C 2 2 S S 

S 3 3 S g K 5 S S 

gtt t9 ei a t£ n -^ tZ 



I 1 

I I 

T 1 

^ GD 


3 3 


3 3 

3r. Campbell gives the following as the 
coDsumptioD of taxed salt in India. 

I. ...... 



Wart I 
1S«ir«. I 

2 s 


31 ,?9S.28* 

13,0(10, mm 


H. A. 

3 a 

D 13 





TpU.. ia9,IE34.1»| 



ISO, 14,313 

yrdiag to this Btatement, in Bengal, 
, aad Bombay, 14,811,367 maunds oi- 
41,873 tons of taxed salt is consumed 
' by a population of 93,462,858 souls, 
n average consumption of about 6f 

Lencha, Tib-, means common salt, of which 
in Tibetan commerce, three eorts are known ; 

1. Sercka — White and best. 

2. Ck&ma — Keddish and good. 

3. Pencha — Yellowish and bad, contains 
Boda or magnesia and earthy matter. 

All the salt consumed in eastern Tibet ia 
the produce of lakes or mines situated to the 
north of the Yaroo river, or comes from 
" Lache," a district lying between Digarchi 
and Ladak, which is traversed by the Yai'oo. 
The best inroimation procurable is to the 
effect that all the salt of Tibet is tlie produce 
of lakes ; still there are people who assert 
that it ia also dug our of the ground. Possibly 
this ia confined to the vicinity of the lakes or 
to their- dried margins. All travellers in 
Tibet are agreed tliat the salt-produuing dis- 
tricts are the most rugged and inaccessible 
that can be imagined, in the vicinity of the 
deposits the ruggedncss is great. It is quite 
true that only men and sheep can reach the 
salt deposits. It ia also true that tlie elevation 
of the deposits prevents their being worked, 
except for the warmer half of the year, April 
to November. Thousands of sheep are em- 
ployed in cariying. the salt from the deposits 
to places accessible to yaks. These latter 
animals carry it all over Tibet in loads up to 
160 lbs. Sheep in open places will cai'ry 20 
to 24 lbs. 

One of the most extensive manufactures on 
India's shores is that of sea salt, and, simple as 
the process seems, it is far from devoid of 
ingenuity or interest. Amongst the numer- 
ous islands which fringe the Malabar Coast, 
there are countless narrows, creeks and iulet!>, 
left dry at low tide, the expanse of mud then 
exposed being often enormous. Off" the shores 
of Sewree the tide at springs retires nearly 
two miles : and this is notliing at all out of 
j the way in the neighbourhood. When salt- 
I pans are proposed to be established, the first 
; thing is to construct a mud embankment, — a 
> foundation for it being selected where the 
water is never more than four or five feet 
I deep. The crest of the embankment ia made 

S 85 


Tlie wlilte salt is as pure ds anj in Itit* iroriti 
— tiia black salt ts mixed with about oucor 
tivo per fxau of clay. Both are in a fprai 
niesMire free of the mignteian salts bimI wU 
pbatcs wbicb coDtatniaaUt tiie pao-maJa aalla 
of Europe ; — evttrvUiiiig mare soluble Uiaa 
muriate of soda remaiuint; bebiud id »'>lutioo. 
is wa-hed away by ibe miua. balt*piin<i are 
boats ruuDtng up. ItDmedialely bdiiiid the ; iniicti If-'xt-nicietit wlieti uvw ilnin afui Mnnliv 
fmbsokmratH tbo fatt-paiis an* laid duwu. i aud llu^y contiDuv to improve m tbc gn>uoJ 
TbeM cODoi^tt of reclnngulnr comjairtmenUi, lM>c(iine^ iitipregnau>d fnr t«ti or lUterti yr-an. 
ft\>m tWPiity to ibiity feet ucro^f, and trom- Wben ibe fii'«l (.-ry«taHiKHlinn ii<. utiRatirautuQr, 
mnnly iwtt*o a-s lang k> they ars broitd, and ms il often is, a f«rond cbMr^p of brine is Ut 
IVniu a foot to a foot and a half in dq^ib. on before the salt from ih« first t» renowd. 


10 Bormoont this by two or tliree feet— tlie 
baAO of it is geucrally from tvo lo tln-ee times 
Its height. Openings are piirpn*<!ly left at 
iiilerTids iu tlie priDcipnl embankmeot, and 
from tliesc, At right angles to the maiu line of 
the wall. ot)i(^r embaukiiteuLs are run inland, 
parallel to each otber, leariug a curreat be* 
twooa larg» eiioiti:li lo ndmit of a lino of salt 

They are »f«rat<d from each other by little 
mod wall!>, about three feet across at bottom, 
aud two at top, more oi- less, accordiog as 
little chaiiaela for fltliug ilie pans are roeaut 

to be ran along them or ool. Two, tlirec, or 

llid evaporation iu the back water ^oe« en, 
of rourK, as rapidly as in tbe pHUS ibctnH'lvca, 
aud by this cooirivAtice, which requires 
care or preparatino, an amount of evapor 
surface tlirce or four limes that of the pam | 

four lines of pan.', according Lo tlie extent of j isccured : the pans thcmselres only reqt 
tb« back water, are rarried along the rear of, trouble or ntleniioo, the back water rc(|ot 
caeb erabaoklDeut'—eare Wing taken to leave I noua. The pau^ are drawn from three lo : 
aa area of Und capable of being Hooded by ' tim>>s every year : as the rains appmacb, 
ibc 9ea betwixt the panit sod the maiulamt, are aliatid^med f»r the seaMXi. Tlie sea 
three or four times lite fize of the pan^ tliem- | seldom let iu mow llinu once or twice iul 
■elvea. So noon ni the ranuwcm is faiily orer, ) the buck water : were the whole availat 
all tli« fpMh water that ha9 accumulated in | surface kept covered, double the amouul 
the pans or back water i-i rtin off. and iu No- a^h nl pre-^ent manufacturetl might be inn 
Tember or December the s^^a ii a<Iniitied to { 'I*be supply, however, is so cloae od tlic hi 
theback water througbaslutceiu ibe t-mbiLitk- 1 of the demand, and the profits are no 
muiit. The paat are now carvfulW rieaiied low, lltat there is do reason w).j product 
out, their doors and walls being made smooth 

and nice. In about a month after it has been 
ailmilte*) to the back water, the sea water, 
now getting redaeed m quaality, and eu< 
creaiwd in taltoess by evaporation, is let into 
Ibe pans. The first charge require^ about 

should be extruded. Such U the convenic 
of the shores of tlie Pcninsola for the 
fa<!ture, and so easily and so cheaply can 
proceu of ttoriag and carrying away 
managpd, that attempts made to brinj 
from Kind, where it is to be hnd in uoU 

■it weeks to evaporate : lubsequoot charges j quantity ready made-, have prored 
■re drii^l up in half tlic time of the first, thusj miiDcrativo. The idea, therefore, of imi 
d ^ as the aeaaoQ becomes hotter, and I salt from England into India is alMiaF 

■ : loofv Htroi^. The strength of the 

brtoQ ts judged of by its becoming red : in 
(act, by a curious creature, of the votvax 
kind. make4 !u appoarance jn^t aa the salt is 
rrady to rr}-»talli*e, — often tinting the salt 
itself of a fine pinkish hoe : it is the same as 
lobe feuad in a fosnl state in the Punjaub 
rock-aalt, and which often tinges tho waters 

rbrmerical as any tliat ever entered the bt 
imaginaiioo ; while the abuse heaped oa 
quality of tlie salt n<«d in India is n 
served as may bo. The upper calt la 
surpassed in purity by the fiuent thai 
mines send fortli : while th«i blick salt 
tatoa as mueb of the par« muriate of sodai 
does the comnon pan-made 5>alt alhouvL 
matter which rontaminaied the foi-mer js 

of ovr icoaharM as if .•stained with blood. 

WbM *<r7 nearly dry, the rait, which has | spicunas, and looks very dirty, but then i 
now aernnnulated to tiie thickiwss of an inch perfectly harraleoa ; the sahtle coatamina 
or two. is nketi off, tba npper portioo of which , of the Utter areemtneutly miscbieroois 

iuTisibLe. An English adult is sopposod 
eoDaume at an average of from fiAaoa 
twenty pound) of salt annually, so that 
would in this way swallow some three 
The whitr and I of mod a year : in India, DaaDbcra of 
^ piled up separately in | eat pounds' weight of day by choice. 
atMwl sixtem feel in diuieter. In tho Madras Presideocy salt is manu 

tared all round the coast line frooi Man 
lo tiaojam. Sail pans are sitoatcd cloM 
S 8G 

U houtifully white, and altaost qolte pare, 
beini^ first lakes, — the lower peniou, of^ 
■" ' ia piooe* of half an inrh r uW, la 
tt,— It i* tllghtly njxed with clay, 

r in use. 

> which are preecrred with a 
«r grass daring tbc VOOMOO. 



JdIcIk rruiii the sn. TTie niouu- 
)Q coiTini('iitt'& ibttut Jaiiuai"y 
find rimes with Uic [MrtUI niins in .Jiiljf and 
AwirtMt. The first process w to rcpnir ilie 
I..-I-, The larth is mramciJ ilnwti U> » h«nl 
■ -th !c\^notl water Ubnlea or let m from 
t . ■ i-:-.a1l^ itilo a reserroir where it is alloweJ 
- il fumliuut one month whence 
.;othe smaller binU, Id some . 
] : - f storing wnliT iu the , 
is ■ luJ llic wilier mkeii 

wclU. 1.1 ili'^ hut "cHiOii the Itriiic ' 
b wrll- i« HnRir(m<; tlutt il it-juirwrnlnjixture 
: V *c« water. TIil* In iuu Id itiut 
■ Il iiro Btnerally 2 Iv \ iuelit'P 
decj. . ahiiut 5 Jays, hut a* cryn- 

tf\s i- - :i>miv«l withiu thai linie, lIic . 

fnaen of Icttiog hiiiic iiilo iJic (hiiib h ngaiu 
nitcd. jomctimes an oFliij m 3 or 4 limes, 
alt b iM^rac'iJ up after Hiial eva|Hinil)oii. 
rtoia locoliiicfi Ihu brine ib alloweil to 
m Ote pana oeiirl/ a Tunt thick fur -10 
nd the luklt whuu lurtiie!*! »crnpc<l. A 
I alxKit littir a cnwny or iwu-tliirJit of aii 
i^Uif«iw]uarU'r* of the ^lat-o ifi oc*;u[UtJ 
iIm f*>*<?r>rotr aitil bUW^ l>cil»j wliCTt' the 
' t-J tu Im! ciiiiilensoii. Thu other 
.:ic(l into guiiwiiily n doKon litils, 
>Wir tiiu hriiie ii Dtinlly allowed to evo|io- 
■l«aad ileiiiiKit ^aIu 
The {(Cfduui) vrho make Milt hnvQ a kiutl cif 
lilaiy ri^ht ami aicpnitiby (lyreiumeiil 
rarjiug from 6 Ui 2G ruiiWd a garce, 
130 luauiids of 82 lbs. eath, wliirh in from 
.tn^ m-arly per tunuiid ia EuglUh money. 
cioal coet !!> from -1 to G rui^ees a garte. 
Morofl iu heaps of 10 or 20 gurcc eacli, 
it is DiBiiufin'tured, or at loitie 
it Mid M>ld by Guverumeiit at 
m. ihaund or a little over 2 rarthiugs 
fhi T1)« niiTiiiniim quantity sold by the 

ir lit is 1 mauiul of 82 lbs. 

riu'e of tlie eurth-salt ia tbe 
diiUicl wf UiG Madras Presidency, 
rmwDd* MP irri'cled geiieially uot f*r fioin 
tko Uoca of tlr&iiingu of tbo euuntry at stiy 
iMKit Spot wlit-re ilie aoil i^^nliue nn<l 
cao ho eaeily oKniuod. Patdiea of 
ft talilie enrtii ocmir iii various placw, 
ihrir qualiiieK LenUMl tu a simple nuiuiter 
tf application to the touguo. Thu earth is 
dujT ap aud ht'U[>cd ia a mouiid ten or tHQire 
Ck4 bigb ; at ilifTuretit leveU of thu nioiiud 
fmnela aie ezcATsted and line<l with hcnt4.'u 
mrth, and lh» Uwsc eatlh beiug placed )□ 
AcM it frrailually exhausted by repc-oled 
««liiii^ llio wuter huTiog boeo suOJuieiilly 
witli 'a-ltd ID Its paaaage ihrougb the 
tr 'it'la ia niu oii to a level floor 

■ eurroiintled by a low rim. 
■ ftieiuiiukiuce of a&dUiysua, cvsjigm- 

tion it) eflcclcd in a few days nod a residue of 
salt Ib left. Thifl im piled ili hen ps Tor any 
iiioiitluro (bitU'ru) Ui drain otT, and when dry, 
il U ?old to tbo villager! for donieftljc con- 
eumpliou. Ttie wholesale price is al>i)ul 30 
meiL>;itniB for a niptie, it is retailed at about 
eiijbL cash per aeer, which is half the price of 
iMtti Mill. It is not usually sold ia canton* 
ment, lu it Js »cver used by the populatiup of 
sopoyn, cnoip followers and other people out 
UOonging to ihnt pari of tlio conniry, its ui>0 
nn-TtMt to be entirely lOnfitK'd to llie villagers. 

One »pee!ineu which was liruuj^ht hy a man 
wlio engaged largely in ilie mnnufaettire, as a 
fair ftjKiuiiDeii of the t^alt prmlueed iu his dis- 
trict was elii-inicatty exnmined. 

Wheu air-dried, it slill contained 3 per 
ceut. of moisture ; it wns of tiUght alkalina 
reaction, cicnu but of while effloresced appear- 
ane© witliout any regnlar crytlals. Exi^ic- 
cctcd, il had ihc rullowiiig eompoaitioo per 

Smliiiincliloridc. . ,44'5<1 
ISo-liiitu gul|>bitiu .. I'.'LIO 
HRgticAiuitiiiilj'hKtc. 1113 
Magnaatuoi uitnle.., 024 
Ua^nvcLuin c-itbuontc (*'3& 


i'aldiim cftrbi'iMitfl. 

Itli>iilub!L> (kilUiI, 

cliii^, 4cO 0-4.1 

To(»i„. iUD 47 
A person couBoniiiigdailythemodurateatuount 
ufaquarler of au ouuec vi tliia miU would tako 
along with the rcid full a quantity of tiodium 
■ud magiieeium »ulpliateK (uiiIiydioui<) e<|uul 
Iu 121 grninK uf (rlniitcr's >alt and L2 grains 
of Kpiioni Kalu Ditleieocc of laete would uot 
waru peuptu iigaiii&L this. Magnefcintu chlo- 
ride anil nitraie, and th^ presence of tbese in 
tho mother liquor adliercuL to cryi«lal)> of salt 
would give a decided uupleatmut flavour. 
This is not, however, the case with sodium 
eulphulo, its (lute ta not very diNigrecuble, 
and in this eiimple it seemed to bu entirely 
uouct-aleJ hy tluit of the chloride, a bliglitly 
liilU-'t' ufler-la^te aruNU from the nwgiiei'inni 
salia preKeiil. The brnckibhne&s im|iartedhy 
lhi.t salt to many of the wells euiik iu thu 
bl.irk cotton soil ia different iu chanu^ter from 
tiiiit.arieing iu couscquence of previous &ewiige 
croiiijiiiiinutiiin. A (Hti'dliarily of lliu tiiditio 
dcpositi^ dilTuscd tlirough tbe black cotton !M>il 
of the Ceded Diblrietit is llivir tendency to 
Bcuutnulale in tlio lines of drainage, uot only 
iibout dry water-eouisen at the low level of 
valleyH hiiL alM) near lu the lower drainago 
system of tho coutilry. In sonic parte of the 
Ceded lJislrict», wcllii near to rivei-s give, us 
a rule brackish waler, quite couirarily to 
what one would expect. The rcaKOu of this 
is probably to bo found in the very partial 
waiUing which the soil undergoes from the 
acauty riiiuhill. Th« ^alUi arc washed from 
the »o\\ of tbe biglier tracts of vountiy, but, 
by the time, the buUeoil drainage water baa 
pcrcoUitvd to the lower parts of the TalleyN 

; 87 


il Id much ocurcr lo the surfncc und (lie ec=- 
Batitiu ol' rnlii with the forcu of cva^mmtion 
miw* lilt! sfilts to alop or tbeir joutoey 
tuwiiril^ ilie BLNi. 

Cnttai'k n\i i» prfl^luccJ hy solar evnpom- 
tioii : ft h or two klmle, viz., Piingiili m\U 
nhtJiiiiiHl hy lioititi^ 10 a i-u.ii«lnoin liif!lity 
>annri-iitiTiti il liriiio ; iintl Kurkulcli, ur (inivfl 
ill, prfOtiivtl by till; niil oT ^olnr e%'n]K)ru- 
lion only, riofli M-ti-ivutrr. 'Hie \viiU*i h ia> 
(I'ltiluroil into Rttmll Ik'iU prpiwiivtl with it 
■innolli Ikotioui iifclny, titihtl)' tli.-|>r<>^Kcil In (Imj 
gruiiii<l, mill Htirniuiuli'il Uy a blijjlit nil<;o of 
curlli. A fi'W hours cxfM'suri- ill llic Ituniinj; 
feun of MuP'li miii ihv two rullowiiif* moi)th!>, 
is »iiin>'i>;tiL tit (U'ii|)(trii 14! ihe w»U<r in Uiifte 
hedis wliicli ilciio^il!; tli*^ »ilt il !iuli] in i<olu- 
tton, K Ti'i'mIi I'lipiily in tlit-'ii \vt \u, nriil (Iid 
|iro<-ps8 of tc'fiil or only pHrilal i'vu[ioriitton is 
fuiititiuril, till Uiu iHittotn uf the beils ii* 
rovi-ruil niUi n lavcr of tM» fi>U, moi-e or \cbs 
Uiick. wliii:li ifi lht'iisi?ra|K.'d up iinJ it: llie eall 
uf tlic iMun|ilf. Bolli ilifiHrkiuJ^ufsaUaropro- 
Ju<:vd all nluti); tlic sou Uonnl of Uiu Cuirnck 
pi-uviiit.'(^-, from F«'liitinrv to Jime, aiitl Ufi«lci' 
wlint ia prin-rictilly n i;overnniPiit mniiopoly. 
"I'lp'-^.-awitV nmiiufiiu-iure tiflWiO-SI Jimonnivd 
111 .'(I.OUt) toiiH iif llui one, Kill) 14,000 Uiui of 
llivailiur. 'L'liu [>r«iil(ii'tiitii i8cuii)>iik'i\*il liiiiid- 
eonifly lo reinuuvmie the (K'tty conlniotoi-*, 
wlio iMiniiKi* wiUi ^rovcrniHcwt fin- lis sHpply 
■t 10 mini>« iin>l 4 aim-u pvr mnitml fur tich 
kiiitl m^fioclivcly, wtiicli is tfiiiivnlciit to S^i. 
4</. ptT ton for tito oriR, iithI lis. Uti. per ton 
for lli« ullicrf ill Kiif;lif>li mnnt-y uml tni<«Miirc. 
To llie Puiii;ali iiin^t \>p nddol nl«Hil .K) p<>r 
per wuU to ibe Kurlcuh-h nlwut 25 per cent. 
tor ex iwii«c.*ti urt<u)KTint<.*niK'ni.-e, &c. To iLc 
more i-xipn>[ttl iiiniiiifiK-ttirti of tlio wliito Mill, 
ilic piv-cHi iii'iilut'i'iiy of till- niiiuiifaiMuriug 
lo<.iitilii.*:4 anil Uii! ('oui'eqiicniiliirK'iitty ufprn- 
rnrto^ InKonr n* Wvll ns (la* iii*iiinri(>iiry of 
tlio fufl >^iip|ily, nil- c<b>tat:K". Tliu courser 
Icinil mnv lio mnniifiiflui'cil nd infiniliiiTi, Inil 
hi nowlii-ri? ap[>ri>i^iitli.-it *n much as iiL tho 
tlihiiirt, a*, not licini; fucLiil like llif I'un^iili, 
It id move ncrvptJihli' lo the ncni pit Ions i-Jistv 
pi-i*jut)ic«.*9 of lilt! L'lyati iM-ople. TlKr liulk of 
lioih kin-Ill is exjM<vitil lo C^kiitlu. Tho 
lucal tvUid pi'ico at Cuttack En the eliops of 
llic bazaar fur Kui'hulcli is tii, 3J. por mnuiid 
of 100 tln^liMli Ih". Ptin<riih ii Holil ttl llic 
govcrunu'ul Jcp^<i« ai. fit. '^it per niauml. 

Thcfoiuniuu tuiti nuiilc al Rtuiim*, is UMtl 
x^' ' ' Uy tliQ iiihiiliilaiilp and 'n m>UI at I 

I uiuiiiiU. Tlin nnnuul ptuductiuu, Ifc 

Bill III. II. 'm' ...!,Ii l)c cxtt'iiiK-d It' 
^1.-1 ■■ u .. i 1,. ill not rc«|tiired for 
>(i in llii* fii.'viiu'v la i*K|niiU.'J from 
Titp Kill is mannlncturcJ hy 
twa-fmtt.'r uriirrU Una hccu klloweil 


to Flfln<1 for sotno dayti on land prcpArtJ 
ro<rmve it. 

The Ran Namak of Liicknnw h aa 
puro vliloriJo of BoOium. K^rtiuerly 
givaici- p&ri of tbo £alc eoueunird by 
tivefl of Oiidb vas made in tiii& pn>vinr 
now it (ionies from oUier province^ kikI thi 
in llie only kind niudo ut pr<-»ii>nt in Oiidh. 

Salt h al^o ohtnined from $att Toincs in 
ShnhpurL' district. CryHlul)! of conirnup 
nre fotini) in snlt-pita at Kiil|olipor«. 

Mr. riowdcn'u report coniains tlic dijtei 
fiions wlii<'h (oak plm*i* iK-fm-f ilip «all mont 
poly wii^insiiiutcd hy iIr- UrilisihCoverunirul 
in ISOJ and llic StaliKlioul Reporter for MaJ 
1810, fhowa tliv changes llial Imvc U 
madu iu the Monopoly prieo. Ko Nalit 
(!uvt'mmcntcvt-r innnopoliziNl the s^U^ of 
and when the lirillah did so iho people 
plained bitterly. 

Uock stilt in uhvays ohlainnblc fh>ro 
Indian draf;g]«», who rrtjiil it ae a mcdlcluri 

Oonitnon uilt i» pnHltic<.Mt hy ^va|M)ntl{oc 
from hi'inc pits in the- Qurgnon dialriel, etill 
toirclhcr with the produro of tlio " Samhiur* 
and other tuilt lakes of the Jhtpiir lernlopf, 
forniB JUi irapoi'lnnt article of i?xpi>il ca 
wan]. Tile ■rrent uianufiietnrinp <li>.lrii:i 
the N. W. of India for evaporated nlim* 
f^alt ifl Gur)rHOit ; whcro it ia obtaini 
cx|msing iJie brine or Bait lmjuvgrifiiti.1 wi 
in shallow pans or pooU to the lieiit of 
^ull. The neigh hour in r; foreij;n territory 
Jaipur alHO produces Sjilc, e^pocially tho laki 
of Stinihhar, the Mlt of whirli i» celehrat 
These K'dt works supply the north-ciwt 
parts of the ruujab, both [niemally anil 
export, just as iho rock sail of tlie salt 
minctt KUpply the upper Punjab. Soino 
Iho Stilt villaiji-'S are within tlto Gui 
dittlritil, but tho»Q pniducin^ the hc«l 
iiru in the iKTRunnnh of .Ihiijjar, llio lerrtli 
recently taken from thu uiiwuli of ,|hitjjnr. 

The alimentary t'nil, usoil at LnhanI, i» 
tnincil from Changtltan in Titiet. Thi^ «>all 
railed in Tihet, " eo," Kotnca from Clinii::ili 
A lnrj:r <miuiiity is imported into Unkk 
coiiRumptiau in ibia province, and for 
mdlianija of Kjii^hinti-'a army throujjboat 
Jammn nn<l Knahmir tcniluricH. 

All the Punjab proper, ilown to tho WMt 
cm Dcrajat is supplied from the misen of I 
Kill range where va^t Iwds of pur« nn-k 
arc ciUicr worked in ojien quarries or by 
Iciicd uud abafti cut in the nil rock il 
Salt minee cf tbcTran»-IiiduE in Uic souther 
Khutluk hilts aiv sitnnled near the vlllu^rsi 
nnliftilooikUeyl.Knrrnckainir.tidiiimr. XI 
in alFo a scjNiralc mine nt .a 

lyinpcBst of Kohflt. The ii ■ . i of 

villages ruceive a Cxod pcrovntago on 



ions at (be mines to obtain tlieir good I ricli ; nnd it ie very comnioD for a servant to 

The Sikhs never muuHgod these mines ; say, I eut ShUhU's salt. A faitliless servant is 

Tliey farmeU them out to some Joi-al jt'Hlied iitimak liuram, from uuroak, salt, and 

and Ifft him t« collect wliut ho could. | iiitvam, fuitlilei^s. It is supposed tJiis allusion in- 
British rule, the control and working ' timates, itsanEustcru compliment, that what 

miDes is io the handa of govcniment 
t ; the aalt is excavated aud sold "at the 
t a fixed duty of two, three and four 
per mauud of 80 lbs., covering all ex- 
There are five salt mines worked by 
meut ID the Salt Range ; one at Ka- 
, across the ludus, and sevci-at in the 
district, and the supply from these 
} may be said to be inexhaustible. An 
duty of 3 rupees per maund of 80 lbs. 
charged upon all salt sold, the rate 
been inurea^d from 2 rupees about 
»r 1855 ; and the revenue deiived 
Lfais source amounted to upwards of 
KM). The salt mines are also llie means 
plying the traders of the Pinijab with 

salt is to food, that a master is to his servant. 
Maiihin, Arui., means on terms of salt Salt 
among hindoos is considered the essence and 
preserver of the seas ; it was therefore used 
in their offerings to the goda. The old idea 
iu Europe was, that salt is a body composed 
of various elements, into which it cannot be 
resolved by human means, hence, it became 
the type of an indissoluble tie between indi- 
viduals. Homer calls salt sacred and divine) 
and whoever ate it with a stranger was sup- 
posed to become his friend. By the Greek 
uutliors,. as tiy the Arabs, hospitality and salt 
arc woi'ds expressing a kiudre<l idea. The 
Bedouins of El Hejaz, have peculiar notions 
of the salt-lnw. — Arts and Manufactures ; 

of paper cun-ency. By payment of \ Local Exhibition Commiliee ; Report of the 

gulated price at any of the Punjab 
'iesj.a warrant for the delivery of so 

Madras Central Committee for the Sxhibi- 
tion o/ 1851 ; Rhode, MSS ; CaL Mad. Ex. 

ealt aX the mines may l)e obtained; o/ 1857 ; Heport of Board of Customs, Salt 

Jocuments are transferable, aud pass 
land to hand like banknotes. 

Friend of India has stated that the 
) of North India have shewn a decided 
ioce for imported Englit^li salt over 
rhich is manufactured in Bengal and 
le Bengal government has been anxious 
re from the monopoly of manufacture 
ive it to private enterprise. 
^hiu:i, at Kia'i-Cbau iu the province of 
1, salt was formerly made us ia India iu 
w earth pans by evaporation by the heat ; 

and Opium: Calcutta, 1819, aho Calcutta 
Review, 1847 ; Bengal Hurkaru, Mat/ 10 
and 30, 1860 ; Gal. Cat. Ex. 1862 ; Powell's 
Haiid-book ; Ecoit. Frod. Punjab, p. 117 ; 
Burton's pilgrimage to Meccah, Vol. ii, pp. 
334-35 ; Poole, Statistics of Commerce ; 
Awltcyn on Salt Trade ; Madras Revenue 
Board's Proceedings, llih January I860, 
A'o. 1 50 ; Dr. Nicholson. 

Kalu DUDialE, Hind. | Sonchal Dimiak, HiRO. 

To make this raedicinul substance, take I 

aun, and this is still practised at Cheh- ■ maund of Sambar or Diodwa salt 

and almost every other province on tlie the 

ore- As io British India, salt manufac- 

D China if a monopoly and smuggling 

ensive. It is used there medicinally, as 

ternal application. 

etii, iu Lis report on the jtasses of the 

lOO Cash, mentions that iron-^mitlia are 

rded by the Kaffir as natural bondsmen, 

arc occasionally brought for sale to the 
[a\mfla people of the vallrys ; also, that 

oaib of peace of the Kaffir consists in 
"»g a piece of salt. This is also the 
Ik of the Kasia on the eostcru frontier 

j™*?*'* IMt is regarded amongst the 
'r'^^^BS in Mveral parts ot Asia, as a 
^J\«w<^, aoa a servant will say that be 

^"l **^ government salt, and mnst obey. 
^^\^'*f ""/s ' We have maintenance 
ujanaF ^^' paUce,' or, as it is in the 

■^ W^ ^'**'®^' ' ^® **^ '^® ''•"s'** ^^^^•' 

* itb(^!* * ^cy remarkable coincidence 

rery remarkable coincidence 
4la0uers : multitudes of poor 


J'rom the 

houses of the 

^ seer of 
fruit of Terminalia belerica ; ^ seer of 
the fruit of Ttnmiualia chebula ; -J seer of 
Aonla or EmbHca officinalis ; -^ seer of Black 
sajji or impure carbonate of soda : all these 
are put into an eai'then pot over a fire and 
kept there till scori'hed ; when about 35 out 
of 41 seers remain, the pot is tnkeu oflF and 
tho black salt is made. About two mauuds 
of wood are used. The price is Rs. 3 per 
mannd. It is used as medicine in India and 
China. In China it seems to contain a little 
sulphuret of Iron and is given in eulargements 
of the spleen and liver. — Smith Mat. Med. ; 
Poioell, Hand-book Econ. Pro. Punjab, pp. 
9 oH(i9H. 

SALT LAKES, see Iran, Lakes, Ilooghly, 
Fars, Sambhar. 

SALT RANGE. This rauge of moun- 
tains in the l\injal) extends from ilie eastern 
base of tho Sulimnn Mountains to the river 
Jhelura, lat. 32* 30—33= iiO'. TheSaltKaogc 
runs transversely Ijetween tho Jhclum and 
tho Indus, and tiie Baloti Range, and Shaikh 

S 80 

ftAi.T haxcr. 


Bu.lin IiIMf, wliicli Dill)' bt! cou»iJcrO'I iw n iniitcH arc of iwu kuitlti ; oiic where Uie enlt 
fMiriioa or cotitiiiuittiot) of itu' niii(£H 'I'rniit" i nx-k ix iip[tronrlii?(l by ga]1cric*t Diid excAva* 
Jndua, lid III till) vlciuiljr of th« Suit Kniige ; liuti;', tliv ollivr wli«rtr, iisnt KnlaWf-li, or tlio 
liKvii)^ ttioec bills on (lie soulti, lUt^ IVcliuivur Tniiis-luiluH minejt, tlic tmlt i^ nt iho ffarOics 
bilk on ttio north, odiI ilie end of ilie ^ of therork^nnd isqimrrici] mtlierihau m!ur<l. 
Siilaiman Rhu^ wicli tiif WuKiri bills on | Al tin* Kiilalmgit niiiipa, lltu tniiientl exists 
the wear. KroiD ibis ptiici? nnwanls Jnwu tliu cIom lo tlic suvlnce mid crops out twliiuU tlitt 

*vi»(wu fW>iiti<T. Ilie !'''oIi>);i''nl iVatures nf the 
I'miiclic-a of the 8iilainiiin miipi) were repit"- 
mmiUhI nt Uic Lahore Kxhiljition by several 
lasfiJU from lIic Ln^uri, Miiziiii niid Lowcr 
Kills Ix'loiifiinjr to llic Sulaimiin Bylem. The ill Uir pnrL nf tlic inii^o b«ln'i^n t«U 
Z2' 30' nud 33" 2*)" nn*, niHjrm-piBu liine- 
iloiic, Dew rod iAndtlono, fu*£ilit'erouH Mitid- 
sloin', red cliiy mtd Hnmi;fl*>iii', nontiiiuini; ooikl 
and niiueral 6ulpbur, rock «tlt, cyp*""!. Iirowu 
ntid it.-d iron uiv uiid nliiiii »(iiic. Tl»e lower 
l)f>iN oonlniti no orgntih; remiiiiiN hul tlio upper 
abviiiid iu thfin. The iiou ord is » red Of 
brown biemalitu, ho rich tliul iti iimny places 
Ihc noedle of tlie compntn-i licronu's ipitm u»e- 
Ipsa cvt'ii lit a roiiftuit-iiililo di^ilAuce from tliu 
rock#, owing (o their bciitJi: highly nugnrtie, 
from the rpiuiitily of imu which thi?y coiitahi. 
Tbo satid-toiu* »lM>iintI>) with Ihc rxiivin! of 
PDormou* Kiiiinni!-, villKT ^nminiis or Snuroid 
fitibf-s. Tho IlilUul Knln Bii<;li rontaiiifrreiil 
qitait[iiip«tvf nlutnitioir^ "ln(c, fiom which (ilom 
ia obUiiiicd at Variwus mntiufii'^K'rif--^ in thnt 
lowii. Tlie filate, wpU fpriiikl-.-d wilh wiilor, 
i« laid in Bl(«rDate itntn with wood, iitilil ihc 
pile rcMcttcit « height of 3') (« 30 fvel ; it Jh 
f.a lighted aud the cntnbuatiDii noulinucd for 
ut iwclvo hours, in which timo thu i^olour 
the filato is converted from greyish WaL-k to 
dark rtd. Tbis riiaofie of t-i>lour ipdicaliiig 
ihnl ihr provf«i> has been onrrJifi) to a kiiIH- 
cieni extent, thp mavo ix thrown into a tank 
holding aft much water as it is computed tbo 
alum ifl rompetenl to ?iiluiaic. Aftr-r three 
daV* the water, whirh h<'c-<miei«. of a ilark n>ri 

(ifnaued bou(W» of Kalubngb, forming a wall 
wliifb overhuugs llie lowu. 

Klphin?tonc, describing the town and nitnefl 
of Kiiluiuigh, my^, ns he pnKs^] beut-atli, bft 
p4!rcuivcd winilow« »»d hn](?oiiicit nl n fna. 
bright I'rowdod with women and <rb!itlrc 
The road beyond wa« ciil out of Ibe soti' 
:<all iLt the foot of difla of tbut mineral, 
(ionie plai'eA more llmti 100 fi'^t high abov< 
ibf rivt-r. The xall i^ hard, rieiir aud aim 
pure. It would be like ci^'vtul wei-e It not 
some pnriK btri-aked and tin'ied with red. I 
aomo plACe» »itt 9pringi> ig^uo from the foot 
the r(M.-k» and leavo the ground eoven?d « 
u rrui^t of the mo-it hrilliatit wbilt'iiesft. All 
ih(! earili, psrti<;ul.'U'ly near ilic towo, 
n]m[>!<t blood-red, (tiid tliia with tlie strai 
and beaiiliful tp'.'cUicIe of ibe f-nll rockfl, anil 
the Indus ll-Mving in ji deep and fltiar ^treai 
ihrnu^b lofiy inounulntf pusi thi<( exIiiionU< 
nary lowo. preaeuled sueb u nceue of wond 
n« in mrely witiicMted." Thu mines or ratb 
(pianies which were de«eril)ed by Elpbia 
Miuno, are now clo»>ei), and the 6alt is tX' 
(nu-led instead, at Atari, on the oppo^it* 
of the liver. The out-turn of na]t« in ma 
and ivveime, derived from the Khcura mi' 
uloue for the four year* 1S6I-IH64, is 
ftillowh, about Us. 2^ tlie maund. 

l)«ll,M<lk.»,lf;.1(A,.iat.2-2, trulne IU. !•> ti!,7** 

1*12. . 7,00.190. 2^ 

IM3, 7.X5.1M. 3 

INH. i.9i.l32. a :...... ... 

Iu the tortiary ntrmalioaa of the 
Hauge. |>i>ld i» /uund in minute i^ral 


Crtionr, is drawn off, mixed with a due pr-tpor- Ua* dnnblless bt-en .derived friHii pluiouir 

tiou of (Wlasb and W>iled down. The teniduuni 
oil conliug biTOniinS a #nlid m»i»R of Mliini. 
Mr. Powell mentiont* (bat ibe prin'-i|i«il bi-d* 
of lialt ooiur in (be red marU aud $antl-stotif>« 
of the DevtMiiart pi-oup, on the smiihrnt aiile 
of ibe Salt' Rantt«. They are from l.W to 
SOO foot iu thickness but ina«»(^s of mIi 
nIko found jnlrrspemtl amoo}; tbe marls 
d dntarbcil from the main ImnK Thfre 
liri' three priuajwl varirtie* of pjilt, Tix., ivd, 
wbilK aud crT*ial wilt. 'Hie red is prelenrd 
for>, r» it d'"w not break up «i 
renditv »■ tln« othM*. Tbf wbit*? variety 
lini «i ' ' ■ m(n m srcy or preen- 

j.h r<' 1'he Buhailur Kl■^<l 

'I I' blaek ivalt. and )i 

il for export, hav.i 
Tito Sail ltiui(;« 


Itfl nwu 


mi-luniorphic rorke, tbo dtBinlefinitioa 
wliieli bttb turnif^bed the muleriiil of w| 
iha firata of ihe ^eric< ato nnmpo«cd 
ibe h<->l> of itumeroua Dullubn whiuh 
lhron>[h lit" " mpifM-'eiic*" forma tiou k, 
Mknd If wa*hpd for pold. (nild "e^mi 10 
rdiiaiued iu the lar;^efrt qiianiity towards 
indu*, north of (be Salt Kange. I'ba 
wu^bin^ of f ho Sail Raugti aro oeu-ty 
tlie .Ihvlum district. The Salt I{ati^ ofi 
taiiii', .ici'mn tobetho Mona Oromcnnftof 1 

' and the Sanskrit Kniimaka. In tbe year 
158 ci-adlrs were at work, and ihoy 
la xi'd from R^. 2 to o per " trooo ;' 
uuh\ lax amounted to Ra. S2S. In 
mm where gold-sand is irafihed, gr 
i.iiim are OMuioually found in 

I <|iMuiiti«4 ; tbe gold aeoker* t«U ilie 





titl reject it utuxt-ti^si : platiuuni | miucrnl ; it hcIIs it 1 rii))ec Uis tORUoJ, vfirf 
iouoJ 10 the 'i'uvi rivL'i* uf ; good, but tV-y piuJuco u twice tioileil km1(- 
rilnrvt and in the Knhitl river ■! {telti! at 2 iii{>ccs wlii'^b is rery kuperlor. 
Salt liiinge coj»I fioni I'tiid Jiurmah. — .Sillpttm i* ((•utid iu Homo of 
Thdaa KIuid cn^ts at Mtiltait, rupees ICX) the caws uf TvuA^erim odU ia inipotltKl IVcna 

liuuiliY'l niatiiKl, nti'l is not ti)>l<riir, Iduiguoti. 

■ikI, aciHtiiliiig 10 Mr. OUlUatu, llio Biijiply i» . SMmalra. — Mnixicn, in liU Siirnutra Re- 

)ik«ij Uy I»e very linaiie<I. Seu-hoiue mmX ' Hcarrhes, n'feiTiiig to llie oiillpt-tru cbtcpih 

l«<KU OD lli« StLil RMilway ru|>ce« lOo, au<J I lii <lio couittry uf Callowu ii<*ur ibe hiud ut' 

. woelil protiably cunt ou the ruujali lUilwHyn , tUu Dnvi river, stairs llint \\\km} rnve^ uhb 

ntfMMii HO per hiiuili'ed iiiaunilR. — ValctUM 
Jtftiew, Ptbruartf IttGS, p. 296 ; PowelCx 


■ LfMt. 

An. [Slima, 
,. iNiiro, 
Cak. ) Niiiwui, 
Chim. I'otun* nilrw, 


l\uct. iT., Sr. 



|]lk>U with uust« ur iiiiiuinernbic binU of the 
(wallow kitiil which abouud the muro Ihc 
Turthcr nne mlvuiceU iiiio the ciive und 
ihut it wua their ihiiif; fui'miiig llie auil (i» 
Diaiiy |>!uct!B fiom Tttur to &ix aud evrii 
fnmi tiltefii to twenty feet tleep) whidi 
atrordfi the uiul-. A rtibic fuut of this 
oaiUi proJiired ou iioihngT poiiiidii 14 ouitres 
ot'Miltt>etrc, and a lurthor experiment gnro 
unr-tiiiitii mut-p. 

Beliiiri/.—'rhQ 8oil of the Bcllary di«lrift 
ia Tory faroiirable for the uanutucturo 
ot' n8il|>etr<!!. In the piorctiii, ihe caith is 
put into pits and mixed with i-alitie wntet-. 
The eolulioii ia afterwards ilrawu off into 
curtlicii |iol«, boiled, nud afterwarda poured 
anl Nelloro. lo Uiote distnoL^ iL grnci»Uy , ^^to »h«ltow ve»a*ds to cryaUlli-e. 
oocaw »fl a white iucrusutiou ou the soil, j /'a»/aA.— Salipoins in made in mott of 
UiBg also mixed with it to a cousidembjy i (i,^ pi„j„ ,)i*(rict» of liio Panjab, parlicu- 
dtjrth. Tlieearlliifstrapfdatidboilt'd wilh laHy iu Multau, Dera fibazi Kliau, Jhaiig, 
w»t*T. The «>lulioo is iheu concentrated by I .^j Gugnia. where it cffloicstes epoiilaHe- 
ttpheatofthesunand the wiit^r uri^rward* i (^(ij,jy about old miD?, aud U collected aud 
«»»potat«dhy Brt.Ilcial hi>ot. Fi-om this the I pu,.,tiea by boiliog aud re-crystMlJizaiioD. 


&k^rt*r, Pbt.. r.Kn 
aitn, „ 

-\i»r, Ui:x. I'utii 

The nitpetro of coramorce u obtnined fi-om 
Ithe East Iddit-e, ctiietly from Oudh, 1{(iij>;a) 



I' SlKl^ll. 

'IxM., Txi. 

sail ap)i?ani in impure cr^'slnLi whifh lui) 

exported t«> Driuin iu coarM b«gs of sackiii-^'. 

tn ))•(• ftiati> tlie 9ult i« kuown as " rnu;j;h 

" Tbf ein|>ty b»cft iiTO eonkcd iiud 

•■•J exti&rt (he salt ih^y may hare 

tmltiuL'd and tlicu sold to tht- iiiukci's or<?(Min»e 

wrapping pap*T. Ii» ordinary piice U £.1S 

U £in the tun, but during llio mntiniex 

hi North^i'u India, in 1K57 nod IK.5S, it 

me 10 £.^9. It is refined hy boiling and 

c*oliop. IbA pore crystals fonning iu the cold 

■Uid eoluiiou leaving the impurities still 


JViatiraf— Attbo Madras Cxhil)tiun of 18.^.5, 


It forms II coubidcmble article of export 
botli iulaud, Vtc-youd Ibo frouticr, and altto 
to the seaporia. A company for the 
luiiDHlarluie of i^allpetre h»a recently hi-'cn 
CslabliHtied ut Miiltui. .Sultpetro h found 
naturally iu the itoil, in mHuy purls of Iho 
Punjab, cf)IortM:iug near uld buihlings It is 
not w Iw conTused, however, with the white 
efilorescenco often obwrred on the " Reh," 
or burreu uncultivated lands, nud which is 
asually a Eulpbalo of soda. 

/^CH^a/.— Beugal supplieK tn tl»c Kuropean 
morkel, rhe lMt-ge.'<t portion of (hi>i i>&lt. 

CvUack nitre ts known locally a.* Kehni 

wire exliibilo^i, thy jury i jabktmi. A bliu-k kind Ik obtained by a process, 
.L{!d by Mr. OuchteiUtiy of soUitioti and filtration of the sal L whinh 

In be th« t>ot, oLiil uM'ardr-d lo Iiifuu2ud i'!iit.» I is found cfUorcBced oo old mud wuIIh. A 
Xrdal — ibo next and almo^i rtiually good, j white kind i.i (bo same suit more care- 
briae tliai of Mr. J. Kiindnll, UnzcU', Rjijnh- .' fully jirepaied for the most pnit Iu tiie 
tiKo^ry — lo whrun the jury awnrded bouor- I bill frurts from a cimilur efHorescencc found 
■Me mealiuQ. The tpecimrn^ of eommereiul i iu Ihc cold months ou the bni^c of cow- 
n}(p_.,.. ..-.,. .,i..nj in Madias have, gene- , bouse wuIISf and thure genfuated, it is to 
tail, ■en »eiT pure, and wpeijlally i be supposed, by tho nxidution of tlieamniouia 

tffv I' <T^L -n |itinii.>e." Saltpi.'irti uf Stiuili- • tbmwu olF from the urine of the cattle. 
«na lodia, U nude at Mogauore and Krru'le, i Neither kiud is miuiufacturud oxten^ivuly 
atw of ■ very line iiuality at Elloru. The 1 enough for commercial piir[>ows j itill the 
Mlivc name of the i»wu is Oopou Kllorc, { Im'mI manufacture i'tiri)i«hcs agood deal uf 
kilwvii^; thai it biu long been famousfor this i the ballpcUe, if not the bulk of it, aged iu 

^^ 91 S 




iiutivo gmipowiler for shooting ami for liro- 

Shahnltatl. — Sultpctre and suit aro prtiilup- 
Cil ubuudiiiitly ill some parl^ of Sli»liab:i(l, but 
cimlo eH]t[)etre is j)i'L'|iure(l at f'nnn fi to 7 
riipocs per local iiiiiiiinl, by tin- Noniicab work- , 
mim : tliis, in its criidi: >lalr, would I)L> X'iL to 
J.S/, pcT Ion, wliilo th(! Piilt produri'd with lliv 
»altpeti'L' is of it oonr^ic kind, ami only ^t'ld to 
tli(> poorci^t of the coininiiiiily, iiiidLT ihc iianic* \ 
ofKliaiTco iiainak. It can, liowcvor, cur-ily | 
b(3 purilicd by itoiling, lUid thcti is a gooti itiid 
pure salt. 

China. — Snilpctrc if niaiiufai-liiii-d in : 
China, from tin; natural oflKir(.':^ci'in.-c oi' the ; 
soil, but it ia larjiHy inijxirti'd. i 

Ttilcxliiie.— i^cav Shatira, distant nhnnt an 
lioin- and a half from Mi^srma, the houHi-- ; 
have largo heaps of valine earth, coiituining 
fcialtpctro. It is thrown into largo wooden 
vf^sula pcrforateii with s^iuall IioIck on one 
Ride near the bottom. Walx.'V is then ponn.*d 
in, which driiins through the hoh'.* iiiioalowir 
ves'.-'el, from which it is taken and [toured into 
largo copper kettles ; after boiling for twenlv- . 
four hours, it is left hi the open air, the sides 
of the kettles, then beeoine oovcivd with 
crystals.— (JHor/fr/y Revinr, Jtih/ iMfiM ; 
E/io,le MSS. ; Cat. M. E. of 1 8,^7 ;' Cnt. Ex., 
li'.W'l J Bnrckhardt, III; RJnnxnu's Tra- 
vels, Vol. ii, p. 13o ; Mnrsdi'H.t Snmntrn ; 
^/eiioit's Tcnnsiteriin. See Nitnitt' of I'olash, . 

SALUKIl, Malay. Trows-crs of silk, or I 
cotton, or silk mid cutlon mixed. I 

SALUNO, SiAM. A money of aeconnt, ■ 
the fourth of the ticol, and wortli about l^d. — ' 
&iinmoHtFs Diet. 

SALUXr, Ilixn. Rumex ve-^Ii-nrius. 

SALUN-KK-KATUli.AY, Him.. Cuny 

SALUr, Mai,ay. a weight used in Sii- . 
niatra, of ^ lb.-j. nvoiriIupoi.s~5i/H;/io«rf'ff 

SALUTATIONS, Genesi-, xxxiii, 4. J-ays, 
" And K.^aii r.iii to meet bini, and embrin-ed 
liim, and fell on his neck." A biiidoo, when 
he nieet.'t u friend after absritec, throws hi- 
nrms round him, and his head annss his 
fiioulilers, (wii'c ovi-r the right '•Imuldi-r, and 
oneo over the left ; and iim's other eercino- 
Jiies, iii-eordiiig to tin; rank of llie ]iarii<s. 
^aluiatiou is allu.U'il to in Mnltliuw, v, 47, 
and xxiii, 7, \'2, "2^. Tlie n-iiiil way of 
ki-'^'ing (he knee, i> to pla'-e the lin^'cr tips 
on it and then raii-e llicrii in ih.- tiiniith. It 
i-* »i) actiiiti denoting great huniility, and the 
ciiiidtiscending .<uperior wlm is ii'it an iuinie- 
(liatQ master rcliini" the coinplinH'iit in the 
Fame way. In salutation, the i'el>ians say, 
" Aflyat hashaa"— " may it be health i.-y.m >" 
OP "Nwh-i-jau" — "inay it be a drink of life." 

U2 s 

The Arabs say, " Hani^^" "may it be good to 
yon," the pi-rsoii addressed liow.^ niid return?, 
"may Allah be your preserver." Anioiit;s( 
niiih(iniedaii.s lu India the ordinary satubttiflD 
at iiKVtirig is i^atHm niaikum, peace be unto 
you, and the rc'luni la nlaik-up-salam, but a 
^fl'v;lnt will exclaim dowlut-zindii, may your 
wealih increase ; umr duraz, may your life 
be prolonged, umr o dowlat-ziada, may your 
years and your dignity iucrease. A person 
of high rank as in Kiirope, first addresses 
a visitor by asking Khariat ? are you well, 
to which the reply will he, ia your hiftliacw 
well. The stilutations in India nmoii;p>t ma- 
hoiiiedana often a.'^snmc the fo]-m of ablt^siiiff 
or pniycr, as may your life b« long ; n»ay 
yon live a ceuliiry and a quarter, — BMrton't 
Piliiriniaac to Meccnh, VoL i, p. 292 ; 
liiiitan's Schitle, Vol. ii, pp. 20 and 21. 

SXLTS, a general term iu technical 
chemistry for saline substances- The pria- 
ci|ml substances classed under tlio bead of 
salts, arc common rock salt, prcparntioas of 
cviiponited salts, saltpetre or nitrate of pota»h» 
alum, " siijji" or barilla, " nuushndar" or Sal 
ammoniac, borax or " sohaga." " Kalar," 
is an cfflon-sceut sulphat'^ of soda, so pre- 
vaU'ut ill souk; parts of Northern India, as 
to destroy cultivation : the »iilphatehaa not 
yet been ntiliited, but many efforts have been 
made to discover the cheapest method of 
neutralizing ita evil etfectd on the koiL 
Nipali Kalt is made from the nslica of the 
\ipali palm. It is iu exteii.'<ivo use among 
natives of the interior of the Malay iMininsnla. 

SALVADOKACE^., Linilt. An oitler 
of plants, comprised in one penns and five 
s))ei'ics from Arabia, Persia, the peninsula of 
India and Cochin-Cbiuft. 


S. Wicliti.'vna. Ilerh.; i/oot. 

S. Vi-raku, AW». F. Ind. nut L. 
Tooth brusli tree. | llJHWKk, 

.Inl, IIlNO. Sadui-jhiir, 

Tnik, I'EltM. I PctUvan Roki, 

Lenvcn. I Fniit, 

Kris-ma, Hixn. i Pcul ; Pinjo<«l, 

(ii'ows towards the Kpa coast in the north 
part of (he isljind of Ceylon, and near the sea, 
in both llif CoiM-ans : is fouud in the PanjaH; 
on the banks of llic Jumna, and from Ilrlhi to 
S;ih!iiiin[iorc. The leaves resemble the lan- 
ceolate senna, and are ulso purgative : lh« 
fruit is ^aid to be eatable. It \» not known 
wli<iher the root bark possesses acrid pro- 
pi-rtii-s. The twigs of this tree are used as 
iinitli-l'rn^bes. Wood iiscles.' even for burn- 
ing:. — (ys/iiiiif/Itiif'ssi/, p. o27 ; Dr. tloHiti- 
f'ii(frr,f).:i:}^i; Tli'utt/-fice years in the Enst\ 
IVi'liif, Iru/its ; TlncititrK : Dr. Stctcart. 

Van ; Viiiii, I'an.iah. I Jal ; Jhal, VkyjxE. 

Mitlii-%;i'ii, ., I FlewBUU, Traxs-Ikih'Si. 







Dried Fruit. 
Khokar ; Tak, Tr. Ind. 

PUd;FmIu; PiL 

This tree is very abuodHot in the Panjab 
ud as far east as the Jumna fringiug the 
aoAj tract as tLe jhab, the Taniarix dioioa, 
does the river. Wood close-graiaed, much 
wed Tor fuel. It is comraoo in the Multnii 
diTisioQ, where its wood is used for ruAcrEi 
aad as knee timbers for boats. In t>omc avid 
parts of the Panjab, it forms the ouYy vegeta- 
tiiiD, It occurs iii Siudh, and trees are rael with 
of 1 1 to 14 feet ia girth. It flowers in April, 
■ad wliea its sweetish fruit ripens at the 
brginning of the hot weather it is largely 
eiteu by tlie people who go in numbers to 
lather it. A gall ot^curs on this treo u^ed in 
dyring, and the root is gi'oaiid and applied 
u a blister. — V-rt. J. L. Sleirart and S. 
Cttgkom ; Cototiet Lake. 

Biiiim pttnicutatft. Font. | Ciuui arborra, Ponk, 

Knbur, HlHD of Sindh. 
KhRri-jhar, „ 
Peeloo, oiAHR. 

Khudalo, Sibiac. 

Ugh&i, Tam. 

Obiana van gogu, Tku 
Ghouia, „ 


Cburlal, Chardal, 
Uudal, ,. 

HMUnl tree of Scripture. 
Chiidnl of the Talmud. 
ftTHin aalrttdora, Eso. 
Snapu. Ga. 

KWjal, Kurjal, UiNT). 
Na, „ 

Khari-plro, Sikdh. 

This, eapposed to be the mu!<tard tree of 
Scriptnre, grows in Arabia, the Persian gulf, 
n rery common in Ajrair and Marwar ; is 
not % commoD tree on the Bontbaj aide of 
India, except at mahomedan durgnhs and 
pltfes of worship ; but it grows wild on the 
coast in the Hobehee's country of Janjirah, 
■ad in the southern Maratha country, though 
it seldom reaches any size. Id Sind it is 
ttore common, and grows considerably larger. 
It thrives well in every soil, and is in dower 
i=d fruit all the year round. The bright 
preeu of the leaves is Tery refres-liing to 
the eye, as the tree gi'ows in very barreo 
places ; it is generally semi recumbent on the 
grrmnd, and affords little shade. The leaves 
and bark are very acrid, smelling very strongly 
of cresses ; the freshly pounded bark of the 
roots ia an active epispastic. Truuk gener- 
ally crooked, from eight to ten feet high to 
tJie branches, and one foot in diameter. A 
Jecoction of the bark of the stem is eaid to be 
onic, and the red berrieB eatable. Dr. Gib- 
OD was inclined to think that the wood of this 
ree ia well veorthy of an extended trial, as it 
eem? rather strong and of compact grain. — 
Otm. Irvine, Medical To^opraphyof Ajmir ; 
^oxb. I Fl. Ind^ Gibton, Royle, O'Shaugk- 
\esiy, pp. 245, 526 ; Simmond. 

&. i,«r«ic», JUfxb. Ft. Ini., (not B. persica, linn.) 

93 S 


A Ceylon tree near the seacoast, towards 
the norlli of the island.— 7/(w. 
Zey.p. 190. 

SALVIA, a genus of plants, of rlie nnfural 
order LamiaceiB, fiet-tiou C. Monardeae, 
Benth. ; there aie many species : 

africana, L., N. IniHa. 


aurea, h. 

bracteitn. Rum. Aleppo. 

cl ail dentins, L, Kiirupe, 
Africa, W, Asia. 

coecinea, L. America. 

cretica, L. Candia. 

hispanica, L. America. 

horminum, L. S. Europe, 
W. Adia. 

indica, Linn. Perftia- 

intemipta, Schousb. Mo- 

lanata, Roxb. N. India. 

lusitaiiica, Jacq. Spain, 

lyrata, Linn. America. 

The species corresiiond very clopt-ly in 
their properties ; one, the S. amarissima is 
exc-essively bitter. — Dr*. G'Shaughnessy, p. 
488 ; Voigt. 

Ueriandra bengalenaia, BenViam. 

Diipifidia, Jaei. Asia Mi- 

iiiil>ico)a, nViW. N. India. 

odofivta, Wi'lde. Baghdud. 

officinaliB, L. S. Kuropc. 

plebeia, It. Br. Australia, 
Cliina, N. India. 

pratennia, L. S. Europe. 

eclarea, L. Europe. 

apinosa, Linn. Sjria. 

splendeoa, ^e/(o. S.Ame- 

ayrinca, £. W, Asia. 

verbenaceii, L. Europe. 

verticillata, L. t-urope, 
W, Aaia. 

viridiu, J-'orak, Levant. 



Valaiti Eafnr ka 




Saya el ley, 

A Straggling shrub with a trunk ortea as 
thick as a man's arm ; common in Bengal and 
Cororaandel, much stronger than the officinal 
sage. It is cultivated in EuropeHU guldens 
at Ajmir : the liiiidoos think tiiis u very 
impure plant. — O'Sk., p. 488. 

SALVIA COCCINEA. This is well 
worthy of cultivation ; may all be grown from 
seed in any good garden soil at tlje com- 
mencoraeut, or after tlie Tmus.^iiidiieU. 


Arab. 1 Bloody-veined aage, F.SG. 
Beno, I 

Kanocha, HtND. 

A plant of Kaghan ; growing plentifully in 
the valley of Cashmere ; its seeds are offunuttl, 
both at Catihmere and Lahoie. — Dr. Ilonig, 
Thirty-Jive years in the East, p. 339, 


Garden Sage, Eno. | Sefa kaa? TaM. 

Salbia, HlND. | 

A slightly aromatic, ishrubby, but dwarfish 
plant, of somewhat bitter and very hot, aro- 
matic, and, slightly astringent flavour. These 
qualities are retained on drying. It affords 
on distillation with water a large quantity of 
essential oil, containing 23 per cent, of 
camphor. Sage is used for stuffings and 
flavouring various dishes : culture difilculL to 




iBim^ bul somo of ilie Intlimi Tarii'ties ' Kiis(«-(i Tiliet cIom to wlipre Oie Tanp-tp*' 
mit^bl tin mare u&eful. — O'ShavpAnesty, p. eutvi'a C'liinn, llii> Siilwoen t]oTC<) tliroii^li (in 
4s7 ; J'fjf'^n- j province of Yminnii, eater* Bamiiih wfiere it 

SALVIN'IACK-^, Bnrtt An order of^piiBtefl riglii ibrou^h ili* tributary Shaij 

pl»ms compriFiinp 1 (.irn., 4 Sp. 

ous liillf! dmtitiK plant, rclnlvd to tiie fcrufi, 
of the genus Sislviuiii is nftcn ^een on tJie 
Fntfiuv of uld latikfl auil &t«i(^»l« wattle iu 
Tpnussfrifii. — Maian. S(w Fcnift. 

States unit fiirthfr glniJilfniiij: tlic itiilcpfD' 
<i«nl Knreii it form» the iMiuiiHary In-iwi^t 
llii> Hri(<i'li prOTiiii-i! uf Marlulmo luid 
Sinraese Klinii rucci*. N'nlurc CTidently in-' 
■entiled thl» noble river u tlio lii^hvnijr iolo 
Ctiiui, tlie mad lo he taken to fwnok*. 

SALVI PI'XUKAKUUU.Tam. Bl«eliliig. Into lliwe tud<p-it<l«nt Kart-n Kutes l>od& 
i^Al.-VOI.ATILK, LaT. Lujuor ArnuKiotM. of timber m«rclimitj( with krpo qnnntjurf' 
SALWA, Tei.. Aiiuila fulTest-ens t*''"".y. of jip*4*ie paj^i^dfvrry yriir, but they Im-) bwn 
SAl.WA, [Trta. Shoren rnlMifin, Roth. ' eo off«>n altarkril aiiil nvi-n murdfrc^l hr d«- 
SALWA, the ancient twme of n (wrt of coiu ihnt in 1M()3 i\\vy irert nrriimpNniVd br 

ft military enron. More impi^ilnnt than tbu 
Karen are (he indu^ti ioan Slmn. «lin ir* 
viriiiftlly indfpi'ti'U'tii. The ralley of llid 
Sulwetu IB Kiiiir'li territory only in its Ion 
pDitinn. The ricbt Innk of lliat tivcr 
a witilernma of nii>iinluiiii« lirntnoi) Mr varino* 
<<li-eiim9, th<* lunrt imporinnt »f whirli if Ihf 
Yonr-Mlin-ti ; bullnwur down, aud e^pccuilljp 
lielowr the Thoutifiyi-n rirer iin llie 
hnnk, Iherr are \»y^c alluviat plains wbii 
arc drained by the 'Jyoe and the Alt 
riVM-a. Salwi-eii though a larpe ric<ir 
not iinvifiibli; owing to itii rapid*. 
Gyoe, which flows in a somewhat ti 
direcliiio pMHsrs iluYiugh a bkptc of 
rouiilry. nod there are immerooi viUii 
on ilM baiikK : it in onri^nhle for 180 
for ».tnall boalii. A glance at the mal 
Koulh-easlcm A«ia fhow> two ^n'«t 
whifh at first eight, nppcu- (o b» 

RAJatllintt <jr Itajputann. 

SAI.WICF.N*. or Saluen Hrer riBfl* north 
of VuoiiBU pp'jvioce, iu L'hiun ; b'«»iii lat- 27' 
10', lone. i*8» 57' S,, aud diRembogopn inio 
the (III If of ^^»^U1ul^, by two mmuhA, foruifd 
by Poli-wgewen I»lHi)d. Lieiifcib. 430 milp^. 
Jt receive-^ tJic Attatsn or Weiu^fO, 110; 
Tbouii(C-yin Myit, 'i,'2^ ; Melooii, SK) tniles. 
It cDlpri. the tirttiib domitiioufi about lal. IV 
40". The iSaiuen, where it bordp|-H and iJien 
flows through Vuo-nan. receives from the 
Chiuese the oamc of Lu-Kvang or Nu -Kiang. 
Afew days' journey from Saddya, the frontier 
town of A*8iim, there is a TitAtion railed 
It.ii!;;.t whrn* a Roman Catholic Bl^bop Itas 
\i\\ mlilAry tiorae. H^^re i«i ihi? moeiinc-plaeo 
of the frontiers of Tudia, Burmah, Chioa and 
Thltwt. Taking our stanil at lht<i npot, aud 
looking Ktufh, wc hare five great riven, all 
<l«*<tined to piny a creat part in the future 

trade of Kuropc nnd in the regeneration of' highways, lading ftoiii the bay of 
tJiv people n- bo swarm ou tboir bankF. To and the Thina Sea, far north into 
the WMt li (he BtaJimapalra, which bpun' the Asia. They ai-e the Mekoii. or gre«t 
ten of A^sim lo \X» desltnatioQ. To the of Cambodia and (he Salwcrn. But thoQi 
extreme ea"! 19 tJieVang-tsp-Kianp, the great ihfv appt-ar as if dt^^tined by ualuiT, to 
rivpr of China, uid flowing directly poiilh highways for eommerte, they are hamid 
and almost parallel at dintatice^ of about SOO aDiul«.-rrupttfd oaTigation, by rapiik and 
milei from riu-h other are, in order from the : I'he lower course of Ibv lir^t lutord rivrT 
Taiig-tso-kinng, thegreat MeVonorCHmUodiK bchl by the Krenf-h. A« the timlier trS' 
ririM'. the Salnrt^n and thb Inawaddy. On ' Mmiliufin witlt Karpn>nec and the 
lh« delta of the first the French have plautwl beyond is very raluable, it is im 
them<elvtf«, ami ntrcady ibetr strnmen hare lo rxtend protonliuu tticrcfo, and lo 
itled up towards China and Biirmnb till a hcltifr knowlt^^ of the Salween 
ipped by tlie rapids. The Salween pi-cwnts than wo dow poueaa. The rapid 
the *iiiculnr pbrnumeuOD of having no delta, alHHit 100 miles above Blaulniciu. 
but a hiiiidrc'l miles above iLi mouth, where i amount of fpoeie are seot noDiially i 
Moalmcin rt-cetves a bu»y tmde. rapids im- Salween to pan:hase timber iu tliti sta 
|Mi.I^ (iavi<ratiuD, Tltc IvTawnddv has often ] Karejmee. There i« no doubt, 
I 1 up 500 mtloa a.* far a* Ava, aud 

I^. , .im« aswellas nth^r* hafl gaorhigher 
to Barao Theo<^ navigation i** tmprded 
.!_ I-., -.:ipa whifh yet remain to 
not far fmni Bongo, the 

.i;u*h half-#nbjcft«. the bar- 

S make it impo»ib!e to reach 
r 7 f\amts bat China. Riling in 


fihould the Snlwecn be found navigabl 
sti-nmera to any cnasideiable diBtaiirp, 
Ihrce or four hundred miloi above the 
tlte result would l>o very advantageous' 
roramertv. See Indiat Ittvcr», Bore. 
SALWKN. Se« India* K«r«i. S(, 
SALWEN. r.OTui. EhBoorpu*. ., 
SALYA, » njmh of Madra lold bU it 

\ 94 


to be the sooond wife of rnjn I'nmlii. ' 
CMntr^ wiw piotiBlil)- oil the soulhern 
"' ~ Ihf Hiraaliij'B, or in BuUn, ftnj tbu 
of Uio p«(i[ile were t"nrl»arou!. IIu 
ru (kTMeut nt t)ie bntllp of Ktjruktilictni, vrH»i 
Ihe gi;o<*rali«>ima of itie KamufB oei tlie la."! 
dijr of t1i4> witr, anJ was llifti sluiti, b_v 
VutlKUhthani. During a Jispou- in Uie midu 
bf Uit* battle, Kaiiir, wh(<ii ii>ivuiiuiug to inrvl 
Aijuiu annrilv twilleit Sutyji with the riis- 
iMrw of liii roiiiiiry, wliero wive«, tuother% 
' 1-, brollic'i-f ami unrlcs bM 
' r ill a mnllfy. — H'hcclcr, 
>J I .lij, ti/i. tiA /o32S. 
SALVAN, xv. Irnii. 

LYARA. HiMi. Celo*ia«rgrcnlca. 
LYO!>ANAM. 3an-. Fjue liee. 
t.7., t;<iR N«U. 

LZSACltK, also Chlorwaisser, salz- 
Burr, Muriatic ui^iil. 
SAM, Ilt?»n. Piiius PTcelsa. 
SAW, aI>o Sninn, utiil Slinm or Sbatna. xiitl 
Sfatna, or*? iianieH of Kri^IiiiK, one of the 
tunUno ikitit;^. Willi ihv {>r()|ile oil the line 
of lb© lodti* rircr. the letters * S' ntui • U' 
uwl • '/,' lire pcrniulnble. Mind Itecnmiw 
S>ih] : Znliin Sinj; hrcomcs lliitiin lltii);. 
Ttie dilliuullir^ hnwL-ver n-o tn tho letter * 11/ 
are nol (in-atcr itian in ihi> ItMlian, niter*' the 
iniiUI ■ H* ii« iiiiieM^fiit liefoio n vowel aiicl 
- ibe KCMiDih of et>i)iinti«irit>'. Colonel 
■ -^ S unil 11 are pi'iTimralile letiera in 
lU I. iiiid tie »it)>fiiwe^ (liiii I^im or 

8'' I'-ii of ilie Vmnuiia. mnj* be the 

lliin or Hamnmn of Ki;y|>l. He nUo fliiiik^ 
il not unlikely dial the Cbnom, the trihe of 
lite lir^t d^-iiasty of Aiihulwui-ra, i* a mere i 
n.rTi rii:,-,iL ..f Saum : ax ihe eli iiimI s nro p«r- 
'■rliuiiging The Mfthrniios min- 
• ■uitte iLecii { wiib them Cheeto is ' 
'." t:. 

A. Ara'in of the Ravi, Oloithidiou 

lai, ft', fr^ aUo Nantiis Miiiila, nml 

iiua rnimciiittwiis. 

' \. The narao of one of lh« Veda*. 

rally cniiddererJ hs four iu | 

-. the Tsjiir the Sama and 

i>ivii V'«Oa, but the IhkI of tbuM) 

' / belnopn to H much later age 

■Am tii« rcKt. Tbe hymDs of the Rieh or 

^^^^|d» are repeatotl i-ntirely in a ilif}niul> 

HHHkia the Sama Veda : and, nl>>o, with 

^^BSnArrifufiiiiintlioAltiarvit, while ihn Y«- 

[ [iritK-tpally forma of prny^-r. A 

--,... ,^ ,i- ntrvii ».«D.^#, is fimpty a Saohita, 

« cotlrrtMN) of hymns. Thiwo bymna form 

1k» maQim or i iiiiH), aD<) nre (be trne Veda. 

Tbe Ki{2, i]m* Sama, anil the Yajiir are tlie 

ittraa mtirenally receir^d The Aiharvn. i* 

W mon doalHful aultieuiiclly. ISeo Atjani*, 

laecripiioat, Tedaa. 

35 S 


SAMADA, Gux., lltKn. Comndum, 
enn.'i-y. Se<) Coniiidiim. 


H. {rf-iitni'vtsJa, Jucf., Oirrtn. 
NitiU peatAjtctnla, Pair, D.C. 
N. totrapeul*, (not i«nt.,) WalL 
K. UniarckuU}*, Blvme. 
VlLbouintiti e!lipti(s\ ItUrede, VaU. 

Kafin got«, Mamiai,. i %tmHilarn-gitM, SivOR. 

A largo tree of Ceylon, the south of Indiii, 
and commou iti the Coix-aus and on the MiJii. 
liar Coanl. Ir^ fruit nml root are used tnudi- 
(rinally ; iU bark 14 the Xiepn hark of eom. 
mei've. It occurs iu the »uutit of the island 
of Ceylon, but ia not common. 'Ihe bark, 
root, uud fruit of (be [tiaut arc iuteu^ely bith-i' 
like othflr plauta of the qi)ii^«ia family nud i» 
used ai a medicine by the SiKgliidcuio. — Stiff, 
Cffc ; Useful Plautt ', 'Vh*B. £num. pL 
jCc^I., Vol. i, p. 70. 

tSA.\lADi:KA LUCIDA, Oart«. 
Niuta luclda. 
Ka UiK>-. BuKH. I SHiudort, Hind. 

The low grounds near the tea coast of 
TemuaerimareoruameulfKlwiththii^speiMCH i it 
U a hiiiiitMinie shrub and beim a rntlier ciiriOUS 
Sower; \u leaves arc luofit (nUMi»"ly bilter, 
it ii cullivDlt'd in ihe^uiileud aUituI ItHlavia, — 
Maion, Tenastcrim ; Dr. fFailich, PL At. 
Riir., /. 16S. 

SAMAHKRA. Sixfio. Viimanniatrifolbu 

SAM.M)!!. or buryiug alive, wuii jiiae- 
U^ed in Rujfmolanij, up (ill 186S. Ths 
Piiliiiciil A;^<-iit of Sorohi furuishctl n liai of 
iu9taDrt!g in iho oouree of six ye»rb iJuil tiadi 
cumi! lo h'm kuowledgc, chietiy in the neigb- 
I'ourhoud of Molaguou, a border village 
The piucljce ntut at^o varriei) ou iu the adjout- 
iiij; eirnia of Marwar. Out of uiiio ckh:* tf 
.Sainadh reported, eight of tlis riciisa ««^ 
lefior^, llie others having been aauiftDa^ aw 
doubt at their own desire, on aeca^Ua/ 4M 
a;{e and poverty. The UaoofSctuki 
proi^NiiiiHCinn forbiddiug the 
the peuuliy of ten years* 
there are very i^rrrit diffimlli-a nn Or warn nf 
canying out i^uch ordert. la amy ^ Ac 
ruf«)i tlie prrvouH who dij te |ttfai ^Mar 
up ihc unfortunate vrsii^ 
lep^rfi. and 10 them 
welcome, and wo 
hardly care 10 inirodvoe ^^ ^■. 
prisons. It would W witf £ 
lazanHto were 
state where tbe 

r-arried uu. TW 
very numerom^ m 
the stuto woaii k 
iMiiia, Afa/f llSt. 


pillow 41 tiie )«««il 01 ina ori(; 
tt^i'i. — JVtluoH. St'v KliiiLi. Miil'li. 

SAMAMIII, hDpdI ulitlrm-iioit mid cou- 
lc-iii|ilHiioii of'ilif }>u]n'('inp Itciiip;. 

S A M A Dl I [ K A, B feci whti jirpcp<Ipil 
S«k^-ii Miiiit, wli.i pinccti ilic muiiiiiDciil of 
i-v<'t l».>(iii>( bli'*>, oil (Ik- I'Otiriuui'il |iifi<Hici< of 
iSM'iiHillii, (ir nl" ili-i'|i mill ilevout iibstractioo. 

SAMAItKU. ^c Kri>l.i.a. 

SA.^f Alill, hUm ToIIi, aUo SAmnj^li-Aralil, 
mill SiuiiN^'li B'us Sliii'iii. Ai(. l!iim uraNic. 

Or-link, PKkS riiiin Animoniar. 

SAMAlllI I'LASWAD.Au. TniBrK-nnil,. 

sama<;-i;l-katira, «ifo KViis, ab. 

Oritn trn'^nt'Hiifii. 'rni^iicniitli. 



SAMAII, n (.Iiiiti. RwIikIw. 

SAMAK, a Ixiik of Siii:;iiporr, svlU at 
£0 N«. 4rf. p.T pi.-iil nf r.-iajtti-. 

SAMAK. llivu. lM,ii9 psiviflora. 

SASIAKA, llinn. Sjn. of CufurbiU ci- 
lriitlii!<, /.inu. 

SAMALII. Tkl. Panirum miliaccum. 


SAMAl.r. I[iM>. Vilex liifulii, alao 
V'iifx iii'^iiiito, 

SAMAN, see Ba.Uhn, Cfcstc, Kabul, 

hAMANA. «-n Tn>tcrip(innii. 

SAMANAUfiR, tlie liMijiiiiiiinii, in Coy- 

lull, of ill'-* buJ'Hii-t inii-'t** ivlin lijiv(! iilluiit< 
4'J llie fti>l mult of ordiuniion. Tlii^ nnnie prc- 
>c) vi-il 10 ill* prc^Ml tiny lis (lie Oc-rij^tiHliini 
oftlic iiiidillii.-( prii'^lliawi in Siam ami Oy* 
lim, in idfiilicnl wiUi Uie Sumniiratift oi' htiil- 
dhttiti nf Iljihiiri ilvscrilicil liy Mcpa«"tliPiirc, 
nrho, n. c. 300, waa an nmbaiir«ili>r from 
Selcuriin lo itifi'r feio^ : and wliobi> lai^twoi'k, 
no ilio male nf lodin al iliat |i«i'[o<l, in quoted 
by Strat-o aoJ riiiiy. TIid "Mine J i'-<iy nation 
Air llio ]>riot>lIi(K)il, Sninitiia, i& iippliL'd oquiilly 


Ititi, Linn. ^ 

bAMANI. see Klialif. m 

SA.MAMA DATTA, wwIiiacripliooJL ^ 
SAMA.WATa-UIllSHTllMi. hA»«, 
fi-om Samanva, vt{\w\, anJ diinlila, bMD. 
SA.MA(_lN, WK- T«i(»Hiiiiy. 
bAMAI'ATTf, tiANH. Jfi tiuilJliiam, ri< 
b>ut abblractiun auU contemplaliou of' 
Snpi-ome BeJDg. 

SAMA&. Amber ia frequently ^athored \n\ 
rottsidtn-able lumpa ill Ibe vitiJoiLy of Samae{ 
I and ibe other (itliiud^ oi llit bia>u)a ^roui 
oftbu KaHt«i'n Affbt|M'lu<:o as Well ua iu4ilt 
ul' )warl, toitoiu-slifli, and rud aud btacli 
coi-al, of Uic tatter Liiiil, Abnfls ara olitatitc 
as tbirk a.s ibtf fliigcr niid six or cigbl irv\ 
loug.— IVqUqhs State, pp. :Hi-9, Sec iodia, 
NegroH til- Ituglos Klat)d:>, I'apuatia. 
.HAMAR,Abab. Kruii. 
SAMAU, fico Kclat. 
SAMARAK, Of Samariigli, tiiw., 
aiu»lii-ooui Agiricii^ <'tiu)|K^>Htt'ii>. 

iu 'IiivH, has l,020,2'i6 of populatiou, cxcit 
Biv« of lb« military, viz., 
ICurupcaiiiu ijii'j Otbor Kat^t- 
Nniivcs ....1.001,^52 cm nutfs... 1.9t 

Cbiiifsc n,441 

Arabs 438 ToUil... 1,020,2: 

Sivnv iSuniavaDg, is llie bvad i|iiaruTii 
ibe ariny uf NctlKTlsnd Iiidiu. It is Kiroticly 
roi(ill*.Hl. Samaraug atit:bom>te h fXpo^ci] iti 
llip vver<lt'iu uioijsuun : ibu tuwti Ubtiilt^io 
Unfi hidiit of iiftiiwU river. — UicAmorr, p. iS, 
NAMAUCA-NU, rbc cnptml of ibe aii«t«a| 
Su{jiliuua. Sbaiuniir Vcrai'li, tlir Ht.>ii of Ya- 
nliir, tbu tnci-'cscor of the UnlkrM of Um 
L'lii i^tiatl cm, nm^ oiil- of (bu grrali'Ht warricwa 
wbu ever bvld Uie tbroue uf Voincii. Ua 
<'ll^ri^d bis viciovioua amis into Imk, I'invi 
mill Lbu i)i-i>;biNJuritig unuiilrieN allarkt-il aiij 
nearly dfAtrciyci) ihp aiicieiil c-apitnl of .Sag; 

by Olvmnis Alexandriniis iu llw aecood ^'''"''' *'''^^ tliencofoiili took ihp oamrofl 
piniury, and by Torpbyiy iu the foiirili.— [ •'^'""'"*""j' ■ ^"•"»™h'i.6od restt^rcd it. B«- 

JVnwfM/*« Ckrixtttiutty tH Cey/ont p 216. 

.SAMANDAR PIIAU Hisi.. Baiiing- 

|ia *<^uiftiiguJu. (jitttn. 

tAMAN(JAlLi1A or Simroun, n dynaely 
ofngii'^wbti n-i^ui^d fVoiii a. u, H-l-l to a. d. 
1323. iu ihti Taroi, KtUlb of Nepal. 

SAMAN'GKA. 1^4 populaliou accordtog 

iadi*trict* U : — 





l9t.BII lilLtn lASJtl 

our. of tkc ltd. Arch. 

inairuuf Himyantic iuttciiptions wert* looe 
found lbcr«, and one iiiuLlitiiird W AUooii 
Kwla began tliUB, " io the iuini>.' of God, ibb 
building was cite ted by Sbainniir Vi^«wl», t% 
boiioiir of ibe Loid tbo Hiiii." .Sliamnir 
alu-rwardt )H.-ii]>bed wiU» hi* nrmy in ifat 
deMrt« of 'I'bibot, tuaa tuvuiii^ti of Cbiua. To 
itivcu^e Ibe deuth of bis Kratid-faihvr, Toll* 
III Akmu, wIk) occapied the throne of Ynncn 
(or about fifiy yeai'», fiuui A. d. 90 lo a. tK 
140, inarohiHl aud mUuill Snni«ri.'and ; i^ttioA 
war Into Cbiua. n-bvre ho fuuudrd n luty J 
whit'h Thualrbi calteil Kt Buet, where bo Itftj 
a eolutiy nf 30,000 Arab*, wlio coiitiouod aj 
dinlinct pcojilo when llciiii»laua nrota u 
A. u. oHo. Saiaarcaiid ia 600 milea A'oa' 

S 1*6 

t1*nl, and Tlcrmt ta 7>^> mil&K from tlie 

Uim, it io the mit|«t of Ihe Uiiutlful %-iilley 

•fSoghd. it was till laU-ly llii.': iteat of ll e 

liog of Bokhira in Uio wicitet- lime. It 

«M knowru In tliA time of AIcvuiiiIpi' tlie 

GcT«i bj tbe niune of Martkoiidii Kngio 

So(<listMuium ; atitl cotiUiius the Bi>pul(:lii-e 

•f Timur wbu4C rvsidiiucc tl was. It is 

ftiil Uie M'tiL of oi-i?u(al litL'raiure, ami cull«<] 

"Tbc OroaioeiU ol" the Fact uf tlip Enrtli." 

ll bK » mad waII, atid fortj tliousand inliubi- 

tnl* ; A beautiful palace, oud many Iioukos of 

tturhle, many roaiqiios and rolleges. It wm 

formerly iiUiabited by Cbinep*', who manurac- 

tared papv^r of sillc, and it oace had Lbo arune 

of Bofchara-IUiien, but received its prescnl 

BUM from the cncKiueror Samur, oflor Cbri»t 

M8. Oologb Beg crectint tlict-e no nl)8en-u> 

wry. There are two tliousaud Jews there. 

Kwr U tl a licile town calk'd Shcerae, and it 

H probable that the poet n»6z alluded to iho 

Sliafrax, nenr Samarcand, wlieti be ^Ays, II' 

tlial Tttrktsb girl of SlieiTHZ would give mo 

hn heart, 1 would give for One mole of her 

ttmir, SnmarrnnJ and iiokliara. Timur 

■lUcbeil from Samareaud ia a. p. 1397, ititu 

Iwtha, but returnrd tbe fullowing yvnr »iid 

fTCceeded against Syria, Egypt and Con^lau- 

tiieplA. (Jii Tiiaur's dcatb, iu M04, Sultan 

Sili took po8S*-s.<)i'm of it. Bokhara und 

SttiaarkanJ are llie eealres of matiumedan 

thnaU^y. Tlicra art) no mahomc><IanK so i:lnct 

a> thn tnhnhiuials of Bokhara, but it Ih tb<> 

n» l*.'M sink of iiiif|uity in tliu Eaat. 

St^ .tni-knl, Kelaf, Kc«b, Ziugam. — 

D- Uokhnra, Vol. ii. pp. 4-6, 

> 1 A. n ■Ir^rrirl in Palestine- 

^ ' been inltAbiUntsof 

K» I lu'm, lu'arilcrutMileni, 

•itKw the lime of N>betiiiah. SamariratAiK- 

tefTi^deiftiliMl in It. Kingissvii; EzrB,iv,2,3. 

tl had U-Wu Bluiched hy Sargiin b. c. 74.>, 

746. w*» befieged nnd takeu B. C. 719, 

and ibe people carticd away to Aesyria and 

Meden. According to the Samaritan tradi- 

tM»s il waa OQ the rock surface of Mouul 

Gerixin thai Abraham prepared to earrificc 

biaaMiIa«ae. Tbia wu tlie Bethel of Jacob, 

■•d •Ten lo thi» day, the Samaiilan priest, 

ttket off hi» »hoes as he oeai-^ tJie spot, be- 

eaue it ia holy grwmd. SomariUna aro 

Cl»r»ii«n* Binro our Satiour planted it 

«■' m. John, i?, 5-42. Iu the rites 

i«fu -kippoor, or day of atonement, of 

^^L,^MUiuu'tUne. as witDewed at Nabluii in 

^^P» Cb^ make in Uieir responso. arowaU of 

^P*^ ^ ' «'»»«li tnd ill Moaea, and are 

IjUjuuipc , , co^ijn ^j^jj^ prottrations, 

•^ "li^l^..*;"' ">« "S»" baiid. a geftore 
tiy mahomeJaus, when any 

trci{omntij uaed 

sarred name or fona of words is Mid, and 
«eem« lo be au ntlempt actually to catch llie 
grace ur the words, residing in Ibe bn-alb 
of tlie »pehkei' himoelf, and communicate it 
to his beard aud cumitenance. 

SAM.\ROGH, IIiXD. Agaticus campcK- 
trisi, Moichclla esculouta. 

SAMAKI*ANA, see Kodra MmpraJayi. 

SAMAllSI, see Mewar, Koiura-dovi, Htai- 

SAMATATA, the Gangetie delta. 

SAMATA, or Siunutia, or Balurakkies, 
Tci.. Fourcntya rantala. Saw. 


SAMAUKA, HiKij. Cucurbita citiullus. 

SAMA VEDA. Amou<;st tljuhindoos ibeiw 
are Bqjbtcen Vidya of trne kuowledge, and 
Honie branelies ofkuowledge, falsely Huealted. 
The first four are the Vcdas, which are en- 
tilled, in one compound word, Kipynjushsa- 
mitrharva, or, in sejMtrate words, Rich, YhjuhIi, 
StmiiiM, and At'lmi-viiu. The Rig-veda conslotfl 
of five eeclious ; Uie Yajmvedn, of eij^lily- 
six ; tlic Saniavedu, of a thuuimnd ; and tJie 
At'linrvareda, of nine ; witb eleven hundred 
sau'hn, or brAncbi*s, iu rarioun divisions and 
snb-dipjsions. The Vedas, in truth, are infi- 
nite ; but were reduced, by Vyaaa, lo thia 
number and order : Ihe principal part of them 
is that wliich explains the duties of man in a 
raL'thodival aiinngfTueut ; aud in the fmirib is 
o fiystem of divine ordinances. From those 
ore reduced the four Upa-vede, (Upii-Tude, 
Upanga, Uppurau, infer a work dcdnred, res- 
pectively, 1^'om its principal : up, like our 
sub, iinpliea inferiority,) namely, Ayusli, 
Gandharva, Dhanunh, and StTiBpnlvi;. The 
first of which, oi- Ayui'-veda, was dcdivcred to 
mankind by Brahma, Iiidrn, Dhanwanfari, 
and live olbcr deities ; and comprifititi tlte 
theory of di&orderft aud medicines, witb the 
practical motboda of curing disenses. Tlie 
second, on music, was invented aud explained 
by Bbarala : it is chii'fly useful iu raising the 
mind by devotion to the felicity of the Divine 
Nature. Tbo third Upaveda wns coni|H)<)ed 
by Viswamitra, treats on the fiibricalion and 
use ofarms, and implements haudled in war)iy 
the Cshatriya tribe. Viswacanna teveaJed 
Ihc fourth, in various trealises on sixty-four 
mechanical arts, for tlie improvement of soidi 
ns exercise them. Six Auga, or bodies of 
learning, arc also derived from the snino 
source, their j-ubjects chiefly ai-e — 1, of the 
pronunciation of vocal sounds ; 2, detail of 
reiigtouHacIn and ceiemouie»: 3, gmmmar t 
4, prosody : o. asironomy ; 6, on tJie 
signiBculioo of difGcull words aud phrases in 
the Vedas. Lastly, ibere are four Upanga, 
colled Puraos, Nyays, Mimoiua and Ubar- 





tmsaatra i Kiglil«eti rnrtuiaCtlml of Rnilimi, 
iinil Iho rent,) wore coni|i03cd by V^tuMi, 
for Iho iuatructioD and euurUluDiont of 
moQkiuil iu ^cnei-nl. Nyiiju is n collection of 
trcatbcA, to iwo parts 'hi metapliysics, 
logic, pbilns0[>li]r, &o. MimnDMi is Koititv 
whiit similar, divide*! iuto two pnrts ; tlic 
Isttor, cnllrti Utburo, aWuuJing in (^iicatiuus 
oil tbo Diriuo NitUire, nml other Riiljliino 
BpeculatioDfi, was composed by Vyasa, iu 
four ciiupterd miil fiixtv<!ii nvi'tioiiA. It inny 
bo coDsidcrcd u tbe brftin uud spring uf ull 
the Aiiga ; it exposes the Itc-rcticnl opinioiiE 
of KDplii^ln ; nii'l, ill a mnniier Miiti-d to the 
com prcbc-u<> toil uf flde|ilA, it trca(& oti the true 
iiuluro of t^nncF.!!, lihn^cani or the Sun, 
fiiUkantii, Idkslimi, and other forms of one 
Dirinu Beio^. The boJy uf Ihw, railed 
Smriti, con^it^Ls of oightecn liooks J^c. £c., 
dolivered for the instruciion of the buntau 
EpecicRi by Meuu. niul otlii-r Bacreil pcrKOii- 
QgOB. A» Iu Clliirs, the Votlns ct>iitaio nil 
that relates to tliu dulii-s of kiugs ; the 
Purans vhat belong t» the rvlutioti nf bii^- 
band aud wife ; nad the duties of frieud»hip 
ftnd society (which complelo the triple 
divUiou) are tauifht euciiicdy in botL This 

tlciia, or view nf leaminaj, a raro Sansbrii 
book, wiwly piTOH the preference ; as Maao 
himself profei'K universal bencTolence tu lb« 
eercmniiit'^ of religion. — WUfortts Am. Re$^ 
Vol. in, p. 302. See Imlia, lufcriptiouM, Vcdaa. 


SAMAWAil. »ce Me»opotaiuift. 

SAMMA, UiM>. Bt-rberia lyciuro, Bo^U. 

S A iM [JA \j, «I AT, Cooked vcgetaltica 
mixed M'ilh ati^j'icuai. 

SAMllAIt, IIiMi. Desmodimn sreentenm. 

NAMIIAUA, Sahs. Uusa oquiua, Cur.; 
Ham. Smith. Sen Snmbvr. 

SAMUAH.amouiisi ilieMaUy, means obri- 
Miucv, homage, &.V., aud U u»e<l for ihc ordi- 
nary word " Iu speak" by inferiors (o n kioj; ; 
Salaam is the simple Arabic rslaialicti, 
"peace," euhjeeta or inferiow addrevftiDg a 
kiuir aro i^aid lo "SatuhMii" not to chakap 
or kula or other words lu cotummou use, — 
Jour. lati. Arch., t-'ol. v, So. XI. 

SAMnEK. see Lnkes, Sambhar. 

SAiMltKRoflailifi, RnsahippeUphu'', Car. 

CiTTua .irixtott^Lu^ Cnv. 

U!BOit<!IUVlItl&, „ 

Tbv SuDlrar atagt 


double divisiuii uf llui Ai>Ka "<>d Upumt^n tiiay si^nitMr. ]liKi)i7* Uahk.' 
bo coosiJci-ed as dciiotiiijf ihe ttoiiMo bent-lit Jirai. Jornw uo tbo Him. 

arising frum tbeio in iJicory auU practice. 
Tbc Uharala and Itaninyann, which arc both 
epic poems, comprise the most vuluable part 
of nneiont hiRloiy. Sanr'hyn is Iwo-fold lliot 
with lt>wara, ud that wiihnut Uwnnt, called 
Pataujala, una Kiipita : the latter, iu six 
chapters, on the production of all thiags by 
the uuiou of Pracrici, or Nsturc, and Punisfau, 
or tlio (irst inalei &c. &c. I'htt^e books 
cootbiQ iuUuite coiiirndii'tions. Tlio Hi* 
iQkosa is in two parts, thu N'ynyn in ttro, 
■od tbo Sauc'bya iu two ; mid lliosa nix 

Uftbn. in 


i'uM, Umdgmmt. 
Mflinar, Ogmf. • 

Mft-M of th* Oga<lK. 
Kkdtvi, Kalaba, Ctv. 
KmuiU, Tu. 

Ghoaa or Gsoj ol E. B«a- 
Btudonli. (fonals), „ . 

Men. Uasf.. of llie Gli&ts. 

Tbwe numeruDs synonyms will iibow thtA 

men of st-ienrr- iis well a^ sportsmen 1miv« 

foiind it difliciilt to i-ecognise the SainLrr 

stag, at its i^cveinl Rites in India, bnt Jeniaa, 

after seeing them iu the llimnlaya, in Centnl 

and Stinlhurti India ooor^tdwi's ihc-m to be all 

one itpecics. It ti a noble animid, froio 14 lo 

LT^uds iu height, with antlers ortea a fool 

in circumforeDceand four feet long; itiafounil 

sobools compmheud all thu ductriucs uf thu j ou the buoks of the Jumoa and Gaogos Ibj 

thcUts. LHStly Appears n work wriMea by 
Budha. AmoDgsi the biudoos there ore six 
ntheisticol Bystonis of philoMtphyi eulitted 
YogMharn, iSaudhaata, VitibhMbka, Madhyu- 
inica, Dii^ambnra, bud Ciiarvuu ; all full of 
iodotenuinnK} phni<te8, errors io scn^ con- 
fufiuu betwcou distinct qunlilte^, iucora|>re- 
hcQsible QoLiuns, apiiiionn not duly wciglidl, 
teneu do^trur-iit^o of uatiinl equality coo* 
tainm'^ n juinblu of nlheism and olhic« ; dis- 

their mountain courses ; a few t^lrny 
Uie euUUimalAyan valleys and have 
shot and i>een near Sitnlu od the Cast 
raotfcs. See Cervua, Deer, MnmnnnliH, Ri 

SAMBHA, see Scv^i, Mahratu Go*on- 
loenls in India. 

SAMUilAU or Sombhar. a salt lake in 
impuUiu.i whera nit is mude. Sambhar-toBt 
salt from Samblinr lake. The nam<^ of tW 
exteuKirc ^ali lake was probably outcnor 10 

tribuu-d, liku other orlhoilox books, into a ; Ajniir, und yielded an epitliet to 1^ prtMM' 

n urn her of seclioii?. whi-'h oiiil whn! ought 
to bo c«pri- 
bo omitted . 
idle !■ 
itou. - - 

«r geiieral hen' 

:ht to 


iii impi'.rt/nojit pn)pn«i> 

.■ of three Cftnila, 

V, Carma. Juynus, 

. , 1 aith, and Worship. 

uf wliidi, Itieaulliorofibo Vidyo- 


of th(B race, who were styM Samba B»o. 
8AMKII0SA, Hiiru. A fried cako^ iallei 
8AMBHI!, SCO Siva, Inscriptions. 
RAMIillUR. ?ee Hamvati or HamutL 
vSAMUILANGS or Nina Islands. simU 

Uuffij^hutds, covered with trccsi, oxlmd 7 or 

S mites nonthward of Polo Diodiug. St» 

Nicobor li-Uudr. 

a 98 

MBLA, 8ak8. Flar<Hirtia Bepinrin.— 

SAMf'.M. Hisu. A tina of toliwjco. 

SAilUUO D^ER, BeuHctt, Rusaeqainn, 
fi.arifiiQC«lis.— Cur. ; Ham.i Smith { G'nijf. 
Swr Ssmbcr. 

SAMBCXJL. Tau. AiliM. 

SAMHRAiF., ur SamlirKctn, or SAnibselat, 
MudvDt people at the juncUou nfUio Panjnh 
ntcRr prolinbljr itie >ame lu Uie Yaodliey n, or 
JthifK Bitjpats. 

SAMBBJLNI, Malf-al. Ucnjamin. 

SAJUBRANf CIIRTTU, Tku Ilt-ipc^ti!) 
■wuUenv Kth, Uraiiolimoauieni, R.^ i, 141 ; 

8AMBRAXI MANU.Tbu Pnrk.«lu;:Ian- 
JnloM, If. 4* .4., 8bo. Mimosa [>tiduut;uluia, 

5 I M rn; I bAO. soq Uaravati or Ham<.:ti. 

.~ -^e Jam . 

>: CS ADNATA tml S. ebulus 

(t- i) grow In the Hinmliifa og well 

H ID ■ aniiniHre. Tbe roots oi'tho latu-r, it in 
nirLluivo purgiiive properties, iitid, as also 
lli« bwriwi, are utcd in iJrop^y. — Dr. ilonig-^ 
JUrtiffirr frtarn in the Eatt, p. 340. 
SAMnrUTAM. AsLee. 
SAMftL'L, llisu., Pkecs. IlyaciiiUius ch*!- 

SAMBULPUR, tbe most eitsterly Ois- 

vict of Uit) ClihntLiagai'li (livisioo of the 

CMtnl Pniviuoes, hni iinpurtaui ctUtinlngi- 

aJrcUtiooc It lie? betwLi-n lul. 10* 10 ami 

2/ a«- N.. and 82' 40' anj 85* 5 E. loug- 

Itt «xtfiint< leiii;tli fniQi itorlli to south is 

tbont 2oO rallies Htid ita extrptno hrentltJi 

frooB rut to west 16o miic». Tbe khulBa, or 

fOTCrDntent, portion of the district, h cutopiit- 

Itt onraprise 2,500 vquure tnilcs. Tho 

IMT part of thiit couatJ'jr ii< nii undulating 

wilfa rugged mnges of liilla rii^inf; in 

dlMCtioD. Tlio priucipal at these 

ia Uie O&ni I'uliar in the Dakhontir, 

b \m fact • tsuccQssioD of raagoa corer- 

ma are* of booio 3>I0 »quMru oirled. A very 

brgp proportiaD of the district ts occupied by 

erj^ltBe meUmorpUicrocks. A small por- 

1MB of tliK iiurlb-wett (-oruer of tliudiKlrict is 

awpaid of tlie wme series of gand-alotie, lime* 

■Iwnc anil »Jiale, whi'.-h cover suuh n )ar(;earua 

W !■ the iliupur ond Uilu-spur diHtrict»< la tlra 

■tim Molianadi. near Padmnpur, tlicro art* 

^baf]^ DMwwM of (ime.stoiio n>ck, Hlmwt as 

^pMira in appcanuirr to- ninrble. Gold dual is 

Fpiuettrexl in the Muhiioadi oud iu ilG uiHueat, 

Cba £br but tins v<'<*cet)B of eollectiiig it ia 

Morc^Iy r«iiTinpniiiTc. Dininouds used to be 

futfnd nl^o in tU Muhaimdi, nnar tho Hira- 

lOtla t.r lHaaoDd lilf, aUo at the spot 

r« tLfi Kh joidj. lluiitis the jHsriofl of 

Uva role, eonu ftiKHrn or twcuty Tiiltges 



were ^rant^d renl-free lo n class called Jliira, 
iu coimideralioa of their QD^lertaking tbo 
s«ar«h for diamou<I«. When the couulry 
laiwnl iu IS50 thoi^e villages wcru reeuoned ; 
and though uu nttempl was made to Icaite out 
tbe ri^ht to eit'k for diaiuonds, tlio farm only 
fotebcd Fome rupees ZOO per auiium for a 
short time, aod evcu at tlint low rent it does 
not appear that llie fanner mnde aujtlttns out 
of it, for he cveniually gate it up. Uuder 
the DAiive goveninieul it whb the practice 
to givu the jhint diamond-seekem a Tillage 
reut-free, if they produced a good-sized 
dinmuud, laud U-iug of little or no value then, 
Tho gmulltr diamoudB they U5(!d to Hereto 
and sell. As fur ea cau to learnt, tho Beet 
ttoiieii ever ftjuntl horc wero thlo auU flwt, 
with flaws ill them, but they were admiraldj 
euitml for ■setLiug in mitivc jewellery. The 
Sambulpur populatiou amouuta toBI2,348,of 
whodi 41*7,774 are engaged in agrii^ulture — 
the Kolto, tlie Aghnrin, and Hr&hmiD&rotlio 
taif^eit cultiratoi-a. The Kolla are a hindoo 
race ; tlie Agharia cluim to be rajpals : the 
brahmin ni-e of two sections, tlie Uriyn and 
Jlinrwn. Tbe Uiiya bralnoiiti nro h lazy im- 
provident sect and subsist chicHy by begfcinp. 
Tho 'Jharwa bitthmius are intolligvut, rjii-eful 
xnd liiu'd-working, c:ullivate the soil, eogago 
iu trade. The labourers arc the Pab, 
Suuui'a, GaiiJu, Gond, Mali and Oaoli mcc». 
The Mnliaiiti are clerk.«, the Bhulia, Mehnt 
und ICu'diti are weuvers. The Muhanadi rises 
in the Kjiipur diKlrtct iu a hilly rnngo between 
Uhamturi and Uastur, aod eabering the Snm- 
iiu)|>nr district tn the cn^^tward of Hoori-tuLriiin 
in the Bilaifpur dii^tvict, flows due east for 
eumelwenty-five mtleSr when tl (iikesi asouth- 
easUTly direetiou for fit>me forty mileif, poasing 
Chandrapur and Padmnpur, uulil it niu'lics 
the towu of Simibulpiir. From Sambalpur, 
its course is due south for jtomo foriy-Gvo 
miles as far ati Soupur, whero it ftuddenly 
changes to duo eant, followiiig that dircctiou 
until it empties itself into the sea beyond 
Cuttock. Its bed us far as Chondrnpur is 
tolerably free from obstructions, hut from 
Chaudmpur (o a little beyond IUhI it is more 
or lesa full of them ; iiii current is more or 
less hiodored by boulders, jliau juugtc and 
even trees. The otiier rivers dcscrviug men- 
tion are the Kh, the Kelu oud the Jliira— all 
tt'iiiulariee of the MHhanadi. The Uriya 
bruhmaoscame from Cullack and Pui-i within 
com(.<tirAlively recent timuti white IIjr Jharwa 
fetlU'dheremany luindretlyearsngo, TheUriyn 
cOUiiidur themselves the more holy and will 
not Lilt with tlie Jhnrwa, but titey are it lazy 
improvident set subsisting diiefly by begging. 
Tliu Jhniwa or jnugle Btalimnns, us ilu-ir 
nnmo denotes, arc careful, tiardworkin", auJ 








intelligent, Ihej are not above cultivalio^ the 
ftuil, eagagiug \a tr&ile, or turuing their banj 
to ftDj'lhing useful «uJ proril&blv. The 
MaUaati arc the dorks of Orissa ; Lhcy are 
imrnigranU from the (litttricts to (ho enst, and 
take occupnlioD as clerks in gorcmment 
oiBoee, school-masters, &c They are an 
inlnlligent but xomowhat cfft-minatc race. 
The Ilioput ri-i^ aod their Jcsceodauis. The 
Bhulia are weavers of coKoD'clolhs, not 
celehrated for fineness of texture, but for 
britltaucy of colour aod variety of |mttei-n 
Ihey con hurJIy Ims excelled among coarHe 
ualive fabrics. Cotton-cloths are aUo made 
hy the Mt-liin. The Koshti are weavers of 
t**M silk.clolh. Their manufacture w justly 
cclehrated, the texture is very even, aiid the 
ailk haa ■ lustre which ucvcr fnde^, however 
loug it may have beeu iu wear. The Suuar 
or goldsmith, arc apt imilutons nuJ oiight 
improve' Thcj nmuufncture all ttie oriia* 
Dientd woro by the wotneii : iiie^e are vorj 
peculiar uuliku thoHo used in other parts of 
India. The prettiest oruamouta made here 
are the " kauihu," or neck-laccs of tar>;c gold- 
fluted hciiils worn often by Bnibroau and 
Riypat oopoys of the Native army. The 
Kanaar or workers iu beil-metal and bi-aiifl. 
TOAke all sorts of veuela aud uUiDfii!!< 
very iieully iudeed. The Guria arc sweet- 
meAt sellers. Sansia are raasoDB and stoue- 
carvern. Tlieir work is rongh, but aulid, aud 
tliey booa pick up anyliiing that is shown 
them. The Ttdi are oil-wller? — a uumcrous 
and well-lo-du elAan. The niahomedana arn 
chiefly merrhnnt^ and goveruni«nt servants. 
The Panhari aud Tauiboli are holtil-scllcrB. 
Kewat aro Hshnmneu and boat-mco conibiaed : 
they are a ounierous and luiidy race, and 
soDiotiiuoa eiigHgo in smnJI veiitures of triuk. 
Gliasi are graM-cuttera and ^^rootu!!, they will 
also perfutiu the duliL-M of Bwe«.'|icrH. The 

their best, (he women omamentiog tlieir hair' 
faoiasticalty with feAihentaud flowera. Ghea. 
is u cbiofsliip HtlachL-d to tho Sombalpor 
district, )>iiuatcd fK>mo fifty miles west and a 
little i^outh of (he town of Sinihalpur. The 
chiefs family are Biujwar {or liinjal) sod 
wfre mucli mixed up in the Sureudrm Nai 
rtbi-llion. — Central Proviuee Gaeelletr. 

vSAMBULULTIB,UiHD. Nardosiachyi 

SAM BUR, or Samber, HiKt>., Mark, 
UufA hipp«:laphus. See Samber. 

SAMDULUN, UiND. Klepbantopu* ica- 
bcr, Linn. 

KAMEAn-MANIK. see Kattyawar. 

SAMGH-I-ARAUI.Pkks. Acacia anbic^ 
iViUii. ; Littfi. ; W. Pf A.^ its gum. 

KAMI, Sans. Lord, Uod. 

SAMI.Sans. Vschellia famcsiana, tV.if d* 

SAMIA, Moluccas. Cacsalpima aappao, 
LiHn.;Roxb.', W.^ A. 

SAMIDAH, see Kbuzietao or Ativht!>tao. 

SAMIKL, orBad-i-Samooin, aUo8amoatn, 
from the Arabic earn, a poison, a pestilco- 
tiul wind, wliieli occurs in the deAort iracta 
between Africa and India. The people My 
it dueB not come in continued long curreuta,! 
hut in gii^lH at difluri-uL intervals, each lilattj 
lit,sling Hcvernl minutes, and ]Mks»iiig aloeg 
with great rapidity but the accounta seeni' 
(Trcally exaggciated. No one they my •tira 
rruui their houses while thi» flame la sweep- 
in^ over the face of iJio country. J'rwjoiil 
to il^ approach, iho atmoaplieiv becomea 
tbick and AutTucaiing. nod appearing |Mrtim* 
lolly dense near the hohroii, gives suffiuienl 
warning of the threatened miftchief. Though 
hostile to human lifo. it is »o fai* from britig 
pifjudicial to the vegetable crvation. that a 
ooutiuuanco of tlie Samiel lends to riiM^n tliei 
I'ruili*. rurlcr enquired what became of the 
cnttir- dm ing such a pUgue, and wu told thayl 

■borigiual triltcs of tlic klial«i are Gond. Tab. seldom were touched by it. It B«eiDS stnuige 
Saonra, Riiijal or Binjawar, aud Kol ur | that their lungn nhould be so perleclly iD<>fii< 
rihaugnr ; the latter came from the Chola- , sible to what is »id to be in<)taut dL'sLmcitMi 

Nagpur dircctioQ : they are p& a cI^uh, hard- 
working, houe6li,aud lightdieart«>d, and when 
not engaged in cultivating either for thein- 
aelven or for others they will lake sert-icu nf 
any kind. Road-making, piklki-t>earing, gar- 
dening, punkhn-pulling, oil como alike to 
Lhrm.aiid thu women work equally hnni with 
the mm ; they are fond of strong driuk, hut 
appurciiLly ouly givu way to il on festive 
ocvAsionA ; at certain |K;rt(KlA of tho year 
women au,} men dance all linke<l Uigcthur iu 
a I 

to I he health of man, but so it is vaid, aafij 
they are regulurly driven down to water alt 
cuatomitry timc» of day, even whco the bla 
are nl the sever^^t. The people who 
them, aro obliged to plaster their owd 
and olJier pnrts of Uie body usually ex| 
lo tho air, with a sort ol' muddy clay, whi 
iu general protects thorn from its mvei 
lignnnt oflWt*. Tho (lenods of the wiod^ 

blowing are generally from iukjh till m 
MTt ; tbcy tcaM almost entirely during 
in a Miou')(/)noun but fx-r- | night ; and the diiei'tion of tho gnat 
wjiymg uL the f-amu ahvuyti from tho norlh-cA*!. When it 

t>' '.:it'd» uiid rorniiids, paKM-d over, n sul|dinric and tndfed 

"■ I "g the grotjiiil with 1 some smell. like putridity, remoiub for a 

Iheu Lcfttia, Uivy toiu all decked out in ' time. The |ioUou which occaaioiu tiita 

100 S lUO 


: deadly ; and if any unfortunate 

far from ehellcr, meet tbe blast, 
Dediatelj ; an<), in a few minutes 
somes almost black, while both it 
les at oDce arrire at bo extreme 
ormption that the smallest move- 
e body would separxte the one 
ther. When we listen to these 
e can easily understand how the 
in whose hands are all the in- 
f nature, to work even the most 
sfiect8,might, by this natural agent 
iel, brought from afar, make it 
if death by which the destroying 
;ht the destruction of the army 
;rib. — Porter's Travels^ Vol. ii, 

;YE, see Khyber. 
H-LEDER, G». Chamois leather. 
iTONE or god stone, seems to 
;o two or three minerals : samada 
"ondum : a variety of agalmatolite, 
te : and potstooe, or a variety of 
much demand in China and in 
of India, for the manufacture of 
6gure3. It is much used, also, in 
Qtabing polish on steel and othei- 
brighteniog sword blades, bridle 
It. A. Trans,, 1845, Vol. xvi. 
REE, woi-shipped by hiniloos at 
of the Dasserah. 
Rus. Socks. 

, SaNS. Flacourtia sepiaria. 
L, UiND. Schltfichera trijuga. 
t. There seem to have been two 
asties, au earlier and a later, ruling 
'he earlier seem to have beer, the 
i Sambastae of Alexander's Ilisto- 
ibe^tani of Arrian and Sabarcse of 
rtius, whose capital was the Siu- 
idimon or Sindomanna of authors, 
a dynasty was a rajput race of 
n, the opponents and successors of 
The Jharijah race in Cutch are 
extraction. After expelling the 
e from Siod, in a. d. 1361, the 
lined power till they were, iu theii- 
lled by the Arghun, a. d. 1521. 
a were either of the buddhist or 
d faith. They form unquestion* 
ch of the great stock of the Yadava 
nd tlieir pedigree is from Samba, 
Krishna, who is himself known by 
i of Syama, indicative of his dark 
o, and their first capital was Samma 

1 the ladas, probably tlie modern 
hen it vas Samni, and 6nally was 
I in Thatta. The Samma seem (o 
™® proMlytes to mahoroedanism, 
'• ' ?'i since which event, their 
ugh it still comprises several large 



erratic aud pastoral communities, is less 
known than that of their brethren or de- 
scendants, the Sameja, aud the half-hiudoo 
Jhareja of Cutch who do honour to their 
extraction by their martial qualities, however 
notoriously they may be deficient la otiier 
virtues. — Elliot, 497. See Yadu. 

SAMMARA, see Mesopotamia. 

SAM-MAUAM, Tam. A wood of Tinne- 
velly, of a red colour, used for furniture of 
any description perhaps the Soymeda febri-- 
fuga ?)— Colonel Frith. 

SAMMET, Ger. Velvet. 

SAMMI, or Sammu, Hind. Bignonia sua- 
veolens, Roxb. 

SAMMI, or Swami stone, or Agalmatolite, 

SAMMI0N6, Lep. Arctomys bemacfaa- 
lanus, Hodg. 

SAM-MOON, or Samoun Islands, or Three 
Gates, in the Canton River, a group of three 
small islets of about 3^ miles in extent. 

SAMNOS, the Samoite custom of marri- 
age so lauded by Montesquieu as the reward 
of youthful virtue, was akin in sentiment to 
that of the ancient Rajput, except that the 
fair Rajpootui made herself the sole judge 
of merit in her choice. It waa a practice 
more calculated for republican than aristo- 
crutic society : " On asserabloit tous les jeu- 
nes gens, et on les jugeoit ; celui qui ^tait 
declare le raeilteur de tout prenoit pour sa 
femme la fille qu'il vouloit : I'amour, la beaut^, 
la tihustete, la vertu, la naissance, lea richessea 
meme, tout cela etait, pour ainsi dire, la dot 
de la vertu." It would be difficult, adds 
Montesquieu, to imagine a more noble recom- 
pense, or one less expensive to a petty stale, 
or more influential on (he conduct of both 
aoxes- — L' Esprit des Lois, chap, xvi ; Livie, 
vii ; Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. i, p. 632. 

SAMOAN ISLANDS, in Polynesia. The 
men of Manua are remarkably fine-lookio^, 
several among them being above six feet high, 
with Herculean proportions. The arm of one 
measured above the elbow fifteen and a half 
inches. At Tau and Manua they are generally 
tattooed from tlie loins tb the knees, which has 
the eftect of Irowsers. — Capt. Elphinstone, 
Erskiiie Islands of the Western Facijic, ». 4 1 . 

SAMOEIDE, see India, Mongol. 

SAMOJA, Hind. A middling quality of 

SAMOKA, also Turbuz, IIimd. Cucur- 
bita citrultus, Linn. 

SAMOOM, oftcocatledSamiel. SeeSaraiel. 

SAMP, Hind. A serpent, a snake. 

SAMPA JANNA, Tel. Fish roe. 

SAMPAL, Sumbat, Malav. Cork. 

SAMPAN, a river near Sohagpoor in 

SAMPAN, a Chinese boat, well-known 

S 101 


lit ^ ill £;» pore, iiimI iii UierirursofUiintinli, uJ 
tvmiirkitiilu for iu ^wiltttMH botti wJlli raiU 
mill unrs. Thfso btmlSf wbeQ ekilfully man- 
Hicvil lu-o rxf-vdiiiigly Bufe, ■nil ai-o *orae- 
tifi><>» uniplovi-d iMi rather diatntic coii<!tiDg 
vov«Kiit, livm Siiit;ii|Ktre to Peoang Tor ex- 
nnipk. Tlie i»ii-*K'njrcr SomjiRn is rmploj- 
ed at Sitigapure chit-ltj ia convpjing po^- 
wogtri bviwitfit till! lihorc iwd the Hbip|iing. 
Capuiu Shvrmnl 0^bDra says ttie Biogapore 
anmpnn np prone lies in Bbarpotw of outline 
nod chances ofdrowniiig thu siit«rs, to one of 
till* alxivc-bridgn mring wlicriics on tlio 
Tlinmca. Twu Malny rowers, eucli pulling a 
siri^Ie Itroad-liliiiktd oar, could in tbctc mis- 
paii8 brnt our lleeiest gig Tlin CbineM) 
rowers iDi^lead or sitting dowD to tbeir cani, 
always At^ud up, (iliafi tli«ir oftrft, aud face 
forward. Tbe lurm of thi> »atupuu and jnnk 
ii or the model or a pood broad-toed, hrond- 
beeleil, broad-wiled i>iip|M)rt — a good otd-fn- 
Bhioned list slipper, io eborL— OfAorw'* Que- 
rftiA, pp. 4-5. 

SAMIMN-CHOIT or Bont Islet, a Rmnll 
iilaud of moderate beight in tbcCaiitoQ river, 
about I ^ mild X. F,. of Lamkeol bill. 

SAMFANDKR, one of the ibr«e mosi 
famoo)! Mivn [loou and dovotM-s. 

SAMPANGI MAKAM, Tam. Micbelia 
rb«HMlii, M. niliiyirica, IF*. Af. 

kamu, IVi,. Micbflia chNinjiaca. 

SAMI>RADAYA,a sect of the vaiabnara 

of TiiiDt-vflly, of ft ligbt bruwn i-oloiir, ^pt^itic 
gravity (*-7i>2, used for building purposea.— • 
Cohrtfl Frith. 

SAMl'I^A, Caj*. Ilocomlla monUDa. 

SAMP KI KUUHB, I{ind. Arum epe- 

SAMP-MAK, niKD. Circaetua galliciw, 

SAMPNI, Hind. Colcbroofeiaopnoflitifolia. 

SAM-PO-UO. Cms. The ludiw river. 

SAMPSUN, DcKU. Arialolochiu indica, 
Zinn. ; Hnxb. 

SA^VtlUT UL ASAL, Arab. Galls of[ 

Tninni'ix oiieuuliXt | 

Toiiinrix indica. 

SAMSHU, CniN. A spiritaotis liquor pro- 
pared by fcnnpiitatinn ottd dlsulIiUiou, from 
rice. — StMittOHift iHct. 

SAMSTHAVADI, Maleal. BarriDgtonia 
laci-nio^, Roxb. 

" > . m>o Vidya. 

A R, Sams. Ocean. 

b.-\.>ll. Ifft.S, !MH! lM»rriptiou!i. 

"[AMrr)R.\-C:ilt:i)DI. Tau. Argyrcia 




SAiittr fiMXh. 

SAMtlDEA-DHATTA, a dyna«ty of 2S 
bniKllilr^t kiugd fruin Mitbila wbo reigoed ia 

SAMI;DRA GUPTA, ?ec TuHcnptiaaiL 

KAHUDKAPALA or Cliaadrapoda, Argy. 
reia apeciosa, Swt, lAitteomia oervoea, IL, t^ 
4S8 ; Rheeile, it, Gl. 

SAML'DBA FALLAK, Uai.bat», Tak^ 
Fruit of Enii-ingtooiaracftmoaa, Roxb. 

speciom, Swt. 

SAMUUKAPU al6oSam9lmv>dt,aiu.aAL. 
BarriogtoDia racemofa, Hcib. 

SAMUDDRAPU, aUo Snmudrapu Kuo. 
dni'knin. Tkl. Caacer. Crab. Pafurua. 


daic«a wycbcllnrun); Double cuooanut; Coooi 

SAMUDKA SHOKA, abo Gugali, Hwo.' 
Anryrein f-peciow. 

SA.MUDBASTOGAM, Malcal. Atfj. 
reio flpecioaa. 


SAMUKA, UiHD. OpltKoestu 

SAMU-EA-BIJ, IltND. Hibiflcu» caoiiab 

SAMtrLFAB, nwo. Arseiiioua 

SAMULKOTTA. a towo in Uie Nortltani 
Ciicars, in laL 17" 3' 3* ; long. &2* 13 
S tnik'tj inland from Uie Bay of Bi 
Meiio hpighl of the village is H4 feet 
Uie MM-lovel. — Culien. 

SAMULU, Tel. Seo Save. 

Sea foaci, tbe <lorsat plaia of ibe Mpia, 
cuttle Bell. It iB u»ed medicinally aa an alMor- 
bciitnnd a4it-acid, aud tu rubdowo paintwork. 
It is now in Euro[)o, ouly valued a* a tiKilb-' 
powder, utid in thu arts. 

BarriiigtcHiia B('uUin<;ulB. 


SA-ML'NG.NEE, Bukh. Lopidum m& 
vum, Linn. < rarden-croeB. 

SAMUTlU-CllEDm. Tau. Sama 
Pulta, Tki.. Argyreia »peci(na. 

t>AMU KAMA, Sctninitois. it ia faowovi 
suppuKcd thai tba term Snnuirini, m luoti 
India, did not rclnta to one (wrsoB but 
many ; and it seetu particularly to bave 
usurped by prineea. The Culhiles aellJed 
■iMiut Cocbiti and Madura, in ludia ; and tba 
great kiogs of Calicut were styled tbe Sana* 
rim, aod tbe titular prince of the vicinity of 
Cochin ii still called ZomoriD.— .^x. A»t. 
Mifth^ Ko/. iii, p. 14 1. 




SAiCVARMA. Uie twt iiilor of fhe Rlm- 
^tmta drnaalj, wbo wu« <li-iveu wealwurii by 
tUe I'uinlulii. See lllinrnta. 

SAM VAT or S-'tiuhtK, n term Mpecinlly 
ajtplied to tbe era of Viknimudllyii, cuni- 
fwa^iag A7 TCJirB ti^rnn? the rtiristinti pih. 
Sm Khl, Iii^ripliou^ Juangurb, ^epal, i'uli, 

SA-\VAT, Burn. Auelhum gravoolcns, 
^iMjf., DHL 

IVA, Mal. Cif»alpiDia laappan, Linn. 

i)A CANZIALA, Snek., syu. of 
>iiiazi»lii, tVofl, 
DAClCiE, Littdl. Au order of 
comprising 1 genus and G spvx'ivA vt 
SA MYEIK, BuRM. Auetlium kowh, Roxh, 
SAN. Aiu HiM>., Pkk*. a ycnr. ilie yi-nr 
of All oTB : 8iuj-i-jaJuff, the year of n kiug'a 

SAN, Bkstg., HiXD. Crolularia junccA, also 

ariii^u Sun, Thin plant ik often coiifuxi-il 

^1 111 the " paokokia," ('.-Riled bauni in Mime 

^7U), HibiMius cauuabiaufl, to wlticli it i> 

miivh Kupcrtor ia streogtb. The imme in 

fclvj ipplied to Cymbopogon iwaiftuciiaa. — 

hitclfa HandJ>ook^ fot. i, p. M>7. 

SANA, Sa^s. Crotalofia jmifea. 

SANAA, oae of tfaa dietricta ot' Yenion, 

•ndiaclodes Ibo country round the city lor 

kkif A Jay'ft jouruey uortH, soiilb aod en."l. 

The city of Suiiui is situated in a dwp vnl- 

hf, sufrouudvd by four monQtaiDsi, about 

liKBty or thirty milcA in length and kIx or 

mna ia breadth, nod about four thousand 

liieitlwvft tlie level of the eea. li is calji^d 

Usa) io Oeu. X, 27, and exbibil.s n inacni' 

tetat vpectacle to the eye, lias the lovclivor 

tf ganleiis, with pomegrBnatoK, p'Hpn.>%, tiiid 

.^nrith The houtevveorftooe, four Ktorics 

higli, with terraces to widk on ia the cool of 

iIm day. A very ancicut hou!<c in ruin^, 

ttUad Kuer Saum, the college of bhom, the 

Mo of Noah. The Imam or priiitit resides 

iaifpleodid palace, btiiliof u Uothie >tyJe 

RHnibJiDg n fortre». He lias other palaceii. 

Sffiu coDiaiiu (Ifteea tliouiaDd Jews, in 

Tmmd they amount to tweuty tboueaod. 

Wolff otmoeiTed the totaJ popuUtion of the 

'rougbout the world tunounted to tea 

He baptizud ID Sanaa sixteen Jews, 

idJ leil tlieni nil New Tcw lamcn Is.— i>r. 

magTt £oAftara, yol.lpp.^'J-Gl. 

SANAO, a grant, a diploma, a oharscler, 
vuallr written sniiDod. 

SaKAGA, (Aing.) Saoa^galo, (pL) Tbl. 
[CioiT arietianm. Limn. 

SANAGALU. or Senngalu, Tel. Cicer 
famiuiuB, L. 

SANAUf, Arab. Idol wonliippen. 


vai&biiava liiiidoos fuoudtid by Nimbaditya 
nlias Bbaptciira Acbniya, ■ VNiKbuurA atfcecic 
The nliji'ctH nl' ilii-ir worship are Krti>hiiR and 
Rndtin coiijoinfly. — li ilsan, HitdiMt Seclg, 

S ANAK K, flisii. of BcwA. Vitcx Ui*(Ciru(]o, 

rua ciunnmomnm. 

SANAM, MaI.W. Vfulrnirn. 

tjANAM, Hi<<i> KnixiiMihOoribuiida, Itrge 

SANA-PAT, BttKv*. Svniui ; OusHin Inn- 
cooluin, Roi/te. 

SANAU. a rngie in rhe eouihern Tamil 
enunii'ies who draw imhiy Ei-om the coeouDut 
pslmj". — H il* Sve Sliaiiur. 

SANA SELLA, Tci,. Mn»lin. 

SANAT ? Cftlim. 

SANATOItlA. Ill Ilritish India, tbis 
trrm i^ appliinl In de^)J;>lale mitiiary ^IhIiooi 
on the niouiiliiiNii ni' inUIelaudK uiili i-limHlea 
suited to tlie Ix-ulth nf Jti-iti^h fioii|ier«. A 
Diuge nf hill fitiitioiiK, or natiiiloiii, i-xiond 
fioin Murree, in the PnnJHb, lu Alinomli, in 
tlte Kuniiitiii diHli'ift. Tbere are MuiTee iind 
AbboLiihad, near Hiixaieh, iu tin- Siiid Sngor 
Doal), Ualliotiiiiu im (hi> Chiiniha HilU, at 
fhv licnd of ihv Huree Do«b ; Dbanni'iila, 
iii-ar Knnpa ; Sinihi, with its ndjutmt »ta- 
■iuDs of Dug^hnCL-, Hubnthoo, and Kupwwiee ; 
MuKMKiria nod Luiidonr, overlooking the 
▼alley of tJio Dbooii ; Almorali and Nynee 
Tal. iu llie priivjuee of Kumaoa. Io pruocsKof 
ttrai', and with an iulliix of European settlers, 
iiiiiuy mure ^uch utatioiiet will be formed, and 
ihLTU lire btiiidredH of eligible Fitcs for their 
Iricalilies. In the Eastern Himalaya, in 
S/lbtl, gome fcltes are si>okeQ of favouraldy, 
niniiiit Abu, ia we.'^c of Rnjputanah ; the 
Mababaletkhntir Hjils, soulh-eai>t of Bombay ; 
ItnUtHiidrug nenr Ili-llary. The Neilgherri 
mid Pulner Hills iu the souUi of the I'cutu- 
Bula, and Ni^uvni Elta in Ceylou. 

Chikuldah is situated on an undulating 
labte-laod aenr to, and Homowhat higher ihaa, 
the fort of Gawlighur, situated in about lat. 
21" N., and long. 77' E. Gawilghur Fort is 
2,300 feet above the plain, 3,600 feet above 
the level of the &es, this part of tlie Berar 
valley is 1,300 feet above the sea. Chikuldnh 
iHou thu Vindhya, or an some call it the Ga- 
wiigbur range of hills, and about '20 miles 
from the caotoamenC of Ellichpoor. The 
plateau of Chikuldah is not abuvc ihree-qnar- 
ers of a mile broad, and aboutamile in Imifctli, 
but it has easy access to the surronuding 
table-land and valleya. A ctxil breeze prevails 
at the sanitorium during the hot months, and 
invalids bear teetiraony to the sudden reliflf 
Uiey ezperieuce there from the heat usual at 







Elllchpoor. Duriup llie liol roontli^, Irnlicc 
ami rliililrt^D in juirtii-iilar dctivi! tnin-li hfuolU 
froiti titu I'ljtoe, 'I'be vnrietl amJ vxtcusive 
anenerjr c-niumuuiIeJ frora lliis oWrntt-U i<pnt 
ii I] I hi In ml I rig to the ininj hy tlic grnintciir 
of its pitKciiittuus ravine* with their blutrh'Uiiu 
and boM project ioiia. The more geotlo^veupty 
(»f a vMt s^^lvnn Iract ia mpo trending «wtiy 
lowanU Uui iiortJi, ciiveiTtl with hit:li ^iiiMt 
oijil forp^t trco". iu & series of uuJiit;uiii|[ 
»teft(Nfis all coiiiit'rk'J utip with atiullicr, and 
ditniiii^liiti^ in idiiinik* as ihtrjr revcdf ; cm- 
)i090uii.-<l tuniUst wliicb ure iiiiiutiieritljk* v<.-r- 
ttatit tiiid MicliiUi-d vnllrvs. <^ncN] |-onds 
aluitfT ibfl tiTr^iInr plnteiiu onrnmnnd fine 
view* i>r (lie iifi^iibimritig iin«t pJcluiT!'(|iic 
r.aoutry, aud ijivo cvory facittty for tali- ; 
iii^ air and oxfrui^e. withaut Uil* riilj;j;ur of 
wtmdtfi-inf* in the jiiiiglc or de»:('ti<Iiitg 'mm 
the deep nvitte^ neui- whivh ilio road* piuHs, 
Aft (hv «ilo|ie of thu nimintain Jacliiii'a t(>- 
wards tho north, a mora ph*n4it)]{ chnmcirr 
pmsenU itndf Iu thi» direclion, llimi ttiwiirds 
the Kmilb, n-liiM'D tho fncc of the motiiiiain 
dtandit cl<?iiud>'d its n hold, pre«^ipitou5, iiiid 
rlifT-like liaiiier, iuhnittiu|> only at iiilvrvids, 
of wiudiii(i paihwjivt, up it* Cfx^'^y fitmt 
Blevp and diflioull uf asccut. It wrin lhruii>jb 
somfl of thenu pai^f* thnl the lir*l tniilinmt»- 
daus peiietitilrd into ihu lk■t't'al^ tftl Uy Atn- 
ud-Diii. Upon thr Miiitli, ihp irlioii! viilb'T 
of Bemr in seen to ^pr'-ad ont hcDrnih the 
WHjt^ (*'cU Durins; tlio hut tnitiithi', it is 
gtOWiJIy fliroudcd in a fullcn-lookiuu* mixt, 
thai Menu lo hat'^ DppreM*ivt>ly over the 
trUcj, hut when tlm nir ia clfar niul hi-it:hl. 
u nt otlier pertods of the yt-ur. the exieuf-ive 
ebanipKigDB of Bcrar in si'vu acnt'^s it*; t*ntir(' 
brMdib, and sotnetimea far Wyond, the hill 
fori of Mahorc boiufi; at limo« very di»tltictly 
viaible. Kfrii<i, mnid^-n-lmirK, nir-piimt^, 
licbeit*. tnnM<»»niidori'hid»"r.ui> plntit?, inilicate 
■ milder and more humid niniohplicio Prr- 
bups thin inexplicable and itio^t iinrlpfined 
ndapLatiau uf the Inv/s of ve»el»lion, i» no- 
where better exomplilled than in the ca?e nf 
the cliuttiriu^ ctimbiiig roae. which in (be 
plainii in nerer seen to Now, rutiuiup there 
luxurioutly to ttema aad leaven, whiUt oo 
thnsa heigbtA, its tendrils bow dutvii witli the 
vet{;hl ofiti lovelymigQon honton.';. In ench a 
climali*, by ajudicioua adaptatioD of localities, 
Mverml of the vahiable proilnuttotis of Ibu 
£aat rajghi be made to flourish. The only 
ovraal graia^ cultivated are a small millet, 
called by the tia tires Koodaka (Paxpalumscro- 
tuealatom) and wbcut, the former bearing 
TBry miiinie iwedK, bat alTardiui; a very agrs^ 
ftblr taaUd and DOiirishing diet, the kttcr 
imiDK »tiy light, poor, aud fliiily. To *eo 
if of tboM rvTioci aod vall^gri they 

lOi '• 


RhonM he vi><ited in iheflttmnier montli5>, when 
slnlfly ri)rf>!<t trw*s im well as lowly »hniba, 
are all buri^tiii<; into flower, at once, mixhiff 
bloaacimR of erwy hue onri tint in lovely foo- 
ffASt, with fresh prwu lenves for uearly the 
wlmlo fori-iil »hfdF^ ita fulia^'e, and ii* th«aij 
h^^inj* renewed. Iu tlie cold mouths tfa< 
flnrnl world re)KJ»e«, Itiile variety is tlieu swii ] 
amiiii^ft ir^ few f^ny JlowerH, are tho^e of th 
dowtiy (Ici-'lea. tli« BW«!lCJil of all hfinK 
Clematis piminiiia, vrhosu oiloiir bangs 
cvory hill, whi*re it U seen eot wining its leafj^ 
leitdrilH from bu^li to irtrr, iu imowy wmiUiB.| 
A^ tlii! raiii-'i U[iprria>-Ii, the ori'hitteous 
polypo'Uceotis tribe* fpring !iilu life ; aniti 
alUT ilify have H-t in, the niviiien lM*rnmfl| 
coinpli.-tuiy cliRiiped lu cUnractf r : numbvrU 
creepers ihiiot forlli, aiid MrilamitiMiuh pUmI 
nnd lilitM ihmw nut a rank, and Wf 
va^olattou. Thus ilirou{j;hout llie »eveti 
iTliniigett (if the GpasimH a romplotely Ml 
and altered t-hunicter is given to Tl 
tatinii, uoiirerriii;; the miMl pleusine rat' 
to the uHpei-l of llio» hill4. PoUl 
iitid [>^cbes thrive well at Chtkuldafa, 
former bcin^ planted at the be^inoing 
tiic raiii^. For general gardeoiiip. howeverj 
tliete ii^ a dulioieucy of water, but euoagh 
nil M>a)K>ii!( for colitiary purposes and fo 
drinking, ftum some line spriiifrs near thai 
^(iitiuii. from November to the end of .Innr, al 
totiil of eis:ht monthly, the mean tempf-ratunij 
wn^ found to he 7 1 *. I'he hottest inoiilhs Wf 
April nud May giving a mean af ^3'. 
■■oldtvtt months were danoar}' aiid FehmaiyJ 
hariu); a mean of ^H*. Thua [»t-oda( 
lielwevn tlie hottest and coldest muutha, a| 
rHOge of 24'. The eohk-Jt day oh-vrved, 
the !)ih February, at sHn riw, beine 47*. Tfc 
hortest day i)Otii;ed. was ou the 27lh April 
at '^ I'. Uh being 90*. Between the exi 
of bent and cold, there was therefore • ruinl 
uf 4*1*. The f;realest mouthly rnngo was M*j 
in Novemtwr. The greateat diunul rail 
was 22* in April and May, the loaal dim 
|-mngf wa-H I* lu Febiuary aud 5* in Juim. 
weihiilh tbennomeier during the hot moBI 
had SD average depresaion of 10*. The tlMTw| 
raoroeter averaged a general range of at 
10* bolow the temperature orEUtclipara. 
mine ceace about the middle of Scptemharii 
heavy dews then occur until the cold weafl 
begins, aod also from Febiuoi-y to the rait 
At this period the moist atmoaphere is hrigU] 
aod tntiaparent, but becomes hazy as it 
loM dense towards tlie hot wcatiier. 

GamtffHur fort, to which officers fonnetlf 1 
need to resort aa they do now to Chikuldah, i '' 
sittiated iu a direct route fotirleoti m'tln fr 
FJIich[«Mir, and h a^ccoded by two gl 
the &borter gltat commencea on tiie »o«l 



hvh at an olJ garden nt llie foot of the PORiify for ilriuking ; several natural springs 
liilinilt^ti Imloo Bnglr^ ihe nsf-eiit. JK .steep and i ocitur in tlie raviiiea close to tlie bungalows. 
mrellers rjiu oti\y aaceiid np the liiee of it, on ' Nowhere in tliere the slightest n|ipeai'auce of 
foot. The longer gitaut more circnitourt ami la swamp or marsh, nor ia there any epidemic 
from three to four mites in Iciigrh passos ' diuease {Xicnliiir to the hills, autl their sninbrity 
round by the west and enteri) tiiroiigh the ' is eitiiblished by the fact, that with the excep- 
lower fort. By this road, elephants and guns tion of two sevei-e visitJitions of cholera, ae- 
MDp*i«s.Tlte foriissaid tobe 2.3O0ffetiibove eompaiiied or rather proceeded by famine iu 
tite plain, ami 3,600 alwYc the level of the sea, ' the years 1 834 and 1838, out of a populntiou 
(.'liikoldali possesses advantages from i(8 loca- of upwards of 3,000 inhabitants, there liaJ 
lity over Gawilghur ; being belU'r supplied , been only 40 deaths in a period of 40 years ; 
with water, picturesque, and beanlifully wood- ] they are extremely addicted to drunkenness, 
ed. Gawilirhur fort i:* quite in a diiapidnted j Gond^ seldom nasemlile in villages of any 
flat*", and the only interesting object now re- 1 size, I»Ht are dispersed in huts, three or four 
Buiuing is the old mos(]ue complel^ly in ruins, ! together, generally on tlie slope and along the 
inaiiT of ilfl twenty-one domes having fallen in, I northern expo,-iire of the hills ; they are 
mil the !=nrrounding walls given way. » talilo | singularly niigrnlory, tlie inhabilnuts this year 
over the gateway records that this building ! of a village in the western extremity may 
alone co^t within a few pice, that of the whole next year be found at the farthest opposite 
fnrt. Although the temperature of (he hills is i point of the range. Chiknldah is said to 
exri-eilingly mild, yet the thermonu'ter Indi- bo quite equal to the Mahabalcshwar hills, 

rau-s higher than one would infer from per- 

and a pernion on horseback is able to ride 

Mual feelings. The morning air throughout wherever he pleases over the plains, which ho 
llie whole s^'ason is delightlully elastic and I ciuinot do oti the Mahabaleshwar on account 
ioTignrating, and walking exercise was the j of the bushes. Supplies are procurable from 
favoarit« amusement at that time of the day, all the villages en route, from the side of the 
with ladies, who eeeraed In suil'er no incon- W'in'dah. Colonel Stevenson in 1803 brought 
Teniencc from remaining in tlio open niv i his guns up via Dhamungaoa and Arojurah, 
till 8 o'clock; a light gentle breeze con- 1 when the army under the command of 
linnes to blow during the day; and the ' General Welleslcy took Gawilghur. 
nights are really so cool, that generally cpcnk- | Ktissowlec, in lat. 30° 56' N. L. "7 East, 
itig, a sheet is by no means nti uniileasaut 4o miles distant from Umbulluh, aud 32 
eovering in the month of Miiy, April is | from Simla, is about 6,400 feet, above tlio 
con.sidered the most unpleasant month, the ' sea : there is no table laiul, and tlie pciika 
atmoTiphere l>ecomirig occasionally close and ' ai'e latlicr sleep, and pretty densely clothed 
rullry about noon, hut towards the nftcrnoon j with lir trees : there is n plentiful supply 
large ulouds regularly form, which fall in ' of excellent spring water, 700 feet below the 
gentle showers, restoring the temperature to barrndcs ; llie meat aud vegetables are 
its usual mildness. On the commencement , plentiful. The climate may be pronounced 
of the rains, about the 8tli or lOtli of .Iiujc, : to 1>l* (iiii|»Tn;e and ngreeable, unless ilnring 
thick fog.* set in whii-h render the place ' the raii.y scnsou, wheu dense fogs make it 
plooniy and disagreeable, but after a liejivy i gloomy and depressing. The barracks during 
£tll of rain they completely disajipe.-ir, and tlie ' the early years of occupation were very 
climate ia then said to be vei-y deiighlful. ' interior, having lint mud roofs, and rooms 
Hitherto, however, from the want of acconi- ' only 10 feel, high, with t-lay flooring ; lately, 
nindutioD for the public followers, all liavo ■ however, the rooms have been raised to 15,^ 
been oldiged to quit the stittion nt the begin- feet, the floors have been boarded and the 
ning of this 8ea.«on. The average full of rain ; roof:? made to slope so that they do not leak. 
•bring the monsoons is said to be about 36 SuOutfioo lies nine miles from Xussowlio 
indie^. From September, the temjicrature is on the road to Simla, ut an elevation of only 
so equitable, cool, and bracing, that without ' 4,(X)0 feet ; the hills are bare of wood, the 
any exaggeration, it may be styled a Euro- climate diHera from that of Knssowlie in being 
t>eaD spring. On the 26th January 1840 the hotter in suinmcr, and warmer in wint(;r : it 

thermometer nuspended in the open air uiHlcr 
I tree, stoo*] at noon, at 62*. As a convules- 
eeut station and therapeutical agent in the 

is altogether murr; dry and s-heltercd, and has 
iin ailvanlagc In being seldom visited by fogs. 
Diigsliai, is disLint IH miles from Kalka, 

treatment of disease, it has already been foinid and is H mile* east of Knssowlie, and 10 miles 
oftdFantage. Tlie people of Nagpore may : soiilb of Sultalhoo ; its helgliL ranges from 
take advantage of this station, which presents i 5,(K)() to 6,0(H) feet; the hills have a bleak 
»ebinge of air at a moderate distance, Uio 1 and barren look, being completely bare of 
appi/ of water for culinary purposes is very Irec:^, aud covered only by a luipg coarse grass. 

105 s 1 o:. 



There is free exposure to the preTailing winds ; 
wuter is abundant aud good ut tlie distance of 
a mile from tlie barracks wliicli arc new, sub< 
stantial ami excellent, botli in point of accom- 
moilatiou and ventilation. Tlie rations arc 
good and occasionally varied, and six acres 
of ground are laid out as a soldier's garden. 
The clim&to is said to be unexceptionublo, 
although the heat of the eumnicr is sonactiines 
oppressive, and the cold of winter rather 
piercing. In 1851, August was the most 
rainy month, and in January there were two 
fuct of 8D0W on the ground. 

Simla is "7 miles from Umballah, in 
lat. 30*6 north, long. V7*ll oast, the houses 
are scattered over an extent of about 7 
miles, on a seric* of heights varying from 
6,oU0 to 8,000 feet, whi<-h is the highest 
elevation ; it is in most places densely wood- 
. cd witli fir and rhododendron, and there 
ie much rank jungte which keeps the sur- 
face soil constantly damp ; both here aud 
at Kussowlee the heat of snmnier is Eomcwhnt 
temiwrcd by the exhalations from, and the 
shelter of, bo much rich foliage. The climate 
of the two stations is alfo very similar, and 
it has been compared with that of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Tho rnina commence early 
in July, heavy dense clouds and fogs tiien 
load the air, aud wiih this increase of humi- 
dity, disease becomes very prevalent. Water 
is scarce during the hot months, many persons 
tako the prccautioQ to boil aud (liter it ; sup- 
plies are abundant enough, but in general 
high-priced. The fall of rain at the several 
stations, has been variously ci^tiraated at (iO, 
80 and 100 inches : at Kussowlee an<l Simla 
70 inches may be estimated as a fair annual 
average. Tho deep raviues and water courses, 
which intersect all tho hills, are di'y during 
the greater part of the year ; the lieale<! air 
anccnds from these confined gorge.", bringing, 
in the rainy season, dense clouds of mtst,whicii 
arc doubtless excellent media for tlie tnius- 
missioii of the miasmal exhalations that are 
gcneraloJ in such places by moist warmth 
acting upon an ahundnnt vegetntion. The 
following table exhibits the mean temperature 
of each mouth : 



























































































































o ; 










Cd W r^ 








0> Ik 








es O 









o o 








o o 




















re w 

? ~» 





The prevalence of diarrhoea and dysentcr 
these stalious and the loss sustained bad I 
so considenibte as to lead to a very gcw 
belii-f that ns sanatoria thoy had pro 
fnilurcs. In 1843-44, H. M.'s 9th Foot 
:t>jO Hilmitjsions from bowel complaint, 
/j? deaths ; while in 1844-4d, it6 seconij j 
of resiilencc, there were only 231 admists 
and 17 deaths. The let Bengal Fusil 
f^tationrd at Subathoo in 1845, also suflc 
mui^li, but both regiments came to the ( 
ill a very fickly state, the one having b 
dtvimntt-d iiy fever and dysentery in AfTgl 
istan, the other by a similar epidemic 
Kurnnul during two years. The (<aine i 
l*c said of H. M.'s 29lh Foot, and the 
IJengal Kusilicrs, the former ^fcting \xKi 




iiuilittou willi a Uiul of Kt'ui'rj Tor rn^unUli>a, nnil fuwer mlmissiODa iaUt iios|)iUU 

Hioii ill any yvM Hiure iu anivnl in Itulift. lu 
lH01,(luiiug tlis void HpofiHD, if mnrvhcd iti Rn- 
wal Pimlee, aiiJ fur months alter it ba'l beeu 
Uiere, ilvoiiliuueil iuuhiglt »ijiteuf Iteallli and 
Bfticiutiry, und wiiliout iiuy vxccse of l-owci 
com plat utmimotig tLeKdiiiii-fJuufiia tv liua^jitul. 
.It Sim /a Ic-w |K*i><jiis esrii(<ei)iipi>r niotfat- 
tii(-kt> ur^liunlKca ill Uiv course of tlie ^eimou. 
I'lie atlsi-k^ nio nut t-onfiufd in ptTsous in 
lH-»)ci'n-ilitivii Ik'iiIlIi, wIiu litivo »<ufleiv*I liDm 
pt-riixlit; fL-r<>i-. or oUier tioiitrnl dim*u.-ca ; 
rubiiiciitti in ibu priniu nf lit'ii nuil cif Mtiiiiil 
cdiisUtutiDii, Imve Ikh'h wry f^tmvuWy yfli-L-t- 
cd, nud i:xiini|iif:< of its proviii^r luUtI tttv wA 
rare. Ii> «iio fuul rune tliC diiurba'ti wnn 

M«, aud ilio lailrr liuvirtg ijoeu vwy 

ill Siud. In 1847-^», Uie 'Jinh Litd 

draths citit of 382 ca»cif of di-sontn^s nf Uic 

luniacli Mtid Itotvelts and out of 2S deulKii in 

! Funjiicrts 13 were from tins ul»»s 

- ■-■« . 

^lui:^ tlifii i-4'f;iini-riU in t\ lo»^ nnlicnllliy 

i(v were netn lu (ho hillr, mid r.licre Iin^ 

I'll vt-iy itrvat irnpruvcmont iu l\it> bariiick 

L.-iitnniodntioo tts well o-t iti (he rniiFU'rviiiii-y 

•(wrimeut. In ISJO-ol, 11. M.'* fiOUi KiUjs 

it'io Mntianed, tlie riglit viinf; ut K<i.-<»<jwljc', 

lie left at fJiihidioo, (lie nrri-ngi; t^lrtn^lli 

tilt) rt^imi'itt wa» l,OlVJ, and (im di-iitliE> 

iilliiD the year oidy 14, nf iviiii-ti, ttow- 

13 wt'CT) from l»owol afTectious. At ' apmravalei,! by tlie falijruc of u dnwk journey, 
[iipstnvlie tUere were 220 caMpf, or :).'H |ici' | and proved faliil in Citlt:un» by tcnniniilinv 
riiL of ttvenge slxeugtU, witJi it dculliK, and in ru:ili;;iiauL ^curbultc dy^eiili^ry ; in ntiodipv 
Snlnilino 74 atlmi»&iaus, or only 214 per i cit«i!, llieru wug only tlio wni^tiiiK paiid(;»8 
"ni^ witlt 4 Jcaltif, showing wliui hud | rnria of ilisenac, and dtalll took |ilace ou tlio 
idivrlo br^ti mrc in Ut« litetory )>f theM tn'o I pa^iia-ie to KiigUud. 
tftauuns thai (J>o Imliiiic** nf Milnlirity vrus in i Of tJic vmiouFi inn-^ps ii.s!^i>;ii(>il, iho lirsL 
luur of .Subatlioo. The udniisi-ioiis froiii nnd in<i>t popnlai- was (Iiv ).>ail (itinlity of the 
lum vipfu 221 wi(li two dcnili-^, Lul : wntcr: tliii^, lunvi'vor, liitn liL'uii di^|)rov()d, Tbe 
more mun were alUirkcd, alUiuii':li not i water froin tlio ^priiig> ou the north vide- of 
tp>J into liftHpitai. I'litiu wci*« S2 ad- | Ku^suwlio U vnty pure, while (liut uu ibfi 
inn>s from I'liroiiii: ilvftcnuiy, of wliit-h l(i ; 6oulli nitte ii> only impiv^^iuilcd wiLh a liace 
2 dvatliA CKCUiTed in the lM>it qDuiter of' of limo, )iut (o n If?^ degree tlinn iii found at 
Iheynr, ant) chiufly in ntpn wlm had eufli'r- 1 iimny lii-ultliy alntions in the plains. At 
til fruiD repealed allncks of ■liun-hfca. lu i Simla, in tliu lioiseOMiD, the supply of waivr 
l!jdl-.>2, Uta name regituenl, willi uti nvrra};e ' Uficauty, nud not of the bt*Ht f|i|hlity, but Ihat 
tmigth of 9I0|, bad of totnl ndniirtHions ! i» the umo when dinrHi(u» in Ico-H coinmni), 
^2 i dittths ZO, of which 27 were from ! Uiiriog tlio rains, the runniug aiicajndaie a» 
linnrl conplaintji, out of 2'^2 adniissiuus | |Hire us trouM hc< (k>HirL-d nfu-r llio ftrKt few 
liiriit^d as followu ; dystnlfry '-i'l (.-list's snd 1 BhowerB hiivo waithcd out tJie water cimii*:* ; 
9 draths, diarrhfru 2 1 ■> ^a^nri and 1 7 ilcalha < ho^idei', |tci:Muis who wore cartiriil to iieu only 
VUD*t 221 cases wiUi nnly 2 dealli.s tii hoiled aiul niterfd water did n»( c>ca;(e lite 

tba prfTiou* year. Ou arrival ut •Ihullundiir 
I ibars'Werc in hospital -^7 cjb'cs of bowel com' 
l^utit, and out of the 36 dejah», 9 occurred 
|llar«f hut all ffom di>ieasif contracted ou tin- 
IlilU. It will bo oU^iervcU Unit ttio n'-liiiil 
aJmisFiona went less, but Uie mortality which 
ill the 6rKt year had beeu ouly I'SU per cent. 

iliAiThcefi. Koili nt Simla and Kus^owlie, the 
tix*<!6 have p»ine<l the i-opjito of prtiducini: the 
discu.*!', by reason oi' their pioiiioliug domp 
o.\liulatiuii, and prvveuting the free riii:ula- 
(ion of air. Uul ^ubathoo and Dufjshni 
aiv bare of trvcs and yet exf>etiencu uo im- 
munity from the pifvailiii^ endrrmic, pIiowh. 

tQnienfth, rc^e to3'9o per cent., die diseatiu , lu plucea tbe trees rcqiiit'e thinning, in order 
hlrnin rcpenleil rrlape» or from cnuceahnent ! to admit liglil and uir, anil to keep dowu ihu 
'of it, tie<-oflitntf mu>-h more iniruetiihlc. thick Juuj;Id which, at Simla especially, is, I 

Uagikm. — In ISaO-ol, U. M.*» 22nd Re^l. | Wliovc, a a<.iuri-u of uoxIoua influentM) : it 
lied Ihi^hai ; avenigo Mrengrh I, IJIJ*, I may he added (hat ihc iVhulls of rxpt-rienee 
ii»27, of wliieb" wererromdysfnteiy. nod are lu lavrr of neleetiuf' Bites, like that of 
ilianlKL'a: ihL' tolal nilmii'.'-inn.^ from tliir Du;;nlmi, nlear of trefs and jimglij which pro- 
of diauoM» were undiT 2'>0, m\-\ the moto liuinidily and atlbrd niaterinU for dconi- 
rrhiEa waA puculiarly mild. In lhi>l-o2, i po!>iUi>u. Tlio bcrt founded and mtthtiuflutiu- 
}ail year of u-i'ience, th*.- avcia^fu ijal cxvilitig cau»et> aiu tiie voM uioii^l atuios- 
uitatfii to l>c 1,04-5, ai)d the dtaib^ \ phere, nod llto great and sudden vicieeitudes 
it bead-qBartur* 2U, ct wti] -It 'd wete tVom I of tempernluro by which peibjiiration i« 

IcTi^'iiury out of 47 «[)m^'<-H.<u?. iK-arly all i checked, lending to iulerual i'ouge>)tion, lau- 
' by frequHtl itti(>< k> cl diaithtra. ! guid aud impeded ciruulatiuu iu the liver aud 
: — .. ,,;^m diarrbuia uiil ut l^lt adaii6»ic>i>c-. I functional dL-raD}*emvut of tltnt organ. Bi 
Duniig iliu year the rcgitneat had fen-cr the&ti i^euinl iuflueucea uf letupeiatuie 



iniiisturo mu-^t linvo soinctliiii<; siipj^rnildi'il to Musxnor'ie or MuNiiri, mljoinft Lnniluur on 
tlicrii, lo n<w:oiiiil nutist'iictoi-ily for tin- in- tin' west iiml coiisisttt of ii wrips of ritJjiM 
lit-rciit nii<l (K-riiliai- li:iliiiily of tliesc loi'uliiics ' ulioitt .j iiiiii-x in pxtent, rfHiiiiniiif; nimiist 
lo producti diuirlKien : the climiiti; of Miissoo- vt\»l am) w<>st wirli frfqiicnt [H-iikK iiiitl with 
lie ia e(]ually IniniiJ, but wirliout tliu snme s|iiirs or ^lioiiUlciti ir'stiiiig ii'iv>riilHi'ly down 
teniU-ncy to diiiri-iifcn, iiiitl this nuiy lie iiUo lo tlic vtillcy of Dcynili DIkmmi on tlit- fouiIi, 
titid of Niiinoo Till, MiiiTuo iiml DsirjfClin'r, ami tn iln- iIvit U;;Ijir or L'frynlwBr on the 
tilt! lust lieing rcniiuknhly oohl luitl doinly, iioi'th wiili (K'i'}i wooikil (^orpes bftwct'n. 
iinJ tho air long super^iitiinitutl with moisture. Htiznrechaijh.— Xn times gone by, Kuntpwin 
Oilier mountain mngos all pospcss ti t<iniihii' sohlierri wvni i-lrht'i' lo<'nle(l in liol and im- 
iinnitiiiity, such as tiiuNeilghunies luiil Mnha- ' hcnhliy filniicioiis, roiitrarting t)ie ili.-^v-en 
hleshwar. 'i'heromnst, tliereloi't', to ncconnt iMrruIinr to horh pofitioiiP, or else they were 
for its prevalence from year to year, 1>e some in the I'e^trirtcil Hill i^tnlionfi, with hut 
cnnsc oilier than the ordiiiiuy or efspiidul limitetl sjHitTf fur oxen-iHe Htid erolntioiin and 
climate R(;ciiciop, some liniiteil morhilic in- al"© "ot without (cndi'iiries to crciiic, or l« 
fliiciiuu of u spcc-ifio iiiiturfi, and this appcni-.-t njt^rnvMt^-, pinliciihir disrafps. II. M.'s 37iti 
to ho partly malarions, partly scoihutic ivfiinieiit had, diirTng its scrvieo on thft low 
AVe know that primary cases of iiitpriiiillent groninU boi'dering the Giiufjefi, borome tn 
fever are by no nienna uiiiioniinoii at. Siinhi ineffiint-nl. iVoin sioknesrt that its imini'driite 
and the ueighbouriu^ btatioiiM, and we meet emhnrkniion for tlngland was ur<;t'd by the 
with oecasional casea of the worst form of , medii-al aiilhorities an the otdy remedy ; hut 
typhoid reinittcnt. In the pcnsoii of IHoO, at I the Commainlcr-in-Chicf deiermined to try 
Simla, two crises oceurivd of mtitipTiiint the station of IlaxRieelmt^h ; and the re«iilt 
typhoid i^emitteut fever ; in one of these im waa thai, after being some time ftalioiifii 
olReer on the genond »laft' of tho ai-iny, tht- there, the 3Ttli rctorned r»i)iilly lo heallb^ 
disease proved fatal ; in the order, and IV. I), strength, and efTiciooey, nml left for Kngland, 
C. on the stuff of the Commniidor-in-ChJer, i at the eommeiiceinent of thU year, pnlirely 
recovery took place after u protni<'ted and ieinsiale<l. To the 37lh fucccfded II. M.'i 
daiigcroti3 illness ; both those otVici-r^ must 77th at Ilazarcehngh, in quite ad nieklj 
have eontraetcd the fever at Simhi, or in Its a eondition as the fonner regiment, and 
imniediato iicighl>ourhood, piobabty in L-ross> i with the came rapid results as reganis ■ 
ing some low foni ravine. But notwilhsland- thorough and eoinplelc recovery ; and then 
iiig lliciio proofs of malaria, experieiieu teaches can be no doubt ihat Ijflzareel>agh, although 
us that in general it ia not here powerful oonsitlcrcd lo Iwj in the plains of Itidis, 
enough to excite perindic fuver : it seems lo has many of the most valuable attributett of ft 
nsccild from tho Dumei'ous deep ravines and hill saiialarinm of the lirst elasp, whtirt It 
water-courses whiidi iiilersect tlu-^e stations, presents fi:w of the drawbacks of the innnu- 
but to be HO diluted, or elianged by the eflect | lain stalions. llaznreebagh itself is alwiut 
of elevation, cold and moisture, as lo cause ; 2,(>0<) feet above the sea level ; whil-^l then 
bowel complaints instead, and this is exactly , is » small sanatorium within ea!>y dioiancw of 
what occurs in some mountain ningcs in other the station, at an elevation of 4,000 feet. 
parts of the world, where we observe ha<l re- Lohootffint. — A sauatarium waseslabliehM 
niittent fevers at the level of du; sea. Inter- at Lolioogh.-it, in the Almorah hill?, a poHitioa 
inittents at the higher level, bowel complaints unsurpassed in India for salubrity of climate 
higher still, and at the highest ulcers which inid picturesque scenery, and known to he 
appear as the feeblest result of malarious highly eoni^'eniul to the European eonstiAl- 
)KiisoDing in deprestfing the viial powers, tioii. 

The cognate ehnrai'ter of the'-e di.-cases were, //««rArc, a most henlthy f tntion, lia.1 been 
also remarked in China, and is noticed liy Mr. (iirncd to jurger aeconiit than it has hitlin-ta 
Wilson iu his " Medical Notes." Iji ships been fiir the location of Kuropean trooiMt. The 
which lay at anchor at sonic distance from proldcm which has liitlierto interfered with 
the shore, the miasma was received in a dibit- r-ITii'iciit niilitnry oircii]mtion of the oonntrj 
ed form, auit tli(* seamen suHl'red from an tii- has been how lo keep the Knropean troops in 
veterate species of ulcer obviously de|ieiiduiit heiiltby slalioiis, and yd available Rt the 
ou malarious taint in the blood. An opinion shortest notice in ciifo of Hlann or dii>tnrb- 
liau been gaining groiiuii amoriL' incdical oHi- ance. When tlie mutiny broke out in IM57 
cers that tlio cpiJcmit; ophthiilmla, which had many of the Knmpean regiments wen 
of late years been the source of so much i-talioned in the Hills. Xolhing can OTCirale 
iiicfficieney and loss in l-*tiropenti regiments the value of such a distribution of rhp mili- 
liud ltd origin in the |n-e-*eiice rd' a dcortmiic ; tary i-esources as will, whilst lo<-ating Britilh 
diathesis among the men. w, ' soldiers In healthy stations, keep thrm l*M^ 

lOS S 108 

iWtlip td movo niiJ nitnrFnlifttr-. or id In 
--- !'*til iKxIieis ni (lio lirvl whisper o( 

kfti^rMtinitfiri mANfl/(iin, in titp Piii'ln 
tinitii i)i«irii-r, is ilUimit altoiit '20 niilfft 


Molierry nii<I pnri ofPtK.tiaroiuIn. The JUim- 

ilui>n zerniiitlni'jr f xi<*iiil<« IVoiii rlir rn^l liii'» nf 

the inn^** In rile ^'a s)mr<>. lli'Mdt^ ihi* nmtiW 

luitfotln nlicHiiy ih-s<-iiliit| m\ iho fiininiil nl' 

the mnitntNiii, lln-n- m-o turn otlicr'i i-irtlir-r 

•u tb» Sr^ iviiift, N. tnl. IH-57, Un)^. K. | htwpr tlown nl' tiioit> «-htl>onil^ vm viii}; ntnl 

l4-tM. Fiuin the ensieni eidtt of lh«> iiionii- ^renm- biz<% lh(>}' dillt-r in auiliiif liut tiiit)i 

iiti llie BppriMK'b \'^ by h ^urncwliiit cic- hH' offm-inM t-nniiiiiiii iii (Ji*i><ta ; thn-e or Wwv 

i\\rnt* pnlh wliK'li wimlf* ft'V Bi-verul miles othrr Atruilnr finirtiircs iii-o ii> lir rimtnl in iliu 

■■(W(>«ii the tim-pr sptirs (if (he ninjjip, ilirti lu-iirlilumiiMj; in vririmiN Mtk^m ol" iiiin 

tllow about kIx milt'S of very ffi^y Jtml 'rii<M'<>iiuiiiit> of rii iii-i-riiiliun in lIio TuniKl 

iilonl sMT'il iiulil llii' pnlh 1'at-<^-y lht> yiL-i*|i i-Umiicli'i', ncrptii'cit. 'I'ticN-iirr in->-ii|iiion>- in 

iilr of the higher portion of ilip moimliun, , Oriya, Trtmul nn<l I'^-InKH «i"1 *oim> otlier 

^nm Uii* pniiil Ia (ho nntninic n dlHtniico of 
ip» I'J or 2 mile* ihe way is oxticmdy 
lo. After i-ottni»iiiiliug this liiffii-tilty 
'nddio nT nhnut ■! tnik>9 in len<:lli ut nn 
lliiado iaoj;iiijf from -J.OOO to ^,900 ferl, 
niii* ill n-iflili mill p1n{>e nml, in pnrt!<, 
vn bnl afli>nling ample grnuod for ntimrr- 
^hiiiiw* Rti<] (;»r<]M)fi. Tlin hurfnee is 
• I with pittM fnr a conitiilcrHUlo «tpnpp 
lit h*-!**' ami ihpi-e hiunll woch).-, iu wliirh 
[arc In Im' ftmntl the wMil nihplti'iry nml 
jutcitrl bimI tli(> ftTiiB ai»] ori-liitis rominoii 
j-t/i ili« liill ranfr*^ of Uic Peiiiii^iitn, In pari-, 
biwi-TMi', the Mt^Ulle is barp und mcfcy, sprinp^ 
;ol pnie watrr are to he fomxi in Fcvt'ial 

(.'hamrtpr rt'soinhlin;; iJn* Mnhrnllii. The 
nutives ancrihf tlmiii U* ihu I'diithiva. T)ic 
Mffpciit' from the loii^ vi»n»«y on ihf wf^-teni 
silk" of thi? liill i* coiiipBnitivrly cany. Thtrro 
ur« tiiMiierous ninl (•xtrn^ire vulleys of fertile 
Mill MtitlnSlo fur lliL> protvtii of rittfi-n iiml 
a pIntcHii whcvc llie iliirnhonii lifo wkiiUI 
prohiibly llirivc. Tlio vnilry which ihvnles 
ihn Miiheinlrn^jlTi rnn(;t> fiMiii thf hill trwr-is nf 
tb<' iiitk'pen>li-iit S'Htiiili to ihi'' nast cxI'-ikIs 
fl'ijin (ho >Inniilii 7.oit\\\}i\tiry foniphlcly into 
(he Pnrln KIniidi coniilry, a linr of ctim- 
innnicntion uli>ii>: liiiR (mrt of tho Sonriili 
honlrr nii^lit In- vriT pn.'^ily neciirfil hy clonr. 
in<; a iviilp i'oihI tinf-e nloi)*; the nTfrli^ni 

|yUr>». ]a O«:tol>er the ihtTmnniel.T vitn^nl I HJile of the valley for llie entiiv dislAin-p. 
'fma fi8 to 73, niid hi Novptnher frr>Tn -l-^ to ' Other hill stnlioiiA iiml MnitAviii, under ihe 
|€|. On Lhtf ^er^- hi};h<>^l point of the tiill i«< r^Indrus fJovenmi^ul lire : — 

a mall «on»t pajjoila formed of stnn'-? of nm-ii 
t^lk titat the mode «if its eonRtrnrlJon ic iiot 
. ■ r-'liircd. The height of the 
- foui'-fliiled. tirny bo about 
» Ieti ; till! Im^t-tneul orenpiea iin uren nf 
BiwiT 1^ 'Vrt Mjimre and i« formed of fonr 
alxmt 10 feet i» Ifogili l>y 
nnil of the paino llit<-krr>t.u, 
layiTs each coii.iiT>ling cf fonr hlov'k^ 
ml the hasfineut, nriil on lop of tlieiu ip^ 
'•mI 4 *io{!le bbx-k H feet ;^itoro hy 4 feel 
k, flnidhed )iy a oiretilnr stone earTeil like 
and of about 5 feet in diAmeter. 
entrA»(!0 l«rrty atlmiu a ntnn, niid in 

finllikDiiiln in the Viz-ijinpnlniii DUlrict, 

The Piihivy HilU in Mii.iiiiit, 

The Shervaroy in Siileni, 

Rjiniaiidrooj; in IV-IIury, 

Neil^jherricji hi Coimbiilore, 
and, ill «iome degree, Chitidwnrm in the Nagr 
puie teri'llory. 

Gaidkonfia nml flcrrtf K^iiUt/ in I'isftffa- 
fiataiu biive nut bei-n f<iiiml Lu unewi-r. In 
I8oy-()0. a few ivnip'^rar)* biiildinps lor Kiim- 
prau euldiei> and two oltieeis weie l>uilt ut 
n eost of nipteu l,'29i. The expciito <%f 
constructing a I'oltd of 14 inileii lo the iimge 

irrior in the *tm.c (.vmliol held saeit-d »mfiiinte<I ti» rupees 2,29a, and wiih boriio 

by tlie riijuh of Vizianagrum, within who.-e 
xemindary the stiition i* ^itualed, A raniiH- 

fie Liii^yot ; rIoM by thia pn^oda h « 
[ftilti'U of th<^ Tngonometrical Snrvev, and 

Iht! eoa^t may be lineed fiom ' >"'•"» <"' ""-* bigher i-»li{re of Iho Gallikiindn 

n.n-th, to Cnlii.-inpntam on Ihe ■ l''"*' "-'fcllea " Citaut's raoge," was thought of. 

FmqIIi. ■■ lo the Boiilh-wc'-it nmi;*'^ I Pnlmy /lilltin Afuitnra. — Thewllli-ment 

itrtr ifai' , . Mrt Dfl^.trln Klmidi ; behind • coiiMi»<li-d uf Wu biinj^nlows without unv bnmr 

j»j!e *ir pJiClt*-!' nn il» w('.«frrn hi-U: nitm n ^ or nntive villnf-e, niid wan weupied l>y llta 

r*Uey, OD tlie opposite aide of whifh i'i*c mi^■ionn^le« of the district duriiij? tite Itol 

^ weather. It is resorted to orfB«innnl)y hy 

theeivil «ervnnt» of the dii^tiiet nc a ivlirf, 
and hy fainiliea from 'I'rirliinopoly, An 
annual expi-nso of rupees 7^^ i' Iniu/irt f.* 
the refialr of an Inconiplelo iwd ut . s. 

whieh was eommcnceU fcrr i*— ,; jjti 

eonvooience of tho bill *" 

14 and extenoivo bill rmigee oeeit- 

tio independent Saiirah iriln'R ; soihe 

jBlillti are hut little inferior iii hei^lit 

il,. n.lmrjiri. 'I'l) ihc florth and north- 

■ trareabla the Jarada, Jal- 

0, .S(>orun$;eo nnd Chiknti 

lir iidth" talooktof It«hapoie, 







eoii<<tfll)1cs me k'>|tt on ilie Iiitls, liiC tbcy of iiivntitU nciil llicrc Uiot Uic faiiiig ('(I<f«-lr<| 
•Imi mv miuired lor f^roci'Ml puipusvs auU i in iMs wuy must luti^ aiucu ]mv« rr| 
nut R|K>r(iilly ffir llin Niriitjiniriii. itin &ni.iil outlay wliirli 1i»r lK>t-u niiMlv 

S/tfrvtiroj/ //iU» in Salem Uavoxievwheen I i\*o ginitou. DurJu^ tlie'liui «t-ufou hiuiv 
tiM-il Itj t_iov«i'tirot-ut (u a vaiiitui'iuoir uud uu SO men nro m>ul tu it. In Iwa ye«i>, uiily nut] 
rvgulitr expf'Uililuro Um lii'i-ii im-4iiivtl ilir-ro i ileaili |ier ariiiDm ocLUtrcil, niiU tliL-nt 
fur UiQ beiitffll of mty uliu» of iiivitlid!!, Tbti , were b<>pflt!&« tiulbio lUcy viiiiiu u|> to 
KCitU'tnniit iftulioul H-lOiicjiiiiri' riiil(»! in pxloiil:, liilb. Tlic r-^tvibili^liiiM-ul nmiiiiniittH r| 
■ml i-ontaini 32 tilt-d mikI u-nit<-'ii l-uiMiii};-, K«mnn>lioot^ in tlio (^unrUT Mii^u-r (triittrmt't| 
mill 1,3^8 tUilclH-dhiiuM^. Ao.i-ot'diiiK lo (lii^ l>t.>|uii'UtK-iil. nro '2 U'lit ItUfmrH auil >< tlooli 
«!iiSH?i o('IH.ifi-.*7. tltt'ii" WM a iK<[)uiiil(yD on l-^uvi-s roslinj* luiiMiitlly i'ui>«f(« "77, 
llie tiillfl of "lO Kiii'Dpcuiis Ninl l*jiet [iiilmas t-lio KAini* cxpfiiHU would tuive liitd u> 
and •'i,('J7 iintivr^. i'licHiiiiiiMl mveuiieili'i-iveil inciitrcit, if llit^ iiivalidrt had U-ni kt-pt wit 
from i-otii.'O ami otlicr rulllvHliuiiaaiouuird lu liii-ii' i-<-t;itiii-i)ls ou tlit; idnitis. 'I'lit- mnuliilj 
rnpc't-n 7,7^J, iiiolittllii^ thu fu>-i of cnlk-i-Lion, disliiincnicutH in llii; \*tiy l)t>)inrLini-iit an 
rttfx'*^ IWS. The oiitliiy, iiii-ludrng re|>«ir», ' rii|»ee» lil7-<»-!), lor on A^'-i>^mnt Siir};;M>a|| 
OH two rondii, 7 and IH riiiirs in k'n^'th, con- AMislunl A)iolli(r>'iiry, St'ijcnttl Mi^or will 
fllnii>l€)) frfim Salrtnand iMiillii[koor(irn williiii I'lunily Kllowaiit-es, (^nnrtoi* AliifUr Scijtrattl 
Uie luL ftFc ycat-F, hufi U'tn rupees 3I.8(>4, Uoe-pilnl Serjr:inl,ray8vijeanl, llvaU imniejr^ 
find nil unnunl «llowanro of niiHtv t,M70 litut wali-r for wiicliiufj;, U'tnpuniry proiuoliou op-] 
bfX'M Miicltoucd for lliL'it* mniuu*nuDi*c. The ^ coiJii)^ lo U)o inouihlv BUiniffili i>f dcladi* 
(;uvcrummit ftUo |ttutil<>(l a tuni of ni{iFi>s < nionl^ ai'cii^^o fi*r rcixiir ul road^', wribrr 
3,.>U0 lownrds tht) (■o.''L of a ilvrelliiig-ItoilM^ , mid »tiilii>n<>ry, 'J'ho I'mrninhdant liit$ iK^'til 
for the clergyman^ maiiitnini-'d on ihi- liill-* , VL-^u-d nilli tlti.* pi>w<*i>ur h dnim ^l«(;t^l^ltr,] 
I>J the Addilionat Cici'py Society aided liy | mid i.<r alluvrtU nu <'.-tiil>lisliHit'iiL,i>iipitu;; rit|H!u«j 
local »ub«cnpiions. A iKxly of 15 oiitiv*.* | -14 Hnionih. A l;Iuro|»-»n<;oi('<'iit>k> on lui* 
(■oDH(«bloa uL It robt of rti|io<i8 l,.'l.i(J per i -1^0 n yrni', and a I'olii-u iKirty of lo nirnj 
■iinuin nro Kintioned at Ycrcaud. Thcn^ aru i '^ft^iioi: amniMiljr rtipof^ 1,^00 will In: nuu« 
110 8fK>cial or lornt funds for llic iiu|>|H>i't uf [ titiiit'd at I^inAudn»o;{. Tlio I'SfwuM' of 
the Pnlii-t', nor nra ihcrn any govi-minMir l INi^t ( Xlicc ai (ids fiiiiiou i^ ywv mi-na«ni1 
tuildingH of iitiy kind <>n iho Sh^rvaroy hitU. ' rufH-'en 2*J. Kuniaiidroo): litu Xteeu occupivill 
A Deputy Colki'lur in uildilion Id liM K'^ncrnl I since JH(U. t'urly tn)U*ii of roads ati «|w| 
dulicft in the plaiiM, vl:4it'f the hilln ]n iijuc^- I pnHicheK to it, have lM?enraii.«lrui-lF*ial a toUlj 
tJon once » forluightf iu tlic ilinillp cajmcity j cost of lupuc? 23,J7H. Tho i*x|)ciua of inai^j 
of hiittrjct MoonsilT and Dppnty Maoj^ri-alc | uiuiuv rheftuapproaclipa lo rnpocs 790 \* 
for the dt!>po«al of Civil and Ciiminnl ruH:-r>. ! nuoura on tbe vvfmj;!: for tix yrars. En|>w«| 
I'bo full ino4itldy co»t of this oditXT and of | '2M Imve Ifcxii rx[iriidi><l on (lie roail.-^ niihia 
liix rsluldiHiitnciit U ru|>C(.>» 7(X)-4-0. { ihr auitioii* aud au annual allowancu uf ru[M<v4 

Rainnnclroag is a inililnry isaiiitarium, 34 ! IHO luut I>«i>m wiiiclioucil fui' kti-piug tbi-u rn 
milt!'* from (lie town of Udlnry. It t^ not | n'|uitr. 'J'ho nnutinl collcclionh at Knniaa* 
ahovc H tnilu square : is within th«i territ«>i-)' •Iruot; cri-tlitvtl (olhogovernuu-iit aiu fiuui (li« 
of ihn 1-ajnh nf Snondonr, to wlioin hi'l«nf;s thi> ICegiiliir I'okI t)lTic<-, PodtJi^o Slitni|iK, ratlll] 
lwr»nuo of the pliwe, derived from the hind, : liue^ Mugi-tU-rial tines. rii|K-es I. I.S7--I-0. 
<l|iiit-n-nt and ahkarry to tint oxti'ot ul i Xeilnherrtet in Coimbaiorr. — 7'l 
rtipr4>H 7o7 [h:'r niionm. nnmnndron^ is the , four sin tioiiH uii the Xeil(;l»'vri<'s, viai,, ■ ' 
<^ouvnlt«L1•nt di^pi'ii for ilio l-^irop^'AQ Trix>p« j mimd, WvlliugKw or Jorkutnlla, Coououraai 

nt Bf'tlary nnd Hydi-ralA-l. It ih alfo roMwied 

to hy oni<:cni aud tlie few other Kuropean 

l^Midciibi in the tieiKhlMtarhiwd. TliP nnlivB 

popitUlinn ifl poor and not numcroOA. Mniilhly 

«r«iK« of invalitlis M tuett, 4 vromiu, I CooDoor lUid Kotiit;h»ii7, by ol)jcrr«> 

8 elitldreiu IVrM>(i« nneonnectrd wilJi Uie I liuns, luul the uuu-olTiciat cbi^Mia. Tb« 

iuvalid^ do not DX<:eed 2 or 0. Tlic military | glionies whieb have heen oreupied 

Kola(;lieii'y. Oolncjitnutid ta the I'n-! •>> m 
priiicipal riation of Ute Nvilf^cn'jr tu: 
hull UQ oecoiuiOodaiiou for iroopn or li. •. 
but i» br|;ely (-(."aortnl to, in eommun 

building at the dep<'^t ro<il ru|>(Ki» t>'i.7tlO, 
aiid Ibo uou-raililary goT<iriiinpnt tmiidingf 
ahoy! I'liietfl 3,000. There arc Uiirim-ks 
, qmivtcrs for '2 Slalf Scrjriint* 
rd mr:i. I.i''^f''itnl f'M Iti pnutnt8, 
A| I ■>, readii)); 

per-^ ' _ ■ ■i-eco»eriM 

[U uu Uie lirooff out of Uu uuiubcr 


ls2ti, arc iu laot llie ouly runt-n on «rj 
Kui'openn frltlers aie etitahlisbctl io 
U0iuljt<r«.au>l (Im* revenue acuruin;!; lo goi 
meet, ru|- " '>. tiii' nioro than mi 

the KeveiMi ii.gisicrial cbai>;«ia cot 

ed witli tliualHLioua, Wellin^jtou ik nlmoat] 
elunively a Military Station aud Cantooi 
aud mubt o[ neocMicy be supporlod bjr 

^ UO 


OieDt. The total cost of militnry tiuilJ- 

WetlinglOD, beiug mainlj bHrracks for 
ropean r^imeot, is rupef^s \ 6,29,955, 
kt of tbe eleven miles of road witlnii tliu 

rupees 9I,003< The annual expense 
ping tbeae roade io t'epnii' is liupees 
—and that for r«pmiiug the roads lead- 
» WeilingtoD is rupees 2,H0O. The 
liture iu the Pay and Quarter Master 
ftl's Departments are fur an Assistant 
ec-ary, Hospital Serjeant wilh family 
m-es. Pay Seijeant with family hIIow- 

Ilead money, Cleaning Arm«, Wrir^rs 
tatiooery, Tindal and 21 Tent Lasearn, 
".tries anil 44 Beai-ers, 8 Elephants, 48 
s, 32 Draught Bullocks, I Bavnic-k 
lit. Wellin^'ton, or, as it whs then called 
lalla, wax formed in 1862. The mJli- 
»idents (luring the year 1864 numbereil 

men, 78 women and 70 chil-Jren. 
jgtoD is made an invalid depot only. It 

range of marriage quarters, affording 
ccommodatiun for 150 men. The num- 

Invalid .Soldiers and their families ao 
idatcd there within the lost two yeait* 
:es monthly a4 men, 10 women and 22 
■n. The cont of the Slilitary Joint 
trale's Esfablishment including contin- 
s is rni>ees 804 per annum. The 
le derived from quit-reut on huililing 
od compounds, and Aiisetjsment on the 

plantations at the four Hiations on the 
icrrics nmoonted in l860-[jl Io rupeesi 
—and that of the whole Neilgherry 
, from the above ns well at- all other 
V, to Uupecs 83,08o, including rnj>ces 
) of Income Tax. 
t-rent on building sites and cnmpound:j; 

IHDd 3,105 7 

- G4'J 15 10 



t, rorn- 
titTi a I 111 
of laiKl 

nd otli«r 
tiiinx lt«ld 



lan>l without 


135 > 3 

ICyutwar UnrKli- 

er rultivntiuD. H.Oia ; 4 

A)>kirry :ilA(»i u II 

MutUrfa I,77S 13 10 

Maiti|i fi.KVB 

Kxtni i.nati u I 

I'OrrVt \2,61S ! 8 

IncDDieTax Vi,',oi) 

tt,ke.%^8 13 
■ revenue and magisterial chargrs for 
me perio«l umounied to rupeua 27,3 47, 
.▼e of the pay and allowances of the 
ant Collector and of his estiiblii^liiiieut 
acamund. Forest charges arc not iii- 
i in the above, nor are those for the 
iastical and medical etrlablishmenlM, nor 
eouiit of the Ootacainund buli-conrt. 
lOlice force for OolacHmund and Wel> 
n, consisting of two inxiiectors and 
Europeans and seventy-tive native cnn- 
;s co!!t annually rupees 1 1,2K6. The 
', of gorernment buildings at the three 
jilatioui exclusive of the European jail 


at Ootacnmuud, 30,771 ; Coonoor, 2,612 ; 
Kotagherry, 752, is rupees 34,135. About 
lf3 miles of road have been made from tin)e 
to time expressly for these stations and Wel- 
lington, but the exact amount of expendiiure 
cannot now be ascerlained. The Seeghoor 
and Coonoor ghauls leading up to the plateau, 
were originally inado by the sappers and 
miners. In 1860-61, rupees 20,000 wero 
expended in improving the Coonoor ghant. 
The annual iillowances for repairing the roads 
are ; — 

' OotMmund, within llic station 3 WW, leading Io It <.R00 

[■oonoi>r „ „ too. ,. i.iM 

Kotagherry.. ,. „ 0, . 600 

The sum of rupees 1J500 per annum is 
allowed to the Collector for keeping in good 
order the bridle patlis uud cross roads on the 

Chindwarah.—M the sanitarium of Chlnd- 
warra in the Nagpore territory there is a 
i bari'uck for 60 men, and a hospital for two 
I patients. The monthly average of invalids 
I is 55 men, and an ostabliiihment, which would 
1 he mainlaiiiod even if the invalids were with 
I their regiments in the plains, is kept up in the 
j Quarter Master General's Depiu'tnieut at a 
I monthly cost of rupees 366-9-10, for 4 Tent 
! Lascars, 12 Dooly Bearera and 32 Camels. — 
I Capt. Bond, MSS. ; Dr. Mackenzie, Univer- 
■ sal Rev., Kn, iJ,p. 352; Col. St/kes" Report of 
' the lirilish Association for the AdvauremeMt 
j of Science ; Ind. Ann. Med. Set., p. 312. 

! SANATTA, or Santa, Hind., of liawal- 
i piudi and Salt liange, Uodouiea bunnau- 


SANAYASI, a religious mendirnnt of 

the liinduoH, chiefly a worshipper of Siva. 
SANBAL-l-IIlNDI, also Sanbal-ul-laib, 

Ah., Pers. Jatamantii. 

SAN BLJTI, IIiM>. Cassia obovata. 


SANCIII, a smalt village situated on a 
' low ridge of a sandntoiic hill, on the left bank 
I of the Bctwa, twenty miles to the norlh-eact 
; of Bho|»al, and about 5^ miles S. W. of 
, HhiUa. It contains the remains of numeruns 

biiddliist topes. About the beginning of the 

cliristian era, it was the capital of a kingdom 
^ called Saoaka-nika, and is celebmied lor the 
; presence of a buddhist tope. The largest 
1 lopes of the budd'hists, such as lliose of 
j ^fttichi, Satdharn, and Bhojpur, were con- 
; secrated to the Supreme Invisible Adi-Butl- 
I (Ihu. Of the memorial topes, little is at 

present known. It seems nearly certain, 
I however, that the great Maoikyala tope was 

of this kind ; an inscription was extracted 
j from it, whicli begins with Gomauga^a, " ot 

the abandoned body" and undoubtedly relcrs to 
IS 111 


Siikyii's almiKloiiiiieiit ofliis boily to aliiiiiyry religion is mcnIiomHi. Tlie inscription ig 
lion, 'l\i\^ lopt', llittieroiH, ilHien (.■tii'lier tlmii aJiJi-e^tieil lo tlie tii'amutia, or LmdiJIii&l privkU, 
tliu [xmIimI of Kti lli:iir.s Iiuliuii |)il<;riintijre in . ami hiiliitullou is ntti'i-cd lo the eturiial gt)it 
A. i>. 100. Tlie I'liiii^riil tu|H:4 wure of vuiiiiiu j uiid ^ud(k•!<!^<^s. The grcnt emperor Clum- 
llii) iim^L iiiiincioiiri, u-s tliey wuie liuilt of all di'iiguptM is mtfutioueil, chIIciI hy It'im eubjevU 
hizvH ttiid kiiiiU of inau-i'iul, H(;cui'<Jiti<r to tliv j Dovii Raja Imtru. Possiljly CliiiiidrajjiipU 
laiik of iliu ilei-<'am>i] »iul (lie m(.-»iii) of lii.-i ' 2ii<l, of the liliitari coliima iQM;riptioa. 
ti-alt-niiiy. At l!lit>j|>iii-, llitf tojics uc('U[)y : liiir, if^o,tie miistliavedeserled tlic religionof 
fniir distinct ftii<j;4-s or iiliitt'oniis uf lltt; liill. liirs family. The iusvi'iptioii recciniM H moaej 
The liir;;(;.sL topes, ^ix in iiiiiiiljcr, ocf-iipy Hit; i (■oritribtitioii, the coin L>ein)|; called " Diuar,' 
uppi-rmo-ji sliifjc, jind n-civ, i(, is believed, dcdi- ' and n grant of laud by the great emperor 
rtttcd 10 Iluddhii ; (Itat is, cithor to ilie celuH- ; t'liiindiniriiptti, for embellishing llic ckaiiyi 
liul Itndiiha, Adintiih, or lo tlie relics of tliu | and the snpport of five buddhidt priei'ts lor 
iiiorlal Hnddhn, Stikya. Tliis view is borne ever, and it records the i*emarkui)le tiict of 
out by the fact rliat (lie Iar;^(-»L (o]>c con(uined tiie purchase of the ground by f lie emperor 
no di-|io>il, and ihat (he sccottd and third-; fur the at the legal rale. It is un* 
sixcil topes yiiddcd ci-ysljil boxen, one of , certain whether the tSaiiivat iu the iortcriptim 
whti-li, shii|>cd like u tope, contained only a ' is that of Vikramdityn ; it Ik mui:b lowt 
niiiiiite portion of human letiie ^niHller than , likely to be a buddhiat family el's. 1l H 
a jM'H. Tim gateways of the Sanehi 'J'oi»e . said, " Whorto shall destroy the structure, hit 
beloiitr to lire Hist lialf of I he tirst century of sin shall be as great, yea five tinieB nn greil, 
our era. Tlie Aiuravati scutptureti are ti(H) j ua that of the murder of u Brahman." Si 
yearx later than thoue at Saiichi, but the | that the Brahman was at a dif^rouiiC of fin 
frescoes in the Ajiintn eaven are ?(>0 years i hundred per eeiit. compared wilh the buddUi4 
later than Amravali and U.'ioiig lo the time j ehuitya ! I'Vom Uio corruption indicated 1^ 
iintnediaddy precM-din;; the decline of bud- the salulatioii to the eternul gods aud god- 

dhiiiui in India. (Jf the inseri|ilioiis tit SanchJ, 
one is in I'tili, of<', b. <;. 40 'f but the 
Samvat IS ni;iy not be of the era of Virra- 
iitfulifYii. The eliaraeter used in inscriptions 

desses and the alphabet used, the inscnplioq 
i.4 probably not older than the eighth eenlaiy. 
A tici:ond tiiRcripliou, on the buddhist tem{rfi 
at Suuclii, is in the Kanscrit^aud the characUf 

is l)elwi.><Mi Allahiihiiil, \o. 2, or Kaiion.) Na- used in the iii9criptioii,itt the name as the otiicr* 
gari and I}<-lhi Lai, or old I'ali. The bnddhist The reti<j;ion meulioned is nudtlhist : it roflV* i 
rcli>^ioii is nieiitioned as also king Chanda- i tions the holy mouastry of Kakunada JSplidat '-' 
cutio, in I'uli ; (.'haiidragupla in Sanskrit. ! nn<l the four Buddha are thrice named ; ia4 ' 
Very numerous inseriplions arc upon the i iina^res of four buddha ure in nicheii. There * 
basement of a prodigious chaityii, or relic i arc no kinirs or princes mentioned, TliJi ; 
temple, of a hemispherical form, built widi- inseription records that a female devolei^ ^ 
out ceni'Mit, whose circumference is oo-l feet, | I]ai'i.swaniiii), to jfrcvent Ix'gging, cantied u ' 
and, fHlleii as it is, its height is (ttill 112 feet, , to be erected, and money waft givra .' 
'I'lieie are thrt.-e gateways, eiaii 40 feet high, '■ for the lamps of tlie foul Buddlm ; so lJial| ' 
C'apt. Kell tliuuglil (he «lu(e to ite Stimvut IH, i at, tliis p'Tioil, as Ka-liian states, luore thai 
or H. i:. The splendid has reliefs rcpi'e-'^ent ; one Buddha was wor»hipiK-d. The uuioerab ' 
the deilicalion of a cliaitya. Tlie emperor of (he date arc nut understuotl. ' 

CiiHiidagntto lutys land for the buddliist (em- . Inscriptions '<i lo 2'7, on the buddliisttcmplt ' 
pte, ami pays for it iu dinars ; atid killing ii at Saiichi, are in old I'ali, of dale before Um ' 
braliniin is not an great a iM'inie by live-fold fifth century. The character used in iiiaeril^ 
n* (he Inking iiway (lie hind from llie temjde. lions, vary troiii Lai lo Allahabad, No. 2* or 
It is lo be observed of ihe tignies making i (iaya. (Jifu to (he charity are recorded, hill 
olti-riiigs Iu (he chailya that (lieir appearance , no kings or princes are mentioued. All ' 
in exaetly that of most nini'i-rii hindoos : the itiseripliorm ure in theeharaclcr of Allali^ 
ilressed in a dhot<,'e round (fie loins and tliighs, ' bad, No.2,orliayH, therefore before the eighth 
aud nakr-il from tlie wuisl upward, with a ! century, aud they are of different ages : tJiOT 
tuibaml upon llie head. retuird small gifts by bnddhists to ihe ehMtJI^ 

On ibe bnddhist temple gateway at Sauc:hi, particularly by different eoinmunities of 
Hear BhiUa, in Ithopal is an ins<;ription in { bnddhists I'tom Ougcin ; and there is a rega-. 
Saiisei'ii prose, of dale, Samral 403, or i lar progression in the form of tho letter^ 
KK)!) or ifi 'f 'I'he same, Sanivat IS, is men- from the simple outline to (ho mora cmbel- : 
tioiied in the inscription at Unihnieswarn, but linhcd lypo of the second alphabet of Allafaft* 
the character 'n* of tliu tenth centnry. 'I'ho l>ad. 'i'lirci- forms pervade all (he ninas* 
ehnnii-ier used in ihe inscription is evidently menlsof Sanehi and Amravali ; (I) tiio Utpn 
lulei ihuu Allahabad, No 2. Tlio huddhiiit ' or Suidiii, oiouud-liko buildiug-i erected Sat 

112 H ]\i 



itioo or relics : (2) tlie Chiitya. 
II \u furia 8U<J pui'puKB, ifMiiDble 
rtoioui Chiirt:bt:a I {H) tlic Vtban^ 
uf prieeU aitO niook^. 

of ICabol ami Jullnlnbarl wera 
Mewn. I{oniK')er);ei' and Ma)!>sou 
thcMe botw»*u the Iii«Iu> au<l Uie 
Djr Gmit-rate VcniiiiA nud CourL iu 
l*i^4. Tha to(>es lu'Mr Benares 
CtiiiiJinu;lmiii in IHS't, 
'111 other pluce^ arouoij 
tmiao <>{M'iie<l \iy liim niid Lieut. 
January mid Ktltniar/ of m-'>7. 
of Tlrfaul aud Bnliiir lOilt remiiia 
iioiued. Tlie HIiiImi topcti Uuve 
ribfij 1)^ Majnr CiiatiiQgliani except- 
buge»l at' iJiu Sandii group oear 
fAn acniiniic plau and K».:tio(t ol' 
log, wjib a aitort atxouiit of the 
ibJMta rcpreKoii ted in llie ecuip- 
Ucf« of itie gxtojwayii. was pub* 
CaplAtii J. I), CuaujughaiD, iu 
"■ ABialJc Society of Bt-uyal. 
jtud to lliec«le9Llul buddba, 
,ti t*ciiij; who jKTvndi's till fi)iaco, 
wiki pinde, but the DiWne Spirit, 
i* Liglil," wae 8uppOM.'d Lo occupy 
>r, and was l^pilieJ on ibo outride 
luf eyr^ placed ou eanb of the four 
uf tliH hiLse, or of itie nowii of the 
luch ia the great Chnitya or To|H] 
liuiaudu, iu Nepal, dedicated tu 
luoaili tlie " Solf-KxiKteut," in 
9yt» are placed ou the upper 
l^e tiuildiug. A i^pei-imeu uf 
^r Chaitya in rcprw^eutcd in the 
tut (iuiier face) of tliu lefl- 
|r of llie uaatem gnle at Sancbi, 
Ifao cwc eyee are placed oiio'e 
Sucti aI»o mn lUe aumeiouH Chod- 
lilict, wliiidi are dc-dioutcd to the 
kuddha. in cotilrsdistriictiou lo the 
wliiitli are built in honour of 
BuddhA^, and which ought ta 
i>- t-iLiuiiH of Uieir relicn eiUier 
Ctiod-tvu, means eitDpIy 
^ >^i the Uoity, Duti^-leo, u 
u'slly ■ " Ihwc," or ivlic receptuclo. 
drBtiuclion h pfeMrvcd in the 
crm CUaitya aud Dliatu|;arbha ur 
The fomior ttt properly ji religious 
licaled to Adi-Buddlia, while Uie 
ily a "rnlic-fibnne," or i-epo?<itury 
TV wopd (Jltaityu, however, 
ha 't — ail a tree, an altar, 

-a* liny inouunifut raised 

v( a iuuvral pile, aa a taouud 
Cliaitya may llierufore, perhaps, 
a Kcncr^l k-rra for both kmds of 
rbile DbalugarbUa or Dhogoba ia 
rauictol to iho '* relic" &hiioc. 

The word Tope i.i derived from AfTghaniiilau, 
whore it m U!«J to de^ipuula a!l the solid 
TDouDds of nuisonry wbU'b vreie opeoed by 
MeKsri. Ilonigborger aud MasMU. The same 
term al&o U applied to the massive lower of 
Maoikyala iu the Punjab, as well aa to all the 
Biualler towers iu iU ueigbourbood. There 
caa be uo doubt therefore that the term Tope 
is the fuiiiie a^ thu Pnii "Sthupo," und (be 
Sanskrit " Siii|i8," a "mound'' or "tomalns," 
both of wlii(!li lerma are of conKlJUit use in tJie 
buddlii:<l liooks. Htu|>Ji, or Tope, is liicrefore 
a QDtDQ coninion to each kind of tumulus ; 
w)u^th»r it be the eolid temple dedicated tu 
tlio Supremo Being, or tho masslvo mound 
erected over the relics of Sakya, or of ooe of 
hie more eminent followers. From several 
pasfiaices iu ilic J'ali buddhistical annals, it 
would appear that topeii were in exi^tenco 
prior to Snkya'a idveut, aud that Lbuy were 
objects of much reverence to the peQple. 
S^ikya himself especially inculcated the maiu- 
teniiiice of thoso ancteul chaitya, und the 
coutiuuauce of the accustomed oQerings nud 
wor^'iiip. In the sixth of hiu precepts, lo the 
people of Vuiiwli, be etijoiod Uiem to main- 
tain, respect, reverence, and make oScringn 
to tho Chaitya ; aud to keep up tlie ancient 
offeriogii without dituiuutiou. But this may 
have been only an adherence in his own 
doctrines to the exisUtig belief of the people. 
Mahomed similarly r«uognieed the prophetic 
mibsiuuit of Aluecs aod KLia», end the diviuity 
of our S&viuur Cbrial, aud Sakya Muu! 
nnkiiowledged the Iioty muni KarkuLsauda, or 
ICarkuchanda, Kan:ika, and Kasyapa, as lua 
immediate predecessorB. Tbey wmu probably, 
licroc» or haints, who had obtained tho res- 
pect uf their fellow-countrymen duriug life, 
and their reveroniw after death. Stu|>as bad 
been erected over the relics in the neigh- 
bourhood of Kupila auJ of Benarea. Sakya 
therefore accepl<:d them in his own teaching 
ou his owu sy.-^tem as the Uuddhas of a 
former ago. It up[>cars also that slupa^ had 
heeu ercetetl ovt-i- aupremo mouarcha prior 
to Sakya'ii adventr for Sakya particularly 
informs his disciple Anauda tlint, over Iho 
remains of a chakrnvartt raja, an imperial 
ruler, tliey build Lbu Sthupu at a spot wbci-o 
four princi|utl roads mecU It is clear, there- 
fore, that the t4>pe, or " tumulus," was a 
cominon fnim of tombs at tliut period. In 
fact, ibe tope aa its name implies, is notJiing 
more lliati u regularly-built cairn or pile of 
etouc^, which was undoubtedly the oldest 
form of funeral raomento. The topes were, 
ihorofure, of three distinct kinds; 1st, the 
Dedicatory, which were consecrated to tho 
Supreme Buddha ; 2ud, tlic strictly Funereal, 
which t-oulaiued the anhes of tho dead : and 

S 113 


3rtl, lh« Mfmnrinl, whkli were built upon 
- celcljnitcJ ![iotd. Aa lu Uio Duilicatory Toptw, 
is haprobuble that utiy <Jc|M>»it vrniiM be 
plftrc<l iti ttieiD. — Cunuinghnm, in Bengal 
AsiiUic Socirtif trumlntiou, Vols. 'n\, p, ^HH ; 
vi, pp, 454-461 } vii, p. 459 ; Fraier'i 
Mttffiiziiie ; CuvHint/fiam'n Bhitta Tovca. 
Bee fiLojpur, Buddlia, laKripUouis SoDori 

SANCQl-BETA, Bbmo. Calamus rotang. 

SASCirVA. M^e Sntikliyn, Veda.-, Vitlyo. 

SANCllYA, UiNU. VVbiio oxido of 

SAHCTUARy, B place oTrefoRe, or wfely. 
liQftO lure be«n estAblUbed id mot^t coontries, 
allow of nllrged crltnitmlK muiI dtiblors 
CBcapltift from [tutnctttflie puni.'^bnictK, and 
ndtuttof lt.-ioui-e]y cxaraitiatiou iuto tho menu 
of (bcir case. In ouc of tlie^c, iu Ivjijpu* 
tjmab, wluiterer life, wboiLi^r moa or nuiuiul, 
pssscil iJitiir wljode Jw llip porpwo of buiiig cUudiw*. ncso-, Malat, 

SANDA, a ivirt uf liznid in Ajmlr. 
iff dHliUufJ aud ihu pro<lucinpp1ioi) by inof 
medaiia to tbo peais : iho reptile U 
mU-ii tiA nu upbrodUiac. — Gen, Med, Tcp^i 

BANDaCUES, DiFlnttfl iuCVyloQ wh( 
differ from tlioso csIIl'J Pmutia, in being 
dcd wiib f(roupB of timbei* troes of 
diin(»ii!ii«iin4. — Ttnnant. 

SANDAL, HiKD. Fnuiooa souitlic 

SANDALE. Kr. SnnJalwoo.]. 

SANDAL HOLZ, Gut. SaodAlwood, : 
SAiindrr'n niiod. 

rcddif-li browu colour. 

SANOALO, It. Saudatwood ? 

SANDALO ROSO, It. Suidolwoo-J, i 
Sftumlur'* wood ? 




kitlod, waseavcd (■nira). 'rinilui^ tu llio t?tate, 
rnbljerK, fetoiiii escaped couAiieuicul, wlio may 
fly for aaocluury (t^inm) to the »lwclliii(is 
(iiptt'ia) of the Yati, itluill uot iticre be Buizvil 
by (Lo servants of tli« court, ^k•e lUkt. 

SANCUt tJAKS. A gnomon for astrouo* 
micul purposes. ']1io pUbm which are 
enxtvd iu front of every pagoda are r«a) 

S.\ND, profmrly. is graaalar luarlz, iilica, 
or tAnU tito chief ingicdrent in ibo .-».;« of 
ibe dc«erta, oca-chores, river bauks and soil. 
Sftiid ifl produced by tlio dUiutegratloti of 
rocks, and itn colour, which is g^'ucnilly 
imparted by oxide of iron, may be red, wJiite, 
grey, or binek. The pur« colotitk'ss eniidit 
ara much !u rrque^t for (he nmnufuclui-e of 
Cln^Hi ahn f(7r making mortal?, for filU't^, 
lu the oporatino of casiiiid uml fonnrlin|r. 
In uwinv and snioolhin^ buiMing sdmr** nnd 
nmrblrH, nud in mntiy ^ritidin<; nnd |mlishhi>* 
opvraU(>R9. ItiviT nnd pit sand aro ut-uully 
•harper ihnn »^a i>nnd, fi^ ibitt liiin been 
mnudiii by minciun. 'I'lio waMbcl t^L-ni pings 
«f rrmds iirliich hiivu been repairc«.l willi (liiits 
riirT>iib the B«i>d iiseO by stone mn>inii<). 
ftrinditiuiv dost, fm-nicd during ibo liiming 
of the cnod^lriui* into fortn, cuUt d<-p|>t>r tlian 
Flnndrrn brii-k. wPiii-h is nnttibcr form in nhicb 
sjiihI !<• u*vi\. Shotvi'i-}! oftBud fell in Chit)ft,tiii 
I .i), and hiAtcii 'yS 

n t<>iis 1^ I <r.|iinie 

fif^Hi-nl — ihrff! \ 

. dm nii*ivea Iwlieve ibHl ' 

iiin llw deiert of fi«)bi,- i 

. 1S.'.n ; IU.Am rr„nM.,\ 

Tlrii»t ; TumttMiom. See 


ill l-LU d4V, ••! 

mill'. Stjrh 

SiutiU-kn, liuRU. 

IVli fllicn-fcin, ClIlS. 

T.iM-hlnus, ,, 

riiin-uti. „ 

Kiju-vmlaB, Och-Chis. 
&n<lnl, ltBNt<.,lH'ii ,E5n., 
(iVL, llltiti. 

SAIukdA, VtL 

Umiklo, It. 

Ki>t.«hMlilKB, IllNU. 

Ruidnl ««l«d, IIIM. 

aanJan, tinxtiL 

SliMtdJws 3i*jj(. 

ChiuiilkDuii, TaM., Tai^ 
Ohudarmpa dl«ltu, Tki. 
'DunUiui, Tim. 


Aywti, , 


NftMMU, N. 

NpU>«I Tuim hi 

Bni-nm, Miir^ba 

HiftU, a^ndwiidi li 


Aitu intnll, 

Tfarti, AniMloiR 



Tnri-Tun, OpuQ Ii 

Many of the nynonyms for (his woini 
beeu derived from the Sunst-ril lliu Irttcnj 
<tA of tbnL tijn;:nii tieiiig rt)nvfrtinl inlri s, at 
ir. One Itind i» th« proiluee of n Ftiiiitt ti«tl 
(Sniitidum ulbum) growing in India muU 
Ceylon, wbii-b gives iu liile lo thr ni|T<jnf^ 
order of pliiuUi called Sanlntoei-fR n 
wor(.v I'be t^Aiididn'ood of the N 
tilnmU IK from two otlier ppO'i<?s of the 
fnmily, S. frcytrioelianum atid S. panirulnnnflJ 
My the Cthin(.-sc it it ground into piiwtli 
and U«cd M a cosmcliu. Tlie trcw 
fiwly among the tnounlitiufl of Mi 
ntitr the itea ccuut, wheuce CiiK-utra 
tHiiis hrr Kupply of Mmdalwoml, aud 
Timor nnd the F'(]i ixtands, frt>in wht 
Chimi derives lier cbit;f ^upply, Tbo 
i» rut down whrn nbmit ii iiiebes ia 
meter nt ibo root; it is tli^u cli-arrtl ati 
bulk nnd cut into logs, which are biiri* 
>tx weeks or two months in order 
while niil>i 0]ay clear off (bo ouIltwooJ 
ibey do mnut effetiltinlly, witlmiit lOttI 
iho lirftrt o( ibo tree, which is (be only 
able pari. 8audalwtx>d i>faauld be of a 
deep yellow-brow D, tm4 highly perf 




ftwntgn iiuportiition of lUiii ivooU into 

' r i« IflXI tutiA (fftr auuum. Tbc CliiiieiK* 

I nn uuiMunt u( pan'luIwcMl iu IS3K 

Mijih J Uiindreil BuU fil'ty Lbousxiuil 

^flHilant, ! 'nij tn l>p itiiulilpil iu i>acne 

■.. Kiiropc JH very aroall 

thifU 111 tliui wliiiJt liAfl b#«D 

toT«r iiy uitlivitJiinU wUhoiit n virw to 

It h mucli uffit in luilia atul 

for burning iti ti-iaitlrf, ia tixtvamwly 

»t a pcrfumL' iu tlio ruricnil ci>i-c- 

uf itiv }>iuiKiO0, fur ca)>iuet-work, toyis 

at)*l pi'rfaroe^ SomlolivoiMj is irapDrlotl 

Bombay from ttie Malubar Cooat, unJ 

•-• -H ht Cliinn, Kn^lniiil aodCatruIla. 

'! of ivliitc ^iindulwooil, irrnit'J 

\ iir iMwa, i» it]][Kirli^-J into Bombay 

LIrao iUnzttuirt >t)i) U np)ilie<l tn Uie Mine 

MitlaliAr sAiiiliilwoo<l. The deeper 

ir, wbirh h III' a yttllow-Iu-uwn, uml 

iMaror the rtvjt, the belter is Uiu pvc- 

ifc. MaUljor piCHiucej) tliu ftncst ^uiiJnl- 

Uit it in oUii fnuui] in Cpyloa bikI itie 

Sr» i(itaii«l9. It is importftil iulo ICikjc- 

ID trimmnl In^ /nioi 3 to S und i-arnly 

M kicbcK in diAiuctcr, tiio wooil i& in gvitfiiil 

[tt6tr than bos-wuol antl c««y to cut. Tlio 

»•■»■« 4 rnoal beantiful red orlighl rlnift- 

, bat it fttden Almost immediately 

ijrt-u HB a KUDpic infiiaion : iu Uitj luitiil& 

oi iba experiBoeed dyi>r, it tnl^lil, ii is Hup- 

^^McJ, be vory ui^eful. Two kiuds of llibi 

are however known in coininerr^ — tlie 

lirMte' and llic yollcw ; both are fiom tlio 

Imnp (rret the furmf^r being Lhtt outer lavc^rft 

I«r0i« wnnd. TlkC vrhiteeiuidulwood Jscoutud 

rkb tlitck, cnaipncl bark, having a gray ami 

[■hw w iah eiMdennia ; the wonl is very biird, 

IT, w*<^l>tiMc of n finp polish. It occurs 

-i£e, ia opftHy iiioduruus, 

lMte-_- :_ -..--ly bitter. The yellow, 

cstniB tauilntwiKNl, u titrfli^rbt or twiKlo^l, 

' E||jiwr than waiter when lakeoi from Uib iruuk, 

hmvwT it frotn tho root5, in yrllow, fuwtw 

t^levnrd, or mdtliiih biltfls, Kligbtly liliiuiug, 

•f alddllDft bardrtcfw, tnking a duo \>n\hh, 

tod being very na»ily clei't. 'I'ho odour of 

■adalwood i* Tvry fitrnnc, ro&c-liki-, mid 

ill-. — fli-rbtly biitpr. The wood 

!||f the I . alba i» in-va^'ioaally bulwti- 

tat«d for Uiu uoo BWdal. Tlio v«tonr is 

Atm ta Ui« imtsdue of an OMontinl oil, 

tmrivr tliun wni^r. readily con^^aleJ. and 

iiavisf a peculiu- Hwcot Mnell. Sandalwood 

H wxwsu'neiy Died by cabiuct-inaker^ for 

ika rabricRtion of vnrioas nrtirles ul* omn- 

DMlal foniilurc. TLo oil is employed by 

tka Eoropf^n prrfunicrSt aad in India h 

very exlouaively uB«d for the ailult«riitioD of 

UW of rt«e9- The wood in powdLT is giveu 

ferFre,iinJ Is suppcwcdtobe sedstiro and cool- 
iu;; ; willi milk it is bIko |ti'es:crilK?d in 
^uoiTlicua. The powder is nibbed ou tliQ 
skiu to nllay Ihi^ irriuition of nHi»()iiito bilus, 
of prickly licat, and olhor cuiaiitioub disorderfl. 
Tbc Cliinciw consume it lart'oly uk a lituc^ 
wood and hy rhuu it in offuu Ldi'^rnnlly t?nrvril. 
At ihc Miidnis Kxhibiiion of IHS.% n l-ox 
exliibilcil by Mrs. WdkiPwui, was n Irt-niUiful 
HpcciinOJi t>r finiidalwf.vHl piir\ing. Tho ligi]r(.-N 
and uriiamcult) were taktn from tJie triil|i- 
tariisii ill tbe ciileUmlcd tem^ilc of 11 n I- 
lnb(?de in Mysore, tlicy were Iwldly aud 
deeply cot aud well-fiiii»lii>d. The wmk 
was rxL-catt-d und<-r tho dirocttou ttt ('»{»• 
taiu Cunnin>;bnin of t)ie Myf)ore Conuuia- 
eiou oud wita carvtrd by ii native of 
Soornb, from carvful drftwitiKS prcpnivd 
exprcMly for the puriio&c. Soniu wry i!rt?<lit. 
able spocimeua nf carvcil i^nndnlwoiMl 
wore exhibited by tho Banjralorc Local Coui- 
miltee, of tlieso tho moKt depcrving of nniiro 
wt-m two largf? and twn siniill boxes cnrcfolly 
iini^htid and varied in the design ; but not t-a 
bold iu relief a.1 lliu Imx from Soorub. Tlic 
Bungal'Jiu Local Coraintticc also exhibited 
two ronewond carved boxes very similar in 
design to those made of candalwood. The 
ornaments were ftll floriated, wiihout Itgnres, 
and clearly cut, but the gvnernl cHcct of the 
work was spoilt by the deep gronnd-wnrk 
being dolfod inntead of Iwin^E left fiat. The 
Cnnnni l^wal Committee contributed a well- 
curved sandalwood nUeM talde, a undid of a 
hinduo our, and sunin neatly firii»Iicd boxes, 
one of which was itibid with ivory and metal. 
Mrs. James Fia»er exhibited two card casca 
and a work box carvoil nt linnjiim, a district 
where the manufacture had Ih«u recently 
inU'oduced. Wcll-carvcil aandalwood chow- 
ries were exhibited by Lady MoDtgoraery 
and tho Madras Local Committee. Mr. 
Mep{>en nontrihuted snndaUvood bracelets 
and crochet uccdlc-holdcrs made near Cud- 
door in MyBoro, and Mrs. Bonrdillon, a box 
coniaintn<r fsiidnlwood knitting pius and ellk- 
windeiB. Tho art of carvinif in pandnlwood 
though crnditablB to tlio nntives of liidin, as 
evincing care aud loborioua industry, owes ita 
chief value to tho f|iiaintne.i8 of ttio designs 
and liic clnlioralo nnture of tlie work. Ai a 
branch of the fine nrts it can lianMy itc ranked 
under the lieiiil of carving, as many of The 
fpecimcns are Itttic more than ornamental 
surface, thowtug munh of the plain re^tanglo 
in ihu leading forms and little originality of 
invention. The chiof markets fur this maim- 
fni'tun-, arc Chicaeole, Hyderabad, Vtzaga- 
palnm and Travancore. 

In any uutice of NiiidnlwnntI it tit necitMry ta 

ttf lli£ aaiivo pbybicUna in ardent reisittJug remcmbtiv that Uireo wood», dcaignated white, 
US S 115 



yellow nut] t-eJ, aro so cttWoH. The white ami 
yellow u from the Snutaluin album. PUrro- 
iiii-pus wntaliDiiF, Linn., or SunlJilnm rul»- 
rtim. Koniff., rurnif^hcs the red t^nndal nr ml 
fauiic!cr*« wood of commerce, »nil S. FiTyciue- 
)iniMira aad S, imiiUrulutum, givij tlie Miadul- 
wwds of cho South Sta Islutids. Santaliim 
lilltuui i» fuuud III aliuudniiRe m Mysore ntti] 
Cnunra, !» rcmurkniilc for ila ngrct-able frii- 
grntice ; it i-* « preserralive ag«iii«t iltiwrt* : 
i» rouch iiaed In initltiiig wmk Imjxpji, walking 
sticks, pua bolder^, and other smnll articleB of 
fine omnmeot but cannot l>o pi-ocurmt of a 
large aizo. Oii diflerrnt orratiiouf^ while !>!•. 
Cleghorn was Irawlling down the Ciinir 
ghaut be met partifis of Mapilla with frt-Bh 
cut saadalwood on (heir backs. On enquiry, 
bo ascertained that thcxe men barter llic wood 
to the Kunitnbar fkirsaltfi^h and coco«niitfl. 
It sells in Loudon at i'5-15 to £6 the ton. 
JvlU iu China at £3'i the (on. The nalivtm 
of Yap, the Isle of PJrie-t and Marco irafBc 
with ships for tho ^andnlwoiHl. Timor ia 
the only country in tlie Ka^lcni Ar<;hipelago 
wliichprodoi^esit inanyquantily, priecxl 17». 
6<t. pev 133^ lbs. Au inferior kind of f^andul- 
wood, the pro<lace of Exocarpus latifolia waw 
met with in several loealitiw,— an tlie Percy 
IbI«, HepulM Bay, Cape Upstart, I'nlm Is- 
lands, &c. — Tsmtintnn ; Tre/igold ; Ainstit; 
aSk., p. 532 : Crawfnrd, p. 37.', ; .\f. A\ J. 
X.; JUarr/ittirray't t^ei/atiP, Vol. it fP ^'7- 
8 ; Bombnij Fore$t Htf^orlt nf 1857-58-59- 
60, j». o7 { Report of Mailrna t'oiixerrattve 
n/Fareits, pp- 7. 44 ; Poole, St of Comm, 

called also Suinlm and Snndelh»iil, and by 
the natires Jeendana, ii of middling height. 
Its west end i^^ in Nu 9*42- S., and long. 
IIS* 3' K. ttod Tapt point, ita ea."tci*H extre- 
mity is in lat. 10* S., and long. 120' 53 
E. See Papuans. 

Sun^al-kiiUI, lliyi). , Cbaa(Un& jreniwi. Tau. 

SaodalwQod oil ti> higlily valuvd aa a per- 
fume by the nutive^ of India; and is em* 
ployed in llje aduUei-atton of r>tt>> of roHes. 
It ia chtc0y made ou tlio Mnlubar Coast, 
whence it 14 brought to Bombay, and re- 
exported to Cagland, China, and the Ai-abian 
ud Feraion (Tulfa. The exports froin Mad- 
ns, tmouQi auatuUly to about 100 cwt.— 
M.S. J. R, 

SANDAN, HiHD. Dalbcrgia ougdneoria. 
also Oni^iuis dalburgioidtu. 


Araa. I SwtJrM, Skc. 



elongated tenrA, of a whitish or pali 
yellow, brilliiiol, ti-aoRparcnt and limpul, l>ril< 
tie nnder the leeth, burns with R cU-nr flame. 
iinil emits a pleasant odour ; la^tp resinottf, 
and slightly bali<amir. It is used aa an ingre- 
dient in rarulsboB and inrenne : when re' 
dueeil to a powder, it forms the artii-le M* 
thi pounce. Saudarach if obltuneJ (root 
AhinxTO. Thif^ reiiin is said by !>ome writfi 
to exude in hot (;litnat4^ from the hark of tbv 
cotninon jnni|wr-tree (Juniperus commubiKp 
OtherH fitato it to be prmlueed by anothar 
ti-ee of the pine tribe oftTTed- Thuja aruculaia, 
but accordiitg m Urongniart and Schouf>1>firv 
it in t<>ari< of the CalHti'is r|iiadnvaWis aUo 
coniferous tree. Dr. Liiidley had f^een 
plank two feel wide of this snodtirmi'h 
which in ltart>ary, is called tlie ' arttr' 
The wood i.t fOiiKtdered by the Tnrka in 
trucliblr, find they ufe it for the crilin, 
and Hoora of their moM^uea. The Ci 
wood of tho Uumans, was extinvngantly 
prized for tables : and is supposed to havs 
been the Callitm quadrivslris, Vent-^ or 
jniuled Arlmr vita<, the conifer which yirldi 
the gum SHodarach. The wood was disrin* 
guitthed OS striped " ligrinn ;" spoltml '*|nrv- 
theriiia;," or .speckled, apiaia? : Cicem g«v 
£9,0Olt for a citrus wood table. — SaulAner 
Tvmliitaon; O'Sh., p. 621 ; Po€>le Si. uj 
Commerce, p. 72 ; Uoitg, Vfj/tUt&le Jiimgd., 
p. "13; Smilh, 3Tat. Meet., C'Aim., y. 193. 
S.\NUAKi, Hixn- MtsKiessyn bypolenea,: 
SANDAWA, hiao MeeiuineDtah, Haut. 

M]uarrosus, Linn,, knotrn to Europeaot h 
i\\c. dcMgniition of " Ground Kjiltau" iind "Sw 
Pink." The Tamil name, Ravan miric, *. «■» 
whii^kers of Itavanah, is a deaeriptire epitbetv 
It comes near to the Sand Carer of Eo^ 
land, in it^ habit of growth, creeping aloo 
horizontally, nometimes above, snmetioi 
below the snrfuee of the e«rth, emitting 
and shoots at abort interrata of a few inebc*..' 
It likewise poaMeaea the ailvautngc of being ex 
rrcmely icnaoious of life ; the sbooi at erery 
node is aipablc of renewing the existence oS 
the individual u fnint aa deatroyed, and the 
whole plant offvrs a resjataaec to the effrrij. 
of a storm which is rarely orereome. This 
B{>ec.ieH would be nearly m indesiractibt* 
from tiatiiralcan»es as Couch grasa. and wa«M 
»pee<tily colonize tha sand traoia spontan 
ly, if It were only left nnmolestcd for m y> 
or two. 

Ipomosa jMfs-capnR, Sn'fet. Mofnt taylM^ 
Ta«. Goal's foot leaved Ipmoa, or •• Rabbi 
wtjod."* Pereuuial, ci'eeping to a very 
extent. Stems rooting &! distant to 


A rvaiuuo* sutHtaare met with in rouad or I Leav«a smooth, luog petiole^, two-Iobed, It 
no' 8 IIG 



of BaaliiDEt. tlppetl with a o^ftcro. | thickets anJ hfiHiotin; TPoumatiR roptil<>«. 

Iai^, iV(I(lt!<li purjili*, wry lionil- 'I'lie InmU iu which Chnj* rooL In cullivntet] 

UomtDoo on tiw ^antly Iwiu-ti nnrili , are orteu protected IWrfii drift emul Uy iiii*jtit.<t 

itb of Slaitiiw, whuiT it in of {fl^nt um | of iJiifi fliiuU. |i iq n very >ilmng hiiiilt-r, Lut 

liD^ the IiHiM«wi!jd, srnl inlimerpiidMing , i.'t nlijei'lionablo from its rai^'iDj; Dniitl-hilU. 

ri«i(Iy tijifil* to t.Mr Rmss, Tlii» fiae , Khretia aroiiiiriu, San-l-KhiTtin, fJriffit/i^ 

h r>;i:iilly nhitiiiliiul 111 lM>th Jii'iimi^ll- is fuiinJ IwlweJ'ii \'J' Uild 2^" S. L, ImikU 

I nnlivc of Mauriiiux, Macao, tocptlicr )oq<« miu(I, iit a rnitioi' Jxifivc it 

''J, the I'lacH of C. sulilmiella of mny Ik^ (lit- *^iint< a>' Khtviia nineulM V IViifht 

iluiii cua^l, and a more Htritcing uiiJ l lettH.^ Vnl. iv, t, 138.^, which frrow^ on ^^ud 

fgi !ipM:iea of the tropical LiuU- 
i» rmrrly evtju. Kahbits, goals, aud 
eat it, »o «lo eon-8, but their milk in 
ilttL Grmt Jifliculty otrtiunt iu ratKitig 
lUnt in the ricinitj of linuncB — n« the 
liaats tl-cflil it Uowq, aoil cHttle uibble 
Iteiidfr f'huntA. U naturntly takes a 
position 00 th« sand-bank than the 
■iifTei> U--.-^ iiiiuryJui'iug;a*toiii), 
:i gniw injiuiiier ami <;nnjoiiilly 
UiUL'li ueiiefil. The Spioifvx arreslH 
riAiag eaoJ, anil tlic IpomnNi f>ccurott 
lih« rortoer colk-cts, Mr. CaJdell pUtit- 
HMl cxtciiirircly nUmj^ Iho cuual Itatik^ 
C-aaaTaliA obtuaifolia, DC Koyli avaree. 
\»%. Cummou on Iho i>ca-Gbare, frec|DentJy 
I'll with the lam Darned binder, is ft 
eJul plant, very abuudant at the Adynr, 
■V innutii of tlie Godavery, aod 
II Had Atjjongo. 
Ijtiinpiiviax marilima, IA»». RcjiMiile 
lydropbylax. A slrapgliDg herbaceouBpInur, 
of ibe shijie of Coroouiudel, wliero it 
it" pslr li'jir hlft^^moB great part of Uio 
T ^ > II over the mdJ, »omc- 

iini '', aad strike root at 

ijotnia. JtmoBirtitB w«ll wbea the sauJ is 

jrhynclitjs sarmpnlosai, IVight. A 
JifTtrMt] bumble plant, common along 
bcAcfa, with long Hagellirnrm mttnerR ; 
■y Qot posseHBiiflicieiit slreugth to effect 
object io view. iL ie well figurwi in 
rigbt*ff JIlQvtratioDs,, t. 113. FJala 

Pupali» Ma, Wiifht. 

iUbyr- iiUu. Ilr-rnf, VaBkL 

t^Mhvla <irtac:iUlk. Mr^uin, 

Atiti jrotU. T«». 

ra CD nndy H>ilB near the sea beach, 

il at !jt. ThoDi^, and near tlip mnuth 

Adyar rivpr. It is an extensively 

iittg proCDmbent plants the hratiche& 

I oftea several feet long ; bristlt^ij atuch. 

Ivea to the clothes of passeugers, 

to tiicm with lenncily. 

I odoraiissimas, Cinn., theKaldera 

ib« Taylio marnt, Tam., is a large 

*''r-^ nuiouti shrub, often p)anle<l in 

;; takes op ' 

)iauk.<f ill the IwiU of nil \Ue rivt'i'a of tlie 
W<wtcrit Pminhuin of ludiii. 

The above tire the saad-blnding plan Ik nio'^t 
fre<]iiei]llY iioticnl alou;; iJib f'nroiimtidffi 
beach. ITiereaire otiiersas Htfdallum inurcx, 
Ipointea p(>»-timridi» and Somiiuiiiii prn>ilra- 
tum, &i\, whii-li rn-»iv™ie in the work of 
conxei'vatioii to a minorextf^nt, but are U-m 
widely dltTu!^L-d along tlio t'oasl ; alao Fagrn-a 
Cot'om.iiiileliin. 'I'lvt's such an the Caf^hew 
(Anacariiium occjilentale) the Alexaiuliian 
l.aurut (r'aldphyllum inuphylltim) and this 
wild dale (Pbccnix flylvetilris) Rrow well, 
and render a double t^rvicc by provuntin;; n 
fiirtlier encmachment ofwiid, aud rendering 
the land useful. In Ceylon, the i-IftHs wort,*;, 
Salicornin i»dica,nnd !talt woit", SaUola iiidi'-n, 
are the first to appear amonj; the newly rai><^J 
bohkff. The rroat'K fiiol Ipoimra, IpoiiicBa pes- 
capm abounds on the shores, ilfio speoie^i of 
beaus, Catiavalia obtURifoUa and Dolichos 
luteuK and the Hydrophvlax miintimn, the 
Modiifiaela kotn of the Sinphalt^w, lirernlly 
jointed »ca s\itn\i pliiut, with pink flow<?r^and 
thick »ucculcut learef^ .Who the Spinif«x 
squarro«o!>, a water pink, whosie seeds are in a 
large uimiiar head, and rallied Maha-Knwiina 
i-aswuia "the grcfltbcaM of Rawana." A liiile 
above high wtit^r-mArk i!>, likewise, Uio Artnto- 
lochia bract*ata,11iR Hwlyotis umUdUta, anyan, 
alsoChoya, StjtGH. (iloriosa .superba, Viwtim 
karatidi, Tam., or Lippia iiudiflora, — Dr. 
Cleghorn ; Sir J. E. Tfnacnt. 


SAND KHRKTIA, KhreUa areoaria, »e». 
Saod'hindin^ plant*. 

SANDKL-IIOUT, Das. Saudal wood, 
also Sjiundcr's wood ? 

SAXDERBAN, the inlets at the iMla of 
the Ganfres, said io he derived from SandNri 
vaDa, a fore&l of Sundart trees, Se« Suudcr- 


C1]a.T>dAn. Vkrk. I R«kU'chuidui, Vekn. 

Had 5*D(l«i'a wood. Enu. I 

Red Sander's wood, from the Pteroearpua 
eentalinua, hard and of a bright ga^)n^rp4j 
colour, is employed to dye a lasting retldisb 
hrown on wool. It only yields its colour to 
ether or alcohol. The tree is lofly, cnmtnon 
much room, Ibmia douse ' iu ludin, Cti}-ti>D, uud the btuntb of tbe 
117 S 117 


Eufilorn ArcbipeL^o. Tbo exports o( litis 
wcHxl iVinn MaJrns in one your ninouiiliHl to 
iii'jirly 2,0fH} toDft. Tho tniporlii of ird Sun* 
der's woixl IVoiu CalcutUi nuU Hi>mli«y clitL-fly 
iiuo Loti'lt'u, (ire in the oxlont of tiOU or 7(X) 
lima ■ year, worth ill to £6 per ton. — PocUt 
St. of Citmmrrce, p. 2<i3. 

SANl>-C>t.M.S, or Ava pcra sntiil comes 
fniin tJie nuigtiuuiliooi] of Avii, atitl ik eom«- 
tinic^ uno of tti<.' Sliau aitick'y of Tueri*l>titi<lice. 
it cruisifitA of Muiill rmf;nitiiit« of nenrly all 
tlic (trcciouH Ktniies fouuil in t)ie roaiiir>', biit 
pii'Dft, beryl idiI Hpiiicll «i-u itv priucipul 
coutiLiiluuiiU, xaoTn especially Uio tut, wliicli 
poeiiiit tocoustimu' oonrly three- fourth a oC ilio 
whtiltt iiiaM. A siugle Itarulfiil will coataiti 


whiip- onion re«I ami Hiliiplctl to avefy parpomi 
uf lioiiHe-liuiliJing. Tliu pulp of il» I'mii iaj 
eaiPQ raw by tlio natives of Tonnswrim «lm| 
OHtoeiD it exi-PlloDt. It i« walcry ami ronl* 
inland (nnken a )*o<)(l jelly, iiiil thi:* ha* • 
peouliiir uiloitr. Ii«t rottt in biticr an*! iimI 
in mudiciut* ill bowel I'ltrnplHtuti^ — Uru.Mtt* 
MH ; McCUt/auii ; f'aigt.; Raxb.y Vvl. 
ii, p. 3ii2. 

SANUSTONE. n rock wliieh oonr« ia 
most couiili'ips "■> urj^rc^aliott of bbuiI ky 
a sort tif Himiiuaiuu sa in quartz rock, and 
in coiQinou gritsioue, ailjoiaintf trap tlrkocr 
^real Iniilln. In nmny of tlic white «aa4- 
bIoum the graitif) merely coberr locrtbcr. la 
the ii»tiJBU>ii« of eoul iracko the finor parti' 

•ipcfiitic-us of every sbaJei black, hliiOf Tinlett | rl<» of L-nrbonale of lime, day, oxitle of inia, 
ncarlet. ruse, orunge. atnb«r-ycIlow, wiuu- \ &c., nro iiiicrpoMj bt-twcGU iIm pitim : 
yullow nil J wbilo. — MaiOM. \ otJiir e»ses, ah in the llndlJiigB' raiHl.->toiiMv 

8AN1> CjROU8Iil Tbu Tibctnn siiDd* i infiliration of carboiiaic ot' lime Iihb tol 
grouK-, SyiTbHptiMt LilfCUnae, repairs in large ' p[«c(>. Some iiaiiilriipnci« lu-e iu tlie lamin*, 
ijocka to tlritik ac tbe froftlt-wnttiir »priiii;ri. j plmio, wiivitt, or i<!i^btly con<-ciitri(-. : time 
TUo plumage of both soxcs la rniicli niiki; nilinit of being rcailily pplit. The frre.-'Kiiiet 
but lliu luui; lAil of Lbc mala in Jistinclive. : am not (]t.-4tinRtly tAmiimioit, tho grainn l«i 

roa, J 


— ,iilnm». i>ce Uinls, Tolranoiitie. 

SANDIIA PALA, fleo In^riptioni). 

.SAN1)IIEA1>S, n niai'itiroe term applied 
tu tbe inlets of tbo tlclla of tbe Uniigcu. nmrei^l 
iht) Rny oJ' UuDgal. See Saudeibau, Sunder* 

SAXDHl, B ooiyuDctioD of words in San. 
urii, ami iti Uio wonln of tho Tclugu tao* 
i:ige derived Irom MUiteril, and is u tf>y8toin- 
^lic L'lemrnt iu Uruumor. 

SANDUi. or Saiidhya, Sans. The twi- 
li-ithi or en-pintculo. Tbo Saudby of Umbrnn 
consirits «if l,7'JS,i)0() Solar Sidvnjal yeaia ; 
tbu Hiinu dunitiuu aa the CrJta, or Sstya-yiigi 
wbiirli <iiiniilily in UHcd in iL» double uafMiciiy 
ft>r coii)>u-uctiiig tbe Culpa, rrnlnii Kiuidhya, 
the morniiij! twilight. Bayani Miudbyn, tbe 
ovcniu); twilight. The twiligbt of eweli 
yu); \n eqiinl to l-€th pnrl of lbc Mirao. 

SANI)OltU:UM, agcnue of pbmta of lbc 
Order Jlt-liaccoi, oao unnamed BiH-triefl called 
^{anloor by the Malay, grown in 'i'cnaK«orin 
■ud tbo Malay Ar<>hiprlago. It is unetl fur 
fariiiliire, — Dr. If'nUirA. 


TricbiUa Drrrcitt, VaU. 

Tb«lt-tA, 6vtt«. I Fiibtf nugwrteoa, KflO. 

ItttlltB ■.-iniUlwaod, Rnu. 1 Wild „ 

Tlii<« rlr[;niil limber tTM fyovi to ■ large 
Kiz« in the Ktiufb uf India, Mysore, Pennug, 
tbe Miilaecaa and riiiUppiuM. It is ftcitrcv 
in (lie fon^His of Uritiib DurmiJi, but in 
Urini *ud pUulifiil near all Tillage* both 
. tKo Kangonii and Touogboo dislricii*, where 
il «ultivausi by Ibo Humi«!^e for iln 
liU wbidi ia of tlte aize of bd oraogn, and 
m. tahy acul pulp. Tha wood is 


HO itrrangt^ a- to prt-st-m Minnl n'*ii«macc 
every direciioii. 'I'lioy work frfoly uai 
llio sLouo ^aw and tbo oriliupry pu-k.^ oeiLI 
chipels. They c«u al^o l>e turned lolo bain**] 
iradef, pedenlalA and \Bwn. In tbo KmIJ 
Indiei}, snadsUniee oircur at ditrerent qualiiif 
from the conrs«fit iioft grit, to llt« bardwl-| 
freestone, (lie tnosi eoniimcl Hnnke«lOD(\ 
lbc touehcst chert. Indeed, fsanilsloaoani 
lo bo iho mo^t univerxnily dilfiir^'d rociu In' 
Southern In. Ha ; weuning in nixreen ditlrt^ 
enl diiitrictfi, and often in bcnU ov flrau ofj 
enormous extrot, as in llio Smitb Aicot, Nel' 
lure, Cuddapoh, Uelliiry, ]tly>}<»Te aud >'ag*| 
[M>ro dintriel!>, Tb«i mIioIo uf tbe vi 
of lbc liti'hiub and grcnl |>ttrt6 of ifae 
of iiti atlluDiitK, tbu Giil^yurbnli. Mall 
Hlireinnh. Tnn^u, tthcHHlni mid Tuiul 
itnd much of Ibo valley of ibo Gcxlavi 
ond of IIk! vallpya of ittt oorlliem oBIupst 
bavQ limestone, ciny ftntu nnd aeoj' 
rocks and the houM>8 and more «xl 
buildiiigt nro nil bailt of lJieM». The ' 
Htooa of Evumool, we«I to the l^vtuali, 
nil i'X<;tflleut buildiug miileriaL Tl'> ' 
of Kymnro miigL" in bbnbiiliad in ' 
M of liuioKtono, wbieb also vIiowh ii-iUl i( 
Uie vnllny of Uie river Sone ai far at lean! I 
Munge>'iAnr pruk to Miraipar, nnd il 
up at Rliutan fomiiag a Klnping Imvu to 
prccipitoot nnUotonu rock. Itctuw 
limeetoDeu one of a pluah grey colour nil 
with occ«-«ionnl crystala of Cnic t>par. '11 
like tbo Kuruool Htoaes, U admirably 
for liUiogmpby. BeUiw tiio latter, itt* 
Diuro b a lime«tume of a hard 
almoil tudeaiiuctible compwitkn adtoLrmUj 

S 118 


mittA for bailiitng. Soft ttandetoDes resciQ- 
Wag badistoDet and Tripoli abound near 
Ndlore, BvUary, Cuddapali and Hurrjhar. 
Buidstoaes saited for grindinfif parpoees are 
Bblaioed \u Ciiddapah at Chellamacoor, a 
pvjkb browD echistose granular etaiidBtone, 
■ear Caddapah, there is blaisfa prey compact 
n^nesian UroestoDe, suited for fine shurpen- 
iufc Btoues, from Woontimitta Sue grained 
■chistose, eandstooe, suited fora ragntoue. In 
Guotoor, at Pnliiaud^ are purple aud lilac 8lnty 
aandstoues fine in graiu, honestonc*, l>luck 
limestooes, and lithograpliic marbles. From 
Gootemookfiola and Dyda, liones from Koo- 
pokoonda. Smiles wei<t of Vinacoudnh, below 
tbe sigoal pond ; rough sandstone glistening 
with mica. From Matoor Hill, schistoise 

The randsfones of tlie Kymorc range 
in the Vvndbya have a high commercial' 
vilae at Cbonar aud Mirzapore, being usc<l 
as fiag^tnnes, and for ortiamentat pnr{w»es. 
The stoues at tliosc places nwo their ad< 
Tantage to the proximity of the Ganges, 


Uon of being good-tempered aiid not cafily 
aroused into anger. Tbe ruins of an old 
temple are still to be seeu abont six mited from 
Honolulu, near Diamond Hill. It la said to 
have been built by Ka-me-ba-mutm the fiist, 
after the conqaest of the island. It is vnlk-d 
Heiau. Here, in the days of heathenism, 
were offered human sacrifices. The victim 
was chosen either by the priest or king. The 
messenger of death entered bis abode while 
he slept, and be met his end by strangling. 
Ho wuH then dragged olf as an offering to the 
sanguinary god. In Vate, tlie people, although 
differing a good deal among themselves, have, 
except the black colour of their skins, few 
points of resemblance to the Suucse. They 
are of larger stature and more regular fea- 
tures, some having straight or almost iiqiii- 
liuc nosf!s, good foreheads, and beards of 
moderate size, their manners more composted, 
their dress much more decent, consisting 
of u broad belt of matting, seven or eight 
inches wide, very neatly worked in a diamond 
pattern of red, white and black colouit<, tvith 

which affords an easy river carriage ; other- ] a species of maro suspended in front. Many 

wise they are the worst and most destructible « 
dnrriotioD of stone in the range. The 
millstones of Cbyncpore, Sasserara, and 
Tilowlhoo, perhaps also Ackhnrpore, urc 
SuDous, but must always be dear in a distant 
market for want of river caiTiago. The 
Soae causeway and the Koylwan railway 
bridge are built of the dense sandstone of 
Sasseram, while even little quantities are 
FdodiI in the biglicr portions of the ran^^e 
toward:^ Rohlas. The be^t stone, while easily 
woricable, is almost as hard as granite, aud 
may be had of any colour, viz., white, cryp- 
talline, blue, grey, aud all shades to a dark 
rvl. Flexible sandstone is found in Ulwnr, 
It Dadri in Jhend, and at Jubbiilporc. It is 
calletl "Sang-t larzan," i, e., shaking stone, 
and is obtained from the Kalyaoa hill in the 

of them had their skins tattooed, or rather 
covered with raised figures, the arms and 
chest being tbe parts generally opera led upon ; 
the cartilage of tlie nose was frequently 
pierced, and filled with a circular piece of 
stone, and the lobes of the ears always so, 
large ornaments of white shells, or of tortoi^c- 
sliell, being hung from them, bo as often to 
extend the orifice to a great size, llouml 
their arms, and, in some cases, round their 
ankles, they woro liaudsomo bracelets, made 
of small rings ground out of shells. In tlio 
i!!laud of Vate t!i« passion for collei-ling every 
kind of bone is so great, that a tnifilc in tlu-in 
is curried on, not only among the tribes, but 
with the neighlniuring islands. It did notnp- 
pear that jealousy of their women wa8lhccall^-e 
of their fear of the intrusion of foreigner?, 

jier^unuBb Dadri, it is used for roo6iig andiasmniiy aswoll asafair proportion of i-hildroii 

for ornamental pillars. Sandstones also occur 
tt Sahi Balabgarh, in the hills to the south- 
west of Delhi. — Povell, //and'fiook Econ, 
Prod., Pnvjab, pp. 35-56 ; Mad. Er. Jur. 
Rffott ; Reports and Cntaloijues of the 
Qori. Central Museum, Madras ; Tomlinson, 
SANDUDA, see Singhnlese. 
SANDULAY KA PilAL, Duk. Fruit of 
Elate rylvestris, Linn. 
SANDi'N, SiNOli. Sandalwooil. 
alirnit 75,000 or HO.OOO, from having been 
wUil and uncivilized, are now all nominally 
chmtians. The male population ait: n good 
^K^bt, atlilctie, and well-proportioned ; but 
L Mitticr men nor women are prepossessing in 
L iVt«atance although they have the reputa- 

I 119 

were seen. The women wcregenerally t:ill »nd 
thin, their hair cropped close to the head, iind 
the tkin oeCHsionally marked willi figures, 
as on the men's bodies. Their dress did 
not differ much from that of the mfile!<, 
consisting of a somewhat broader wiiist-bcU, 
and a square mat in front, resembling an 
enlarged maro. To this must be added 
however tho singular appendage of a tail, 
made of grass or matting, tho ends being a 
Idose fritige of a foot and a half long, and the 
whole suspended from the waist- bell, and 
reaching nearly to tho calf of the leg. On 
all sides are evidences of plenty of articles 
of food. Numerous pign run about, and all the 
trees near the honses arc covered with 
yams attached to the boughs. — William's 

S 119 


The Cruise of the Pearl, pp. 34-41 ; Capt, 
Etphimtone Erskive, Islands of the Western 
I'lirijic, pp. 324-332. 

SAX-FA-SHI, the name applieO hy the 
Chinese pilgrim Ilweu Thsuag to the Vi-ij'h 
cotiDtiy which he rIho citis Fo-io-shi, Sao-fii- 
shi or SiimVHJi, Ih the Pali form of Sainvriji, 
or the " Uuited Vriji," from whii-h Geaera! 
Ciiuiiin^ham iufers that the Vriji were a 
Urge tribe whi(;h wad divided iuto several 
bruDchec, namely, the Li<:hhari of Vaiitali, 
the Vaidehi of Milhila, the Tirahhukti of 
Tirliut, &<;, Either of theite divisioas acpa- 
rul<>ly tiiijriit Uierefora be culled Vriji, or any 
two together tnij^ht l»e called Vriji, an well 
HM Saiiivriji, or the " United Vrijis," as is 
the rnse with the warlike tribe of ihe liagri 
or SxmliHgri of ihe Stitlej, which consisted 
oi Ihrt-e separate diviifioiis. He is of opinion 
that V^HJsali was a single district iu the ter- 
ritories of tlie United Vriji, or Wajji. 
Kesariya is au old mined town, 30 miles to 
the north- north-west of Vuisali. The place 
pottsesses a mound of ruins with a lofty 
stu|>a on the top, whh:h the people attribute 
to RaJH Vfna Chaki-avarti. In the Puranas 
also, Itaja Vena is called a Chakravarti, or 
Kuprcinc monarch ; (feueiiil Cutioingham found 
hi» unine as widt^ly spread through northern 
IiidiH as that of Kama, or ttie five Pandu. — 
C'HMMimiham'sAncient Cleoff.of India,p. 446. 
SANl-t, Pkrs. a stone, btU used as a pre- 
fix to desiguatti several substauceo, mineral 
earihs, stones, minerals, gems, fossils, com* 
[MtiindH used ID the arU, or *iu medicine. Of 
these may beenumerated: — 

Saiig-i-abri, UiNU., a mottled browu and 
yellow stone. 

Sang-i-nkik, cornelian. 
S«iig-i-aHsliar, a form of silica, 
Siinij-i-assyura, millstone grit. 
Snng-i-basri, " bassomh stone," a slag or ' 


In Uie peninsula of India, it is fire clay, pre- 
curaable at Strecpermatoor, Triposuor, Cbi*- 
gleput, Metapolliam and Cuddapah, and ia 
many parts of India, and bricks cau be madi 
that resist the action of great heat. A day it 
fouod at Beypore 20 to 30 feet below tha 
surface, and is used for fire-bricks and for 
lining furnaces. 

Sang-i-irmali, a fossil. 

Sang-i-jarabat, Sulphate of lime, ateatilt 
and oUier minerals. 

Sang-i-jahanam, Lunar caustic ? 

Sang-i-kui^ Hornblende rock. 

>:^iig-i-kharue, Fosbll eucrinite. 

Saug-i-Urzao, Flexible sandstone. 

Sung-i-mehtab, also tnmbra, garnet. 

Sung-i-marmar, Marble. 

Sang-i-musB, Hard clay slate, syenite, g» 

Sang-i-palan, French chalk, or steatiU^ 
used for making crucibles, qu. ? sang-i-dalai. 

Sang-i-marjan, Coral. 

Siuig-i-pathani, Bloodstone. 

Saug-i-rasak, Copper-dross, a mixture of 
metallic copper with organic matter ; obtain- 
ed duriug the process of melting copper ud 

Sang-i-sahz, Green earth. 

Sang-i-wfed, White quartz. 

8ang-i-sai>i-malit, Small fossil shells. 

Suug-i-shadnaj, Fossil nummnlite. 

SHUg-i-sitara, Avanturine. 

Sang-i-sulaiman, Onyx. 

Sang-i-labak, a varie^alcd stone. 

Kang-i-yamaiii, Bloodstone. 

Nang-i-yashm, Jiule. 
— Cheinet/, Euphrates and Tiffria, Powdtt 

SANG, a reciprocal contract or promiNh 
In the wedding ceremonies a few daya after 
the couclueion of the Saog, a prepared enters 
tuinment is made sufiiciently large to inclntia 

dntsK of copper in tubular pieces ; said to the whole kheil, provided the young nun's 
conic fi'ora Rssorah (Bafrah), where it is i condition in lifu will admit of hln going lit 
collected ut the mouths of tbo chimneys of, that ex|>ense. It hap{>ons not unfreqacntly, 
copper furnaces. I that tho Sang is entered iuto before the gul 

Sang-i-biriiij, the Dizfnl, is an important \ is marriugcable. So soon as tho girl arrives 
tttreani in Khuzistan. The Ixfd of an occa* at proper ago to tako upon herself tbe duties 
xional toriTut in nncient Kusiana, culled | of il wife, the Ui*oos or marriage ceremony ia 
Ab-i-lmlil, falls iiilo the Uizful, is cover- 1 perfotmed by a Moollah.— PoAin^tY^i Tm* 
cd with a )KM'uli»r kind of pebble, which, { rc/s, Beloochittan and Sind, p. 6S. 
being tilled with little fossil fhells resembling | SANO, a spear or javelin, foimed wholly 
grains of rice, is called Sang-i-birinj, or the of iron, carried by faqeers ; also a war-lano^ 
lice Ktonc. These stones lire hIho found in i ton feet long, covered with plates of iron, 
tlic river at Shustt-r, hut of an inferior quati- I about four feet alwve the spike. A sirohi 
ly, and they are in much request throughout ' is a sword made at the town of tliat namc^ 
Persia for (he headof the Nargit pipe, which ! famous fur itji temper. — TotTs EaJauMam, 

is almost invariably composed of tliis material 
bct in rsilvcr. 

SHng-i-chainak, massive magnetic iron ore. 

Sanj-i-dallam, Pjeks-, Himd. Fuller's earth? 

130 S 

Vol. it, p. 118. 

SANGA, Hind. A wooden bridge in Iht 

•SA^CiAf see Inscriplionsr Karii, Kiu-aia. 




rAL, HiKD., of Kashmir. Taxus 
IJomtnoa yew. 

ALA, a hill fortress in the central 
Rptured hy Alexander. It h the citj 
. Alexander nMrched after passing 
Iraotes (now the Ravi), and is 
bj BcDoeU to have been on the 
! of the Beas. The Arashtra, or 
less, were the republican defeud- 
angala or Sakala. Tiiej ai*e the 
of Arrian, who places them on the 
They were known by the several 
BiUiika, Jartikka and Takka, from 
>t is the name of their old capital of 
Takka-sila aa known to the Greeks. 
>le still exist in coDKiderable oum- 
le Fanjab Hills, and their alphabeti- 
g characters nnder the name of Takri 
are now used by all the hindoos of 
and the northern mountains from 
1 Sabathn to Kabul and Bamian. — 
See Chaodragupta, Haripa, Khetri. 
AM, Sans. The fork of tworivem, 
ion, wedding or marriage. See Sutti. 
AN KUPI, Tam. Clerodendron 
wttrtn^ Roxb., Rheede. 
rANA, see Inscriptions. 
AR, HiKD. Prosopis spicigera. 
AJIA, the occupants of the ioland 
in the time of Alexander. They 
1 then dariug, reckless, pirates. 
AT, see Sikh. 

BOYS, in lat. 6' 48^' N., are two 
ids of the Philippines. 
BARDAR, Hind. Spearsmen. 
CHA, Hind. Nummulites, obtained 
izari hills, at Dera Ghazi Kban and 
Etaksh Khan. They are priced at 32 
mpee. See Sang. 
-DRAGON, Fr. Dragon's blood. 
GYE, Hind. Scnecio laciiiiosua. 
IR, or Sanguey, an island on the 
Celebes, extending from lat. 3* 21' 
, 3' 16' N. It is said to posxesR a 
on its east side. Sangir and the 
; islands of its group in the Celebee 
anperBcies of 13 square league?, the 
.d the MeaQgis islands united are IH 
^ues ; these archipelagoes, formerly 
I the authority of the sultans of Tov- 
' make part of the Dutch residency 
o. Several extiuct volcanoes, and 
1 Id full action, are found in the 
roup ; the devastations which they 
'rom time to time, have often been 
the inhabitants. The eruption of 
ID 1808, completely anoihilafed the 
' Tegalando, destroyed all the sur- 
fwests, and suddenly deprived the 
ti of all means of livelihood, by the 
o of their fields. The Gunong-api 

or fire mountain, causes numerous lavages 
iu the island of Siau ; its peak, 6,000 feet 
above tlie level of the sea, forms the cul- 
minating point of this group. Guuoug-api 
covers with its base all the northern part 
of Sangir-bcsar, this volcano has not been 
active since 1812 when the torrents of lava 
which it poured out destroyed the extennive 
forests of co4'oanut trees with which this part 
of the Island was covered, and caused the 
death of many of the inhabitants. These 
islands furuish more than twenty-five kinds of 
wood suited for building and furniture. 
Two harbours, sheltered from all winds, exist 
in the larger Sangir, one in the Bay of Ta- 
runa, the other, called Midelu, on the eastern 
side. — Jo7tr. Ind, Arch, for Dee., p. 764. 

SANGI, Hind. A pitch fork. 


SANG-KING, LiPCH. Mustela sub-he- 
machalana. Hod,, Blyth. 

SANG KOI, see India. 

SANG-KUPI, Dlk. Clerodendron in- 
erme, Gart. 

SANGLA, Hind. A plank bridge in the 

SANGNAI, Hind. Fanolia acuticomis. 

SANG-NILA-UTAMA, see Johore. 

SANGOW, see India, Kyan. 

SANGPO, see Yak. 

SANG-PWAN-HIA, Chin. Midsummer 

SANGRAI, Hind. Panolia acuticomis, 

SANGRI, or ShangrI, Hind. Seed pods of 
Fi'Oitopis spicigera. 

SANGSAL, or Rangsal, the name of the 
larger of the idols at Bamian. 

SANGSAPUREA, see Johore. 

RANGS-GYAS, see Buddha. 

SANGSUE, Fb. Leeches. 

SANGTARAH, HiKD. Citrus aurantium, 
the Lime. Citrus bcrgamia. 

SANGU, Tam. Chank shells. 

SANGUINOLARIA, a genus of molluscs. 


SANGUISUGA, Hirndo, the leech. 

leech of Prov. xxx, v. 15, the Olukeh, or 
Aluka, or Ahik of the Arabs. 

SANG-YAHUDI, " Jew's stone," a foa- 
si) encriiiite. 

SANG- YEN, CniN. Tobacco. Tiiis is the 
name in some parts of Chiua, bat the ordinary 
name^are Yen-t'sau ; Jin^t'sau and Tan-pa-ku. 

SANHITA, see Arians, Vedas. 

SANI, the planet Saturn, whose influence 
is supposed by hindoos to be malignant : also 
a deity of the hindoos. Yams is the regent 

S 121 



ot IToIl ; Sniii is the Planet Satiirti ; nml Bri- 
hoHpati, is Ju|ittcr. frjiitum's riot; was known 
to the ancients. In Maurice's Irulimi Anti- 
quities l» au engraving of Sani, the Snturn of 
the hindoos, taken from an image in a very 
ancient p^oJa, which ropreflenlH the deity 
encompasHed hy a ring formed ortwoFcrpents. 
Hence it is inferred that the ancients were 
acquainted with the existence of the ring of 
Saturn. — CuriositicM of Science, p. 81. 

SANI, a light camel or droraetlary, train- 
ed especially for the riding of native chiofa. 
See Graha, Vara or Vasara. 

SANI, dce Khutri. 

SANIGALU, or Scnagalu, Tel. Cicer 
ai'ictinum, Linn. Ikngal gram. 

SAN-I-JALUS, the year of a king's ac- 
cession. See JbIus. 

SANJAB, Ui-^D. The sable. 

SANJAD, or Sanjnt, Hind. In Pcshawur, 
in Pushtu, the lierrics of Klcagnns orientalis, 
also of Pyrus varinlowt, wild pear. 

SANJID, seeJugdalik. 

SAiSJLI, or Bnn-aangli, Ilisn. Cratxgns 

SANJNA.IIiND. Morings pterygosiierma. 

SANKA, Hind. A chnnk, a Miell. The 
cluinks are miide into trumpets, rings, beads, 
armlets, bracelets, ami the Sanknsari of Dacca 
are fumed for their skill in the cbank or sank 
work. Tho skill is remarkable with which 
the unyielding substance of a hard thick shell 
is converted into necklaces for men and into 
bracelets for women. The manufacture of 
shell bracelets is ono of the indigenous arts 
of Bengal, in which the " Sankari" caste, at 
Dacca excel. Tho chauks of which they are 
made ore large species of Turbiuelln, from 
six to seven inches long, and of a pure white 
colour. They are imported into Calcutta from 
llamnad and South India, oppositu to Ceylon, 
and from the Maldive Inlands. See Saiikasum. 

SANKiEUR GOND, Acacia odoruliaitimu, 
Boxh., Willd, 

SANKALPA, see Sati. 

SANKARA CHAR. In Kashmir, are two 
eminences which bear the name of Takht-i- 
Suliman ; one near Kashmir m called Sir-i- 
tishu, or Siva's head by the hindous, but also 
Sankara char: and the hill on the opposite 
siJo of tho city is cidled Ilari Purbut, or the 
hill of Viahnu or Ilari. On the latter hill is 
^0 fort of Kashmir. The heat on the plains 
under the Sulimani mngu is excessive. The 
Kayaor mountain seems a collection of inac- 
cessible precipices— Kij^ntf. See Knysar, 

SANKARA ACHARYA, who lived about HiniL, 
the 8th or 9th century, was a religiouK tei)clii>r 
of the hiudoos, in the South of India, a com- 
UQUtatur OQ the Veda, and the alleged authoi- 

122 S 

of the Sankara Cheritra, Saokara Katha, S. 
Vijitya and S. Dignijaya. He was % Marobori 
brulimnn, and a native of Kerala or Malabar, 
lie lead an erratic life through India awl 
Kashmir, and engaged in controversies, aad 
finally died at Kedarnaih in the Himalaya i 
he founded a dominant Saiva wet. Frtfl 
Benares havu emanated and still emaoala 
almost all new opitiious on questions of hia- 
doc theology, hindoo philosophy and hiodoa 
junspmdence. The verdict of the Beiiafei 
authorities is final in the hindoo world ; tbenv 
Sankuru Acharya won a great shivite contn^ 
versial victoiy ; there, disguised as a hinilM 
boy, Fcizi became initiated in the bimloo 
Shastors ; there, at the fountain beoi), did 
Aurungzube try to difTube the leaven ofma- 
homedniiism ; and there at last bos the B^ 
uares Colluije been erected by the British to 
enlighten and form the native population wtd 
now ideas in their heads and new inatitutioui 
Hindoo theologists have entered into vaii 
disputes on the question, whicJi, among tb* 
attributes of God, shall be deemed charae- 
teristic and pre-eminent ? Sankara Aufaarfi^ 
contended for the attributes of Siva ; vuk 
founded, or confinned, the sect of saiva wlw 
woi'ship Siva as Mahudeva, the Supnna 
Being, and deny tho independent existvooe of 
Vishnu and other deities. He was tbe most 
renowned master of the school of Vedaatt 
philosophy ; ho says, 

A (Imp thftt tromhles on tho lotaa leaf, 
Such iii tlii* life, ta ■ooii dupoIl«d, so brief. 

• • • • • • 

The eight grckt inoantaina and the aevsn Sea^ 
The Sun, the (ioilti who sit and rule over these. 
Thou, I, the Universe, muiit pass away, 
Time conquere all ; why cue for what moat paM a«q> 

The term Dandi, means any one who bnn 
a staff, but is applied especially to ■ nuiner o M 
order of religious mendicants, founded X^ 
Sankara Acharya, many of whom bave beta 
eminent us writers on various subjects, esp»> 
cialty on the Vedanta philoec^hy. Tbej an 
divided into ten classes, each of which is iS^ 
tinguished by a peculiar name, as Tirtb% 
Asrama, Vana, Aranya, Saraswati, Pnr^ 
Blmrati, Giri or Gir, Parvata, and Safpu^ 
which is odded to the proper name c^ tka 
individual — as Purushottama Gir, or Badw 
dhnt Saraswati. They are heuce knowo Mil* 
leciively as theDas-nami, or (en name Goaa^ 
Of these, only the clasKes named Tirtli% 
Asrama, Saraswati, and part of BbaiBti, an 
now considered as puiv Dandi i the otbon 
are of a more secular character and are asen 
usually termed Atit.— H'iU. Glot. j 2V. €f 
Vol. i, pp. 275-276 ; Bunttn^ Gtd 
in Hisiory, Vol. i, p. 332. See AdvaiUua, 
Cow, Dandi, Hindoo, Kapila, Laksbni, laiM 
vrda, Veda. 


S.LNKASKRA, meuus drnioit of lIio Snnkn 
ChMik. tUtly ruultucobil trav«|lei-a spelX it 
kMidi. and in exotic woiils, n liaril JMitumlly 

lltute^ for a tofu tnitmt, giving Kiiuk, oi 
Well. StwII&i «» sroiLMiiK ioiplfnicnts ul 
IT, were M iuch iifcd ia f(,>i-nivr timi^ nmung 
viiut*, n» tniQi[M:tii aro at preeciit. lu the 
rriWe mil wtir bcnwctu ihe Pmutn niul 

- kiintuL-u, tlia Kuru, as homcri<-ally dc* 
ribnl m t!-.r> Mntmtiltnrnt, Ki'if-liiia used the 
■0 xi/N. e*(-l] cliiof ulw) M^iiiiilctl It 

wU, I '■ like tht; rwuixIb of tliO cliivnl- 

M kiugbu of Iviiropp, Hintiiit-i ami ^tglli^l- 
til a«nM» wcrv givcu.— J/oc-, />. 2 1 3. 84.0 
ita. Sniikn 

|iliy, tfftc-Iiiiig llio eternity of inaUcr and 
ftpiiit iudrpeiidfLl of God, founded hy Kti- 
pilB. Ttie Suuklijra AyHli-m of pliJIosopliy 
wns uppnrtriitly Uie eailii-ijl of all iLo sja- 
teuis ti>nt pieceded Uio rvall/ pliilusuptiiu 
n^c nf tlio liiiiiloo M^hools. lt« Btitlior it» eaid 
to have hcQQ Kapila wlio is txovr fuUt'd 
to liftvo keeu a nun of Uralima, aud an inuir* 
nation ofVi^iiiiu; liu i» uumbercd among 
tlie seven L;rc-a( suiutSr and uaaiiy marvels arg 
iLycril'iil to linn. While tisiug rodie uolioiiti, 
hu in the main (iepart(»l from vcdiv lllc■onl■^, 
uml in idt imporlmit. {larticnlars comes to con- 
cUtsioii-4 iJiunu-trically opiKWcd to what tlie 
vcda teach. The Saokhya eyftcm coutiiiua 
two grand diviaionq, vliicli diifcr ou the 
ikAYAGAUBlSWAKA,scoIitserip- vita) ({uestiou of the existence of a God : ono 


KKH. aco Nainani. 

NK'llA, Sank.. Tam. A pearl shcU, Con>.-h »di4.-ll,nn« of tlie 

[••imns uf Vi?hiiu. lltrnue Sonkha- 

>iik loifJity, the inliuid ol Beyt. 

IjWARA, is Dtill renowned 

iUtr^s, nnd uuu b«nk uucovei'ed at 

ter, whoiico rhey ara ohlaiDod, is 

to ihc La»iliu(;-pluce : tut a« tljc rin- 

or war-elx'Mt with whi<-h he was 

to pval a bbi^t, ttie onr>lau}:hl lo liattlC) 

kwg«T ;;mr(« tho hand at llin Rnjpoot ; 

UM ia Qow rvstrict^l to the ItrahmJn, 

icmvitlt " to Awaku ibu gods iu the moro- 

' 10 Id Iho world know wlim he 

( or, tu fi>rni churi or l;racelet!i. for the 

it th« hiiiditu lair. i)<-iigal ia the bvnt 

forihc shelUofSaukha-dwnra ; and 

Ottriy [wrlof the llfth cculury an entire 

wu occDpicd in tho city of [>tirrn hy 

lt*r», all supplied fioui Uie islnnJ of 

In CVlunvl 'I'txl'fl tiiw, the banka were 

d wf the Giiir'tn-ar govemniciit hy a 

tnrrriiuut of Koiiii>«iy, wbocontvacled 

the Kliarwar, at the raio of twenty koree 

6fe to (LX rupees] per hunJi-ediaml loail- 

lUn. Bonilj»y, wbemre tliay are fthipped 

l*t:rpt.'tuat hltusioQ i» made, iu 

iiuiiiiitl poRtry i)f the Uajfiuott tu tho 

t of tlto ehelj," which w as common 

} diBFj^s uf the briUien trtiiup of western 

try. J'tveminiMii mention is niudu in 

lireat war" of two of thenc — Todi 

r. f^p. IS2-:13. Svc. Saukn. 

KHA PUSHI'I. T«L. Chrywipo-oo 

rW, tintt., nleo, IJiKU., SlNuU. Evul- 
-, Linn. J RossO. 
■ . IliN'u. CvUu)ti-us puniculutB. 
SANKHHI, MiNU. Prosopib fipiiMgem. 
SAVKIII'. UWD. Ccla»trus panieulala. 
Sa ' \., Saks. A rect of himtoo 

iliv.., -. i'roni^iiDkbyn, clear knowledge. 

SANKUYA, a hiadoo Kyttem of pliUoau- 
li3 ! 


is lermetl the 'Soswara Sankhyn' tliat whicli 
owns a God ; the other i% cnlli-d * Niridwaru 
Saukhya' or iliat whidi duuiea tho very 
exialc-nce uf n God ; the latter yim lOipihi's 
sygbcni, a sy^itcm at Utat time entirely ucw ; 
il tanglit tliat there were two primary ageu- 
cie*, ' nature' or 'matter' and SouIb;' lot ihut 
tJiero waa no 'Supreme IJeinj;.' lie asaertd 
as followa ; '«oul»' liavc ex.ii»ted iu multitudes 
fi om eternity ; by their side ' BlAnd.s nature or 
mutter ;' for elernnl a!^et« tlio two rumninetl 
■iepnraie ; nt length they became united, and 
tli(* universe in alL ' its forme wii6 developed 
rrcmi iheirunioo.' The ohjeutof the Saukhya 
ait well na of the other branches of tlie hinduo 
philosa]diyt is the removal of bunion pain by 
the Gnu) and eomplela tiWruliou of the iniJi- 
vidual fool. The Sunkhya system lina twenty- 
five principles to whieh the eotil must apply 
itself UB oljcets of knowledge, and in rc»[)ucL 
to which true wiadom i^ to be acquired ; 
they ni-e : 

U(. — Nature, tonned ' Pradhnn' or chief, 
frotD being the universal material cause, tho 
prima cautfC of all things. 

3rt'/. — Intelligence, tho first prodoct of 
nature, iactvaie, proUltc, itaelf pivductivo of 

SrtL~ Solf-cousi:iousne5ii, its peculiar func- 
tion ia tlto recognition o[ ilie veul in iu> 
various stales, it ia the product of iutelligencer 
and itself produi-ca. 

4/A to SM. — Five principles, Bublle par- 
ticlBS or ulorna of tluoga. The^ are impcr- 
crptihle to tiie groaa senaca of hunmn heiogs, 
hut may i>e kuowo by uupcrior IntoJligeuco ; 
tiii-u follow— 

i)t/i to I9iA, — The organsofBonse and action, 
of which ten are external and one in internal. 
The organs of 6en(*e are live ; tho organs of 
action are (l«e. The miud eciTO* both for 
BuUnC and iwtlun. 

20M to 2iih am five elemcula produced 
fiom the live sublle partielaB. 





I«ft its * olJ morU] fniine, ealen Into atmUicT 
wliicb is Dew.' 'One soul, and uut NOuil»r. 
These philosophic!* are milijeciR far ihn 
leiirofd of llic LitiJoo people. Brjihtnani«in 
!», «l piOMMir, (rytionimous viitii liiii«laim, 
and tho bmliiimiiic-al r«li<'ioniBU arp of 


IsL — Elher : tlitx has ilie pni|»prty nFaudi- 
bleneu, b«ing the iitstruiDeut orBOuntl. 

2nJ. — Air; which hiw iwo propcriivs; it ib 
audiblf, an<I it rio »Uo l>e touched. 

3rtl. — Fir« ; tliis bns thrco piojwrlics t audl- 
biliry. tani^ihility, and colour. 

Hth. — Water : pMMSsed of four propniiea j ' ihrve ctaHHot*, iha woi-shippen of Vi^hau, 
Audihility, lJin[;ibility, coluiir niid UaIk. 1 uf Siva and the Snkta, or thuM) who wor- 

5lU. — Enrth : pov>it'()94:<l of Rve prof>crtirs : i 5hrp tJie female etjvrgii>8 «(' gods. Bat 
auililiilily, tauj;ibttity, vulour, lastv and i^nirll. i llitMr viewK M.cni to hare bttiu grailu* 

S.'iib. — The la.-4i; priiii-i|ilc h ttmjl : like I ally bronglii to ilio prcocDi i-ondjtioo and, ai 
nature it it iint produced hot ia eleriial. but | niih the biudoo. U ia *vtiiv placL-s a untuiv- 
Diilikc nature it prorhinefi niilhiug tVnrii itsi-lf; I worship, in uthei'^ an idolatry, iu utben a 
it is tnultittidiiiouf, imlirtdual, seusitire, eter- ' henvwoi-^hip, in otlit-m a phy!>iologT or a 
aal, inuDatcrial. , philuMipby, jxrhap^, in all, a »pirit-wor»hip. 

ilie great error that lies nt thy rool of 


the Suukhya syfltrm in, [hat Uie |>i-uJuct« of 
inaLl«r aud miiid are btemlutl oud coiiTouudcd 

The nAxt hiudoo STStein of pliilanophy ia 
Ibat attributed to (inutama, uataely, the 

Uuii.ttfu Miys (lit, &i(i,) the formn of won^hip 
folluwed by the Ariau JmiiiigraDU and Uhi 
in^tiiutiuii ol'casteE Keetiblo haw romrorwcd 
uftc-r thcr cnMhed the Suilej rivvr, and llie 
original feat of thi« woraliip exteiidt^ frum 
rhe lnd()»to the(.!aD§[e*iaiid toB«tig«l(Beltar)., 

Nyaya aytteni, which con^ider^ by UH-ai)<t of 1 lie nddit thai bi-ahmauif, iifier L-roasitig tbtj 
subtle niid logical arputneni, the true niu<)<^ of ; Sullcj, iiit:-odiii-(.-d Sivn und other dcitie* aaJf 
inquiring after Truili ; and bus surveyed the ; threw tbot<e of ibe Wdit- pvrjwl into thpikadc 
whole Held of tbi« argumcQt mure L-xacily niid ' Ac'-nrdin'^ to BimtH-u, it wnc nboul tlie }'oaf 
compltfivly than any other of the hiudoo wyji- I SCKHt b. c. tliai the whiirn took place arnongrtj 
tBTHf. The llt'-l i(M]uirv of this dyflt-m i> what tho Kwst nnd West Ariauf, wlu-n all Itidii, , 
ia the way to alLiin perfect bcutitudo ? And rn-''t of the Sutb'j, adopunl brubniiiii»m, auJ 

the atisvrergiveu (« 'Tlmt dflivt-ranceinonly 
to he Mwured by a kaoivlodge of tho Tnitli.' 
It then proceedti to examine what iuMrunu'iili- 

tho religknis view^ fortiti mid lutbit« of Bm-I 
trin wcrs fur ever atmndoDcd. According I* I 
Miinu (ibo firat book of wliiiJi be fJiiuk* 

are beat adapted for the aequi^iUou of that ' contpmeO but Uttlo auleerdont lo lb<: cbnitiat 

dcliversn'*?, and comos to the couelu^ion ihal 
ihcy ate four in number, namely, per-.optiou, 
inferencT, comfNuiMHi and lekliiaouy. It ila'u 

cm) the world lud passed tiirongb four jofpil 
wlicn braliaiatilsm vu ialroduced ; aud tlitJ 
bialiiuHuiem of tho .Sanseril booka ia llial 

tniuatcly oxauiinea the Tarioits objcctH of , inyihtco-tuiutlivtbtiL- form of VedieiiatunUiua. 
koowleuge, wUicb are rt.'i]uired to bti proved | Hrulimuuisui is usually utidei-rituotl to l>e liia 
Aod known ; which objects are iw'ctv« in laicrdeveUipmcnlamlioniipl^ooof tln*aMi-i«il j 
uumber : soul, body, (tense, object, knowledge, | Wdlu faiili. liun»eu, however, exprt-t^M-* tlus 
the inind, activity, fault, trauamtgration, j opinion that tim n-gtoo uf tlic luduBntiU K-l 
fruit, pain nnd btnlitiule. I tainx tbc iialurc-wor>litp of Vedi&tn, wbilal 

Tbu Veduiiiic »y!>t(.'in, thereafter tniido it« , ftouthern India and the batiks of tliv 'ianievv 
apiwuraor^, in tliiee islageK of devrlnpn>oia ' hnvif lont; lullen into hraliraani^ni ;IhiI iiucbiil 
The govtuft of ibis philo»opby arid even it» uot iliv c«»e, ib^ woi'^liip of tb*< bulk of lb«| 
tinori|ial do<-'trit)t'^ are cuutaiucd in lliu Hrnli- i Aryan rAvr» is divided belwe^it tbe pliyitiol&>l 
mana books of the Vedns : thru ii i» wren iu gicnl viuwfr cnlcrlaiued by those wbu believoJ 
n morecumplote form in tbeSutra»uf Vyasa i in Sivs, aud lh« bero-worehippiug fullowertj 
aud ln»lly, tliifi philosophy r^ recorded in the ' of Vinhnn. Hiabroanism ii> actwmtnndittni 
(rrvuL u*iininenlari»» wIikH eminent firbolur* I to any ttiini; that fmrtokes of idol-wonfat( 

Similarly as a Romnn would wurvbip laiai 
OflifK ^" *> fain<loo makes ot^enllg^ to b[ 
Ille^•^izfd maliomeduii!, 6urli ui Shaikh Sad* 
riliMiti Mian unit .Sliaik Madar iu uuribein 
lijilia anil Haws A<lum in liie peuiuvula- 

iinvR writttra upon the original uulburitii«. 

The vuit'r of hiiiibK) antitpiity a-w.rilie» (hr 
oritftn of tbo VL-(inntic ty^tjrtu To iIk' >age 
Ba< lata vim, utb^rwiaw nunrd Vnla-Vya-a. 
The nintjit'-f^r III* btrib i- tho* described in 
0M01' ' '"f 

V loitr 

I BrHliniani.->m ia at pn-nenl ibvideil inlo »rt*-ntl 

1 branrhris each of which ban muiiy Aub-dhW 

I ifi<mf ; tbu thret! ptincipal binnthcK aru : lfl.i of (hn bln> I I'titanUsm, m> named after the ^^■^i|ltila of 

. it JKulluw* ] Vyustt- It bii» few ndbereoti^, < 

... . „ - - -- I . IdgBiTiicnLs : tiome pbilot^pbicul bivbrnaua. (^'. .wiai-J 

Aih (in itBW mies »o tliai hiuI bnvtng ' tanda of ivmpkfl It) India cvuaccimieJ to ri 

< > S only uii** tx f-niisvcralfil lu lliis 

c iu wliicli Kiihiim is woirihippiitl 

kluD«. 2mJ, (-'■■Aaui'd'N. — TbiHiJcK-tiiuerniMi 
the wcniHl frtTMtii ol' till! i I iiitl u Tiiml ( V ishuu ) 

ihe ht^vMt plufC. Slid Mtloi'vA bid liitferrtil 
iraurs. tu^eUiur with a mulLttuilt? uf olLcr 
IfTtiiir-c, powers of nalnre, nmi niyihiral pt-i- 
!«««. Iu piofestsors lire Bijflfd Vm^'liiuivii, 
fitl, StrOMsm. — TliiK tloelniifi plnofs llii- 
thu'l pcrtMtu nl the Elioilu 'rriHil (Siva) high- 
^t 111 llu) taiik ol' tilt? )I<m1c Tim |iroft;.-sui-s^ 
if till*) •locinuc cull itiumftrlvti? Smivh nnil 
liirir niimtMn aioouoU to iiiatiy millioii!» more 
lliait tlir prufva'ini'!' iif Vitfliiiuisiii. Alliiiiii->li 
^«« in tiie )tu>i ol' Ufntl'iicliou. he is iiUu lliu 
pail of proJiicrtiuiit cuiiBiilrn-il with teopvul tu 
iIm UlvB. whit'li ever purvmlen the thwli-iiit: uf 
lr»hm«, iimtntly, (lint di>utli if hut ihu rc- 

p- ~r- -V[-»nii-ut (if ii new life. — Elpkuittont't 
•if Infiin i Bhh$Ch'» Kfivjil'ji j>htc< ; 

1 ■<:i i hajtiitAttu, y'ttl, i, p. 2(> ; TtitHcuCa 
i'krtttta»itv I" Cry/««, JJ. I'M ; Htmi. Th., 
I'd/, ii, p, 13. 

SAN'KIIVA, also Saiikli/a ufeU, ItiNU. 

Ewoktiyn liihiuri, rilnKias arecnii:. 

iMnkliyji pili, yellow iti-»riiii;. 

tMUikhy« viyOr impuic^ llfiilpliiJe ofnrMnio. 

Siiiklira ^iirkh, hi^ulidiide ufarfcuif. 

SANKllYA KAHIIvA, a l»ook coniniiilii); 
ibe •yatrai uf ibe Saiikhru philunupliy taii^rlil 
bjf Knpila. Il c«ii9i»t)i of uixty-i-i^lii Aphu- 
t'vm*. Se« UiuJoo. 

SAN-KI ? Illirriiim. 

SANK.ISA. or KftpitliR, an old city in tltu 

Ktrtir UiNiU uejir Kniioj, fatnouH us llm 
(if Uiitltlliii'in I'aUleil iK'Xfi'iil troni hiutvcn, 
'•:■-■ \ rtSUri CMEXTU. Tkl. 
Chi - ncicuinris, l/usi ; Aii<Ji'iip»};(m 

idrijLiis a., i., 'Jfi2~U/tfede, xxi. -13. 
Si\NKA, or Snu(!u, Tau. Cliiiiik&licllH. 
SAN 'KUKKA, or Siiii-kokrn, lJtM>., hUo 
|M-uu, 111' r:ir-eaD ami «uiiui. llibinuuti 
cunahmua, .Jaiigli Mia-kaki-n, is a spevitMt uf 

>27fi75;I. K,<]r.8«3S5 toMifi 

• 15 a'-, *«';w ft-22,8-v. ft, (;. T. fj. 

-Vo. XYJll, 27 M 9 ; 88 2«l fi ttl.P^f „ ,, 

r« ijx, nT M i : »« 'ic> i ».£7i) „ 

SAJsKKAN'TI, The wiuior iolaiice, Uio 
laa'a entry into CapriLH>i'i]. i^ I'-nlkd the 
Uklw-MUiKraiili. or t;rrat fiuiikiuiiu, riii] ut 
Uua*nf(m. tii llio South ofiaUiu, tli« I'uu^al 
tot ' '-'A. 

! .11 Sankrofti festival h livMabotir. 

I January uii llic occaiiloii of Lhu £iiii 

_■ ,4 *''*> t*'*'!'!': "I" tJapricoru nr Miikiir. 
Oo tkja ilay, (lio liiodoo people batbe, auJ 

■noiiil llie body -with sesatniim nil, lisccu In 
tlie piHyern of braiilutiDs to whoiu lljcy ftivu 
preseiila, Tliij praypi-a on Uiib day ure only 
to the sun. They have fric-udd to diiiiH-r at 
ai;*lil atul put ou uow (.lolhcs. — H'ila. (Hot. 

SAN'KKI. lliN[>. Pi-oeopie lipicigcili. 

SANKEITI, «ee Vug>l>yiiMi, 

SANMAM, HiKi>. Aaparapifi puojab- 


SANN'A, Lliifu. Ca.-iKin oltoroiH. 

SANMA liLAKI, or Khiki chi-Uii, Tkl. 
Elcimria i'ur>hiiiiMiipiiin, Hit. omt MutoH, 

SANNA JAJL'Lli, Tbu Javininiia) auri* 
ciiluiiiiii, Vaht., R. i, !tH. 


bANNA MAiail, Anar. Cassia don- 
;;a(a. ham., huane, also Cassia Rrulifoiia, 
Kuni biiiiiia, aud in ^aona, tire Bvilhcluliu 


hANNAMT, Tici„ Crotttlarrn juiicra. L, 
SANNAN, Hind. Ougeiuiu U«lliergioid«9, 

uino PuptiluH albu. 

SANNA NKRi:UU,TfL. Eugenia jain- 
bokuu. /.am., Rusb, 

SANNA PAVIM, also Pavilikuiu, Tei- 
Porluliiivii rnt-ridiuiiii, hinn. 

SANWAflKAT, Uinu., of Ka«liniir, 
: DupliMf^ ('iitiiinMnH. 

SANNl, lliNii. CioialariajuDc«a,C'.s«ncfa. 

SANNI. Kt'c Jell. 

SANNLl, UiND. Suou of and 
Kan^i-a, Fi-MxiiiUH floribtiiidu, Inrgc H'^h. 

SAN'-t-BANKL. Nki-ai- I'orculia ealv*. 
Ilia. HoJf/s., HoTtf. 

SANUfJ, IIiNi>. Urtica lietcropliylla. 
SANl'UU, U'ibdlary of tlieHruhiunpMotrk ]i 
riueK (III liiu ucirtli fiu-e of Himatnyu, iu lal ^tf 
'io, ioii}!. B:^* ^' K.. wiiidiiig its way ifcrawh 
Tibtit, and wuttltitij^ ilm borderii "''ihr Utiiimt 
of l^iHaa. U liioii turns ^udUvidy agarlfc ^^ 
falU iuro tlie Itrahmapootra, uu^ ||» mm^ 
uf Dihoii^. Iteii^lli, about 100 ^a^^, b 
recc-tvfen as affluutil*, the Saiiki- 
Isioij, Zsau'ctHiou, Lallee Niifl^w 

SaNPU, mo ludiw. 

SAN-.SAUZ, niHi>. Ci 
of thii )>ri)l^xi(le ol iron. 

IS iiol. tiic tiiotlM-r ^ 
lialin is of Freocfc amtk 
(Irtwk and LatisaiK*! 
(if one iind tlMi mmm M 
Liie older fiitoc 1» mam 

npiiiiiMi tiaU 
primeval Ic^ 
iu diAemt 



In Imlia, Poliivi iti IVr-i* nrnJ Oirck on the 
slioivi of flip Mtiiiit-rrsiiipnn. Tlir Ii-aiiinii 
CiHnily <>f lMni£un;:u rvvm* !■> )>o rftilcl Arimi, 
l>y Ml*. K;iniii| it ■» i'<(3 Iii<lo-Kiiiu|M.-eiii uuJ 
IiiilivGriinunic of some |tliylolu((iiiu- : Pictet 
&i)i| Uiirnouft calt««l )1 Aiiuu IVoui Uw Sanmirit 
wonl AryB itiOHuing noMc ; Rusk e«IM ii 
.rnpltotic I Bciiunllui( to Mr. Karrar, ii tins 8 

llimlaa, I Op)«k, I I.ithiwnifcn, 1 TctiK.nic. 

renUn, I I^Uin. I Aolavuiiic, | Uellic 

or llicsf, iL w iinci'MJiia wln-tlwr C«llic or 
Sniif>i-rit ppptvetiw UiK ol'ler pliUM*. Hut it 
JH Itiiowti llint nil of litem wv ihe ilniiirlitci-s 
of a pridicvul fimu of ImiKumio wliiih hna noif 
rtftptMl I't rxUl, Injt wtiirli wna ^fltlh(■1l by n 
y«i umlivitliHl ra»'e al a. liiuw wIm^d SftTiKril 
nnil Crti'k ii<« TPl hnJ only iiuplivil exUlcurp. 
The Sim^(?rit lanfnmgc Ktid Ua miHliUcntinaii in 
Ilindi «n>l Mnlirali «rv wfitlcu in llic Nxpiri 
tliararlcr. Tlie Sansrrit S, is rpiirefii.'nUtl in 
Zcuil >iy A. Tltu« Snptn Simltiu or the Keren 
Hwrs whirli i» tlm old Vf^lir nsiiio of India 
ilM-lf, ami n tli-iivcd fi-orn the flvo rivers of 
ilia l'aiij.*l>, tiif^i'lher willi (Im lu^\u>^ and l)ie 
Sam-ivati, tfOL-uulPsiil the Z<-ikI. lla[itn Uindliu. 
lit the Aryan laiiiily of languages, llie numer- 
ni» u|i to HHI art' the Bnmr. 

Tlir am-ipnt Perciftn IdOpiiajlc rant of ihe 
K>il>ln"wK"* was a nt-ar diakft of lite Saii- 
m-ril. Wb are ipworant of tUe ilntc of tlie 
iiitnx Inn Lion of tlio Arian liran^h of tlio 
Sfiitilic tree into titc n>(;i4iiiii wnitli of llie 
1 Iiiiiliio Kiii>li and it« t*xren«ioD into the sub- 
Ilinmiityan licit t^iwanU Ha«tiiiafiur. For, aa 
in lliu '-Boe of Itic Soiulieru Alpluibet, il« 
cavtii'itt appraimioe witliiu tmr ken, is In Iho 
wiijitt»*riiait edict of A^oka or IVtulBi*!, Rranti- 
mHi i.f rhumlrajriipta nl Kiipard*';:iri it) tlic 
PolinwiU' vallry. And lht> );iml4-r ainuunt 
af pniv SaiiMTtt wliiuli tlio Knpur di' (iiri 
jitM'tipiixu raiTie<! in it^ text, JlUi^trtlca llie 
f)oiH-i-nd>nK (x>iivjp of thai l«nj;uaj:fi { and llie 
iittimatc Bud H«'l wry lou^ dtilaypd (;trin<'iion 
ofill traris of llic onrc ixlennivi-ly pievaleut 
Arian pharactiT. Hud in »n|ifMe-sii»ii i>y ihe 
Ui«n> ('Kiwt and a|iproiiviale l'y^I«■lll of wntiiia. 
iiidiffrnuus ta tlio toulli. TKc diief SanMiit 
auUioriut^ nf the l>uJdtli^l^ still in our 
poaMwion, Wrrc wHIUmi, at tlic lattvt. from a 
rrnUiiy and a luilf before, to a» much after, 
thu t-m of rhriBtianity. \Vt> may lie nati-fled 
t|ifT<<ftHi> that the [►Vhiripai Sanwnt aiiiJn*- 
rtlie»wlipi-li vrentill fifiMisM were cmpo-Kylhy 
tli« bt-triijtiin;; of the chrutian t-i« nl lo»t, 
how mn -h «-arM.'V \i l<^ «i*ily detrnninwl. 
'j"K ' ! ■! .-^ of the j'ouih 

),(, i*«ei]nvnt to the 


II ivnluiy afici 

•L I'rotwMX MaxMiiiki BOcnutoooDcur 


Id thero doductions fnim his n-tnarkini; t!i*| 
iifii'i- huddliifin had lK>t'n introdiii-iNl into 
China, thu tir^t care of ila tcochctv was to< 
Iraiifilato the Bncrud worki) from tho £!aii»cr{l» 
in which they weire origiDally wiitU'D, uuo 
Cbiuese. Coiouc) Sykci^ however, t>iill rt'r- 
Ai<k'r<^ from his cxaminstion oC GuuU:: < 
otilalo^ueof Chinese IxiddhiiiUuil workfv iJu* 
thu Itooks l»krt) fruto India tu Cliina, by tbs 
ChitiCKB travellers between iJiC fourlb and 
Hrenth nentnrieH were i-qually iu I'alt. Tba 
great bo<ly of tho hudJhtst wririnjj^s eoOMti 
avowfdlv of trani>lati<>nf. Tho Titctaa, 
MonguliaOf ChliH»e, .Sint'hiilt^sr, Uuimoii tmi 
Slamece b(M>kf,aroall ilct-larcdly rratmliunui 
of works vrrittiiii in tlio Intjfjunift' of India, — 
and tliat whii-h i& eoniinouly calli^l Kuu ur 
mnre coiTivlly Fau-lau-nio — ur thu tao^aa^ 
of iho hrahinan^. Thin, in Intlta proper, wa* 
undroiably tlie Sanacrit Jutipuu;*r, lhi)Uf;h tW 
buddhiat AutJioritieK of C'uylun tnajr bare 
bvpli l*ali. The Sanscrit works ns iht-y faav* 
come into oitr liaiidi>, have houii f4iuad alini>*l 
cit<-'luMv*ly in Kepnul ; tlnwe iu I'ali Ixi'i^' 
ubiaiia-d eliti>lly in N*L*|tat)l and Ava. I'ali a 
the Inn^nage of the huddhi&la of Ara, Siata 
and Ceyloo ; therefore it is conclndwl it w»i 
the Inni^uage of the htiddhistaof rpp<>r lodia, 
when the iiiEcriptionxon tlii'tiuvend Lat w?nt 
cu{;ravi»l ; and (-ouF-eiiuvlitly that they am of 
huddliist origin. This however iHijucatiimrdi 
it bciiiK aHiiert^ that >ho doctrinoitof Ituddb* 
werH lon^ taught oially only, and wer^ 
comtnitied to writiug for four ceuturiea mlW, 
hia deiilh, or uutti D. C. 153, a data BO A 
snIictniHeitt to tlial of tlic inHi-riptiooa. Bi 
dliB died A43 years bcfuru Christ. Amci^J 
in;; to Mr. Itamoufiiid Mr. llutl^on, how^ 
eviT, iht> rarlirst btidilhist wrilin|;s were lOl' 
I'ali Uul Saum:i'il, and they weri? fra»i>laLnl by 
the norilicm hni!dlii.-<ls into their own ion. 
ffiin^ffl, !Mnn(i;ol and TiWiaiL. The I' 
autliorilie'^ a^M'it that Snkya Sinba ■■■ 
sucvoaaora taught in I'flli, and that a i'*li 
tfrainmar wm» completed iu hi«) day. It » b«I 
likely ihnt ilie edJcta of Asokn, inli*ndeit 
TL'tfulale the moral conduct of llio pei>pla 
hir;;e ethould have burn iuU'lligihle only 
btiddhirit prieBtj<, or flionld have li«i>li ftl^' 
petuntfid outy on pillars fur titeir cdifHrnlioM. 
We may tlicrcfuru recopniw it na an actuallj 
existent form of speech insoinn part oflii'iii^. 
and might admit Uio tcMimuiiy ofiLpi uri;::B 
|>iTen by the hnddhista Uiemw'lrc)', by wbciB 
it in always identiljed with the laiif^uaK* tt 
MN|;adlia or Behar, the anette of Saky> 
Siiiha'9 first teaching, but tJiat thorc a 
Boveral difTereiiocs belwccu it and tho M 
gaillii, as laid down in Prakrit (^mnwn, 
tts it ocAJurs iu daiu wi itingit. It aecoia Ihtn' 
fore to hnrc bcoa a form of apcccb pocsUir 




nplt) nf Upper Iii<lia. Of PaII olplm- 
y l«e mentkjovJ lluit or llie (iirniir 
Tho Asuka til(]liiib«t (llie Sunacrit 
'-•:", 18. ncktiow|p«!EPil lii bo nf Um» 
I y, Rii«i tlif) Kti(4?lt alptisbci of 
i !'.<■ Ani-innt t'ali nr Maghmliulplin'oiM 
* a »wy cxl^n.lfil ciiiTf ncT, nnii fnr n 
Cid period ri<lnjnr<l its repBiiitti ii)i'titi< 
Oerar^ in A^nkn's rtlicU at l)r>llii, 
ul, SlftUi, Uukra. Dtiauli am) (iironr : 
ranint^ in iXu'it* w?vrrnl local i lifis 
' iioply llmi il wb^ iiKoUi- 
a bL ton;?, tlirou^lioul ihe 

of oiin Kill] llip sam«' mw, KpeakioiK «Iiffr)'fiit 

■lioIfN^tKofGiiu aii>i (lie wiiiio lanKungc, ilic Imi. 

Riwjje (i) wliicli Dr. CnMwII'n UTin Drnvidi- 

Rii id nppliril, RrxlM^rfereil ort-«h(Hirc from llm 

untne siloin m»y Ih< inir-oit jiiill further utudi ns 

far n« tliu Ki<jnuil<nl liilK mut even a» fur «!4 

Uio moiMirftiii fn-rrjeMie* of I^tiirlti-ttnn. 'I'hc 

GiizcrnUii, llitMnnilhi, (williil)'.bir-!!)ir>ot l)i» 

K(mkiini) hhiI rbo Uriy*. or the lniii»u«j:)- <.f 

()rt<>Bn, are idioms wtiiuli iire dmvpd in |]|« 

mniii frfjtn iht? •Ii-i-ninpn^ilkm of Ih* Sat»fkri(, 

ilie vcrnil'uliir f pi'<'rli of lln- liituloo popiilAtioii 

witliin tii(«o resjtot-rivp limil>< : hesides Trliif)i, 

bnrrd l»y ilieso neograpliirftl nnd Iicidc* ihc Dmvrdisti Ifltipiia-rpp, wrious 

or tU«l i( WM the re«'<)i:nisc'd idioms wliicli cnniiDl lio tfrmt-d iudigcnoii." or 

hrt of hudilhi^tn. 0)>p<R-ud to , vprnnr-ntiir iirefip«>kt>u nr ocfRPioruilly ti-ofd liy 

ppofition ia tliodcpirttirc from itti ' pfirlicuUrcla8«»-t< miidriit in ronitiHiitnr Itid'iH. 

K«piir-di-|*iri tdxt nfthe edi<'t 
llie (DOilifirniian to wbiiTh the Inn- 
io Lavu beeu auhjcctvd in ftomcof 
■tii^rririi5, tn mm nppiiritiilly ttiv 
tXn of cncli *\Ui~ 'I'be availaliio mo- 
ift contrilmtw liii'^cly lo 
1 ' clmracU-r« formnl tllP 

rorJ ill llie mnjoi'iiy of 
.iliii) tlie liinilj; nlMive 
lu till- «l('linb^t cxchi^itely lire 
ihn lcf;tMidH uf iDuunittiiibte *ev\c* 
\K ptirvly K«cal Typo \ its rlnmrtcr« 
■•uoctatcd va iha ou« part with the 
kgathoelea anil Pni>l«leon niid il« 
I* arv cunjoiueU with couotcrpnrt 
■Is an certain oUi&saOB of liie Bchnl 
StcrciMoa rcmarkf, id spcakinie; 
Naaik eavo inscriplJouis that on the 
we fiml iJwt timhmans and huddhieis 
I «arly daya of our cia, lived in pcat.'c 
vt aaotht-r, thut )>oih were fuvoured 
attfrf'T'f l.y llic rtignitnf sovereigns, 
t ':«< former, the Sanscrit Iad- 

K'- > tvritiug nnd the Tifikrit hy 

isr, the two lauguat^eB probnhly hoM- 
y SAIB« place In one another that the 
: aad the vcmtu^idai-s do iit present 
^well bvliirvvn that thoDravidiiin lati- 
^^ IO he affijiatpd not nitii tiie Iiido- 
RTbuL with thd ScytbiflD group of 
and the .Scytldan fnnitly to which 
pvar to be must ailioil is tho Finol^h 
i«n. Th« idiumt) which he IncludeB 
b« R«nrral u-rm Dravidian eunatitiile 
uVuUr hp«H-<-li of tlie frrcat majority 
ita^bsots nf 8(iiilhrrn India. Willi 
l^^pof Ori*s« and those districts of 
R India and the Pt'khati, iu which Uie 
ibi atwl itio Monilht are npoken, the 

ttbe peaiD^ulor poitJoD of Indtn, 
Viulhya ranuniaiof; and Uie river 
Fila, (NnroiBilu) to Cape Comortn, xa 
\t aod from the earliaet pariod appeara 
fwoplod, hy different braiichea 

127 ; 

The idioriDt whiidi Mr. Caldwell de^^i^imtey aa 
*' l>ravtdinn" are nine in nnmNT. i-ic.ltisivo 
of the Rajinahnl, Union iitid iIr- Unihui, They 
arc vSi follows : — 

1. THtnil, I 4. MiiU>'nl«iu, 

a, IVlugq, A. Tuln. 

3. Odnmeac-, <>. ToiUor Tinlitim 

7. Kotn. 

4!t. (}t>nij or Cnatid, 
% Khund DrKuiiil, 
or Ku. 

The Ust. fnnr lanKiingos m-e eiitii-ely lincul- 
tivnlf^I. The pro;«njtiouald6 anmlKTS of thn 
wvcrnl racra hy whom the tanfjtiajirs and 
tli»lcct8 mentioned al>ove are spoken apnejtr 
to be SS.UU.OOO aa fullowe : — 

1. TumiUpokcD by I0,Ono,()OO 

2. Tclngu H/HMVKH) 

3. Caimrefio 5,(W(t,0(K> 

4. Mftlnyaliim 2,.0(«l,Ol)O 

ff. Tulu 160,000 

6. to 9. Toda, Kola, Good and 

KhuDd„ jWO.OOO 

Whilst Dr. Culdwell re^rards llicfrrainninlical 
structure and provailiiiR charart4-riHiir» uf iho 
Di-avidifin id.oniK sm Si-ythiati, he c[uim& for 
them a poitiliou in tlio Scylhiaii groiiji inde- 
pendent ai itn other inembei-K, a? a di<>liii<'t 
luiuily or ecnus, or ut least, as a diHtim-t 
suh-f;enu« of tongues. They Itclong nol to the 
Turkish family, or to the Uprian, or lo the 
MoQgollaQ or to the Tungusiau,— hul to the 
group or class in which nil lliese fnmiliei) are 
comprised. On the whole the Dnirtdinii 
lauguagoe Jnay bo regarded as TnO'<t nearly 
allied to the Fuiniitb or Ugrian family, with 
special affinitien, aa it appears, lo ihc- Ociiiik. 
The conelnsinn?* arrived at by Dr. Ciddweli 
with regard to the Dortheru laiigunge.s are lliat 
hefore the arrival of tiie Arjann, or Snnseht- 
spcaking colony of IJrahmans, K^liA(rJya!<i, 
and Vaisyas, the gieatc-r purt of Northern 
India was pt^opled by rtiJc aborigioa) It\\k»^ 
called by San»erit writers MIochcha, I)»y», 
Niiiha^tRf &«., nnd it irt thu received opiniou 
that ih(MW aboriginal nibea were of Scythian 
or, at Icnat, of uoti-Aryau otigtu. Ou Uie 

I \t7 


imiptloD of itte AryRiis it woiiM nalurally 
ItRititcii tliat Ui« cu|iioii8 itud i.'X{ire9.iivc Suu- 
iwrit oC llie OiMifjiiprinK mre wmitJ almofit 
Ovrt-wln*!!!! die vt>ctbuliiry of ihe rml« .Soy- 
UiiNu tnii(;ue, wtiirh wn» M|iokrii by llie iih«- 
ri^it)*l trilN-K. Nevcrlhelp«s, as Uic gram- 
malirNl tflructure or lh« Scylhiftu tongues 
pni*tfi«e-» pfrutiiir fllultilily ntid pemHtunry j 
iii'l Kit tlitf [)if- Aryan h ibi.-^ who w^re jh-o- 
bnlily mmT niimnruus thtin tlii* ArybO!', wcrr 
Dot uDDiliUarcd, hill only t*.1hp«I to ■ dc[»«;iiil- 
ei)l pmittoii aiitl fYriituully iu muat losUinrr-A 
inrorp'tnitfil, iti lhi» Arynn cntniniiiiity, rhe 
Urge SiiiiPi-rit S'Mitkxi which itie Sryttiinn 
Tcriinruliii-^ n'«*i»e<l, would not nc(c«wirily 
tkUi-f etwip w.tculial ftnirture or Jcprive rlii-m 
of (he powpr of influencing nttil asi-imilatiii;; 
tlu* dpet^i-h of ihc conqucritij* rnoc. AcRoi'liiig 
to tlti< tluwt-y, the gruinmnlii-nl »lrurture or 
the Bpokpi) jilionu nr Nonhoni Imliii, wan 
rrooi tlitf first, tind always continued lo l>f, in 
the rnntu tScylhiuii. And the «-hiuit;ft whirh 
took (jlnt-e wht^ii KHiiscrit arqiiird the pr»- 
domiuaR-f, as the Aryans j-rudually exltripdod 
ihfir i!'iit<|iic3lji niid their nilonief, wo* rather 
n i-hnnge o( vwiOmiary tliAii of grninrnar, — 
n cltanttn not *o mucli iu thi; nrrnugitineiit nud 
vit«l fplrit of Uravida ns in tiio nmtcriiil of 
llm luiiuuii^o. Tliii hypothesis socms to luive 
I Ik? nioril of irconlin^ b«tU?r ihrni any nUir>r 
witli L'x'i»tiuf! phenomeua. Sccitig rhsi the 
Nurthrru vcrnnnilarB ihmspw, ivilh Ihi* w^rds 
orihoSunsvrilva ^rnmmntical slrm-turo nhirh 
iu the main appcaia to Iw Scylhiau, it ■reetnn 
mortf correol to i-upi'eitont thone lnngiiA(;eji t\» 
luiring n Soylhiaii huis witli a tarira nnd 
iitiKil ovrrwlirttning SnuKrit addition tlinu rs 
hbrinf; a tSitti>><Tit ba»t« with n Kmnll ndmix- 
tun* of a Srythinu flrment. Tlin Si-ylhinii 
nulvirnluni nfihu Norili-ludiM idioms pivivnlA 
a ^rr;iiier iiuuiberuf poiuti* of agreement with 
llip Orlwilnl Turkish or with that Sryihiiui 
t«"nu»i^ or fimily of lonpup?iif Whu'h the new 
Pridian hun lifi'U modifti-d, thnu wilii any tif 
Ih*' Dt-Ofidinn langnngcs. 

The t'K-iihty of tiie Audhrm domiuion has 
hitlterlo lieen b» uncertain ns the period ofiia 
«way. Wllfvrd nayii at one place that iho 
Aodhrn prFown niitdn a roost uouHpicuttun 
Agnrc on the hanks of tlie Gang;?* for above 
WK) yMr4. Agniu, that AodhrN and Kosliala 
(nrar Kalinin) arc ummI tiynonlmnuNly by 
fiiimt* Hiriihx> author*: agatti, that Sriearnn- 
(Jeva tnnk lh(> title nf king of Tri-Kalinga, nr 
I of the ihrf'o fhul'*^, to the Pfit and wcki and 
f-ouih of India. The general term of Dak- 
>binapefhn (Dekhanl igreM well with the 
I Utter Jefinitiou, and we may rest conteut with 
dennllng thn Snta Kami as kiugn of the 
IVnin^uln. Thirro were Andhra king* at the 
brguiamg ef tlie cbriatUui era, wbco, laya ' 

128 S 


j Pliny, Ihe Andanp kings wem very pAWl 
: iu ludiii, having no trff» tltno thiity furt 
pilien, an srroy of IUU,tXKJ men an«l I, 

Thft hiKiory of Ihn Unda aftjacimt lo Ki 
during the c^ntnrioa immediately pre 
iu<; and fullnwiug the pietenl ei-a, u 
'idle indirated in iKxdcH, but ha« Urm, 
considerable extent, irarrd out by 
tlame* Prinsep, Mr. II, T. Pi-iutep, . 
fenporK VViUon and La^iten, from roioi 
Clri'ek, AriHu, Bactrian, Srythinn, Par 
Srylliinn, Ario-Pnrihian and In.! * 

kiiip* and dynft«ti»*(>, wbi'-h Ihe !■ -i 

Sir Alexarnler Burnes, Mr Mnwon, tipw 
Court and Veolura had broopht ia lighl 
also from the engmring* on rorks uiil 
relicfl fotinfl in tnpcs in all the rrgion aro 
Kabul. The chnraftrro in which ifaMe 1*0 
are engraviMl are Al^nn or Bartrian, Q| 
and Saufcrit. On coin*, the^e arc nmnrti 
)>in}>le, but mnny dyunnlieH adoplt-il Itiliiij 
leueiid", Arinti and Clr»w>k. or (»rM*k 
SanfC'rit, the (ireck bi'eomitig gradually n 
KarlMiroU'i lowaid* the prf>eiit era, tinli 
lonj;lh, it bromnt'j' iinintellitfiMe. As 
IVinsep tellii ns it M>em:4 exiablihhed ibat 
Arian or Ufi^'trian lanjiuage wan long ilwr' 
naruliir or Ihe Piiropamitan range, of Km 
and perhnpK of Herat and Kundnhar, a) 
the Indus, for it ha* been fouiij iu the Ii 
of ManikhyalB, in the Pnnjaband on t)u> f 
at Hiunian. Unlike (he Greek himI SnoM 
it is written like the Semitic tongues (l 
right to lefl, but ihc letter* being »\m 
fteparule, they could al pleasure Iw wrf 
fiom right t« left. The esrlie«t Greek 
written nllemaiely, ni^ a plough i* drawtt, I 
tninhn of Tu^eati kinga 0|w>neil aoiiw yd 
hineo coiilnin iti«cHpli<>i)>i in Gitn-k rhameMJ 
written from rJgljt to left. The ^i i 

wlin iidopleil llip Syrinn I'harai'ter i 

hue* downward? tike the Chinese i 

charnrter wan ailnpfed fii-<<t r-n tin • 

the Greek king* from Knemridcs down 
Herniff'ux. It wa<t th<*ii taken up bj 
Seylhinuo, who crowed lhoParo|nmi«v«,]a 
or Hindoo Kush, and alao by Pnrthiaite t 
n*HerleU llieir hidependeoeo in All^lmnisl 
Th« Aryan a1phnb<>l ehanieter. l-i iho cva 
ofyeani, seeniH to hnvu undrrgoite a cJan 
and the same forms are not to be n««|pil 
in later eotns, nor Uie moiq epitlM4s I 
lilleA, and the in.<wriptinni) disi : k CO 

are all in the l^rto' «imple late ' ;. J 

ilnme* PriuMp, Mr. II. T. I'riurtt-p and Pi 
Wilnou have eoniiidered lhl% Ar^an langta 
to have a cIom afSoiiy with Saoarrit, but '. 
Moore ahont a. u. IK->H, pntfOrth the opni 
that it is Hebrew. It aeema to have mf 
9ed«d tha anoieaC Saoacrit of Un 



uilurKi'il Uy Agatlioclcs and 
1 ctf whom wo know, frxrni 

6r«ek style of his utlior vaiun, to 
mta otic iif tlic earliest of (be tirecMu 
^^fUT tlmro, Iiowtirt'iv Sttiificric clin- 
Krere enltrely disustj, Menandcr, 
own ImltAu couquorar. never neeios lo 
»>iDt'U with ibt) luii^iia^^e u( AHokn, 
rbjuh ctrcumsrHnue Mr. II. T. PriDMp 
Jjp** ibc cliarauUsnt on tliu coius of 
Hh and PatiUlL-oii woru not vcrou- 
Vd had bwu mtrodaned by tlin tudiau 
igtu, who, followiiij? the first Chandra 
I renuocd dominion over the proviaces 
by Uie first Selcucu*, until Ihey wt-ro 
■d l^ Asoka to the Great Antiocbua. 
.oikbyBln, k lope eotidljr built of qaar- 
Dac9 and lime ccntout. a great cupola, 
I liijjfa and 310 to 320 feet Id circum- 
) wia opeued lijr G«aeral Ventura, but 
m finoeu otbrr and smaller cupolas 
whicii were opcQcd by Geueral Conrt. 
wots of the ume kind arn met with at 
»indi (iu ibe PanJHb) in the Hasara 
r, west of Kibal. at Jellalabud, Lag. 
[alial, BamisD and in the Khyber paw. 
■F tlio^c w«at of Kabul have l>eeD open- 
Mr. .MasMQ. In ono, N. N. E. of thu 
which was opeaed by General Court, 
Urwl clone waa found iti Ariao cbarac- 
mg with Rotnaacoiu«aodcoin!)ofKad- 
Mi4 Kaucrkes, a fact alone sufficient 
Bale that the territoiicg around bad 
lil«r (lie tway of nileri of raricd races. 
Kripttooi OD the pillai^ at Delhi aud 
^lad, and on the Tirhut pillars at 
a Bod Kadhiya were de«:ipbered and 
ed about the year 1830, by the remark- 
^oity of tJie lato Jamea Priasep. The 
iona on the rocks at Juoagiii io 
aod at I>huuli iu Cuttack, were aUo 
sled by titm. A third rersiou of the 
Mriptiom (bat ui the Ariano-Pali 
er), wbirb was found itt K&pur-digiri, 
tabawur, has been carefully collated 
o others by Profewor Wilson. M*ny 
a*a-tptioa9 from Gaya, Sanchi, oitd 
■■ well sa frcim the cace i^nipltru uf 
m liKlia, have also been published at 
t linMB, but with the single excepiiou 
wUeta iu tlie rock inscription!), which 
the names of AntiocbuR, Pt«lemy, 
QoCf aad MagBc, the inscripliona iu the 
■ork of Mnjor Cuuuingham aro of 
tntensl, and of much higher itDport- 
aa all that had before been publiahcd. 
ipardigiii iascriptioD u on a rock on 
Uofa rocky and abrupt hill near a 
of that name in Ihe district inhnbited 
Jfuiafjye, Tha mode of reading it 

tared by Mr. E. Norria. U nftdi 



from right lo left, is in the Arian or Bartrisu 
uhnniL-tei', and is nearly a tmnBlitt^mliun uf 
that ot Giruar ; and the lan>!nAgo, he ^ays, 
waa uj use Ibraeveral centuries throughout 
that extensive line of country over which the 
Seleucidte and their ^uccessore held dominion, 
— that ia to Mty, from Ihe PampniuiHus or 
CttUCMU!) lo Ihe up)>er port of the Panjab, 
iacludiu^ all Uactria, Uiudoo Ku«h and 

Dr. Moore remarks that at least two cliMea 
of people employed the laoguaf^e expressed 
in ibi^ character, the one uniiig the Ariao or 
Bactrlao, or Bamian, Knpurdigiri, &c., the 
oilier u*iug ihe Itndli or Lnt charact4-r, found 
OD the (jiriiar roi^k and on the pillar and ia 
tlie cave temple inncriptionA : and that these 
two classes uf people seem to bu the Gets 
and Saka, the eo-cniled Arian character beiug 
that used by the Getre, while tlio so-called 
Lat character was that of tlie Sakx. The 
Lat chatacter occurs mrely in Ihe souUiern 
part of the puuiuaula ; still it ia the only one 
UEted on tlie sculpaires at Amravati, which 
hare been described by the Rev. W. Taylor, 
and while in charge of the Goverument Ceo- 
tr&l Museum at Madras, tha Editor despatch" 
ed a largo collection uf ila marbles to Euglani 
whirJi have since been described. luacriptioDa 
in tlie Arian and Lat oharaclera ere cngr»ved 
on rocks nt Kapurdigiri in Afi^baaiatan, and 
at Cuttack, at Delhi on a pillar, also od pillars 
at Alluhabiid, Bctiah, Mutliah aud lUdhia, 
and i*liow that Sauskrit was the epokcD lukr 
gnago of India at least some centuries beforai 
tho time of Solomon. SauBcrit ia the ancieuk^ 
language of tlie hindoos. It had ceased to ba 
a spoken tongue at least 300 B. o. At that 
time tha people of India spoke dialects 
standing to the ancient V'edte Sanskrit in the 
relation of Italian to Latin. Of these dialectsi 
there were more than one in Turious parts 
of India, from the inscriptions whiol) tho 
f&mnua king Asoka hail engraved on tho 
rocks of Dtiauli. Giniar, and Kapur-digiri, 
ami which have been deciphered by l*rinsep, 
Norrij^, Wilson, and Burnouf. Wo can 
watch the further gi-owUi of these local 
dialects, in the Pali, the sacred language of 
buddhism in Ceylon, and once the popular 
Iitiiguagt; of the country where buddhism took 
itA origin, the raoderu Baliar, Uic uucieuC 
Mat^udha. We meet the somu local dialocta 
agaiu, in what are callc<l tho Prakrit idioms, 
used iu the later plays, ia the sacred liter»< 
ture of the Jaina, and in a few poetical com- 
ponitions ; and we eee at last how, through a 
miKture with the languages of the rarious 
conquerors of India, Arabic, PerHJan, Moago- 
lic, and Turkiib, and through a concomitant 
oorruptioQ of their grammatical system, they 





wrre rhaDRcdtntotbe modorn Hindi, flindu*) to a reviewer of the worhsor }->n^iCat 
BtBtii, Mahi-nti, iiii«I benciiili. Duriii^nll lliis ' llut uullior is of o|i)nina ihiit ll 

time, bowwer, SiinHkrit roDtinuctl ai the 

literary lAii|{UKge of Uio hruhtaan?. Like 

L«tiii, it iliil tint die in K'^'i<>K (■>rtli to it<t nu- 

Berouiioff''>prTnf; ; A<Hlf;ircaup to tlioTiiiililltiof 

19l)i Coiitury inii'iitimk-d brftliinnu would 

rrite wiitifn'eaier tluerirjr iu Untjokrit Ibuii lu 

toognti. Sanftkrii wad wlmi Grit^k wii& at 

(he- peoples or ludia, «>f the Pei 
Italians, Gt'nofmt), blavL*?i and K>.it% »w« 
origiunlljr uiu pi'iiplB dwe-lliii^ iu tiic unbnA 
of Alia : and ihnt tlH! timt to j^epninu- iVx^ 
selvos from this uiiilvil Arian oi IiviL^tv 
poaii family, and lu pui^h tlu'ir w«y 
Kuropo, WAS tlie Kcltit, they wer« folloi 

AlexoiidriH, what Latin waa duriu^ thu middle the Germans aad them? by tha Slmvi 

jiiges. It Hii8 Che clajaical nud at iht ^nmt liloo 
lie Mioi'od Imij^unge of tiw brahmnii^, aiid in il 
vere written thi'ir Eacrc'd hymns, tlio Vedas, 
id llie latf-r workt>, liunh aa the laws of 
la and the PtiraniiA. SaD^kril, and it« 
igeuors ai-o inRoctionat Iiinpnn^p«,atlor the 
lanu^r of the hmt^anpos of Kufopu ; while 

lu Ttitk, Mongol, TaDffUfi and Pgrian, Il the . lar^o Htock of lanciiaues, wliiirh 
[aiorlliaiid west, and tbcTutuil In thi' nnnrh, uro t)ami.'ofIndo-Eurof>t'aD itndcxf < 
;gtutJiuito Uingues. The Tihouii, UuniiuM*. ' to tho Aiumco», compriHiutc '/■ 
>d all the J4apAle»e dialL-<-r!J ato monoayllahio : Afiirhitn, ArmcDian, (jreek, Latin itnd ail 
aoguoa. Tlio Sanscrit .lilTLis iTOm the Tamil | proi;fiiy— the Celtir, the siriatimi 
nf the south, and loucli more so from the 

LoiLi. The next groat awarm that 
the hire and left bohiod them the pr 
of tho MedoPei-Blanii and iJie ludiso%^ 
ctotnpofled of tlie commou anceaton ti 
Greeks and Roinaun. Hut Sanscrit, 
the laic£t resuanh^ liiivo exploUt 
theory ttiat it tvoD ttie nulunl paniut 

Tibetan, NL<pale«u and BurmeAr, on iu north 
aod west. Il has no rclatioiiii with t)t(« Amlur, 
Armeniaa, Iran or modero Peraion. The near- 
est congeners to the SnniR-nt are the SarDialina 
liuiguoifiw of the Ru«siaa Empire, then the 
ohuiral toogoM of Boom and Greece, then 
thoeo of G«rninny and the KoUJe, thto claw of 
Un(;uagm being called ibe IndiKUermanic. Of 
IheSahivonioand LilhoHninn, ihutwobraiidiofl 
of ibe Sarmaiitui, iht* alHtiiiiasof tlie Saoscrit 
are closest, and closer with Cba Lithoaninn 
than with any otJiei- knowu (oagiic. Snnecrit 
wiLB a dead langua^'o in tlio lime of ButMha. 
The alphabet uf the uldust San*>crit innuu- 
Boriptand uMetf^t ronipo»itioti in Sniiitrnl t» of 
Pali ori^. SaDsrrit, next to LJihuaninD, li 
rno^t like the Selnvonlc The Sanscrit and 
Pali are. both, deiid Inoguagef. It will tlitii 

lonieandKcaiidinnviau fiitniliea— ilie 
of Uia whole .lB|>het it: hraocUof tuuafciail 
Mol denied, tliat white it u the actual 
of some, ni tlie Teutonic and Scliivouia 
lio% it in certainly tho eldest brother 
pretteutM older and mora original fvrmtj 
all the real. Profeaatn- Mux. MUtler, 
who doe» not accept the ordinary ehi 
'if the world's a^ in bia hlitory of Ai 
SaDBcrit LiUTUlure. divides tJie interval m* 
whirl) it np|ie«nsl. into four porio'f*. T^ 
first of the>e, Uie Cbhaodaa pi:i-iod. 
putca to liitvc ]a'*ted from 1,200 to < 
c, and durint; tbni time the mui^t anci 
Lhc Wdic hymns were ciompoped. 
second or mmitra porim] lasted from 1, 
HOO il. c, and iu bymua brar traces 
(growth of a Micerdotat apirit nnd 
Tho tbiid or Bralimaua period laal< 

be obeei-rod tliat tho Arian or Saiisnril<F<peak- , 8O0 to GOO u. c. In tbone auricot 

Ittsf racea of India, pe<em to bare been clo-'ety 
c<MUieet«d with ttie Zend-«peakiug, Greek* 
cpeakiog, Latin -optvkiog, GvnaBii-s[M>idiin|f, 
■od SelaToQtc-iipeakini; racea, and not at nil 
with the Arabic, PbcuiQian and Hebrew fami- 
lies. Sau"ciit iu all it* (KtiTrriion was ai one 
lime, prtthahly botweeu thi< eiutith and fourth 
ceotaru'-f It. ix, the tipoken liingiiRge of that 
nee which imRil;;mtr(l tnio Iu<lia from Central 
Asia, and to which modiTi) urienlaliHta ^ivc 
the name ofArian. Tho Hindi, Tamil, Tt'Iugn, 
Bengali and othcra of the lauguaget of India, 
have their own a&cioot liieralurca i but even 
where thcae lan^oagp* arc ia do way conneev 
ed with Lbe Ariao stock, tbe subjccu of their 
eompOAlUonn arc all referraMe to tliose of tbe 
Sanaeril. The tjanneritn Vaol, tlic " Prrfrct 
Laogoi^,'* ia the rehicla of the oUor Utera- 
lun of aluiut every part ef f adin. Asoordisg 

hook*), the ritual applicutUm uf the hj 
prescribed with jiaiulul lulDuleneu, 
wilh a mixUire uf childish Hllegurieal 
prelniinn. Tho fourth period ia thati 
Sulruit or mphurlKiDS, in wtiicb the c( 
prwcripiioii.H weri« reduced to a more 
form and to a more prvcicn and *rirt)l 
system. Sanskrit, tlie itesl dictionnrif " rir'Thii 
Eri^ltsji hiD^oge do not ahow 
dtrivations, but mother, father, ><[ ' 
duujjliier, aiid tlie oftmea of familiar 
and ihiujifii werealmoit the laaiu io tbe 
ofmeu who d welt UD the InduA-l or 6*000 
ago, u they are in KnglaiKl lo^y. 

Qcrp^a, Ua. | berpcuL, npUk, 

The dedenatou ef iho verb earptoiB^ 
creep, with iho I.atiD aod Ureeli equivalw 
ia aiiio gircn by Dr. Ualr. In Malay, 


wonU for tlin hrmt, llio •tliouIJer, 
Jinb,a biiror pile, brother, lioasc, 

»uu, (ht: dayf to ape&k, uid to 

Sul^krit. In thn Ihu^xm^ of 
tue for ibe ran Id most romitisr 
t, «tK) B wunl of the same 
e only one in use for tlie 
It is 00 th« tame pnociple 
rmirfurd am-tintitA fnr the rxiKtence 
' cllM of MnlnT'iil words in tho 
in Pbilippiiiri* aUluiu^h Uit> whole Ui'ttiah, at Bohrs, riiiJ at Reiliah, ere iu Pali, 
MolayaD wonU tlooe ttot exce«tt ' of (lal«, 3lo b, c. ; autl the character uned 

part of ihe laugoage. Ilea.!, iu the iuecripfioua i» old I'uli — MvUcr's 
,finR*r, eIbi)W, hair, feather, chijil, j /.erlnres, pp. 139-189 ; Btii/dkism and 
r»io. lo P[»M«k, tA dif, to f;ivp, col Huddhist Pi/r/rims, p. 24, Lomfon, !9.57 ; 
taiiipl(;i<. In r)araue«e, Saufknl .Jour. Bomti. Hoi/ai As. Soc. \st July IHaS, 


Bhiiah&na, on a stone elnb, ia an mscriptloQ 
in Sanfikrit v^rw, die Uuguoge aut] poetry 
iuperior. The character unetl is called tba 
Kulda, ami is midwaj betvocn tlio Deva- 
Nagarl and the UauiL Somo of tlio vowel 
iiiflmrtioiiK wniitint;. The inscriptions at Iho 
Buddn Gaya %-auItod cavero, or Nagnrjuui, 
are iu old Pali, of date, d. c. 2S0 to h. 0. 
247, and the chamctur used in the inacrip- 
tionfl, old Lat 'I'hose at Maihiah ueatr 

'ord.4 iuT thtt liivd, Uie iihoDldiTei, 
ttw baoil, tlio fnup, tather^ lifotlier, 
li^, wutnun, litiuM;, tiuffalu, ete- 
crnoD/mM fur the hog and dog, 
F mixm, the eea, uud a inouulaiti. 
^ifies, adnmrd, rnmpli-ted, pttr- 
pect to Unijuitfie, cIuasIc. It is 
>f the dimit-nbt, earn, "with" and 
bde," Sanskrit PhiloRophv, ira» 
taatH hy Sir W.Joiie8,Colelirooke, 
>lilli-r 111 En^cliiitd, HutiKitii* in 
SchlcfEvU, \\. Tou Humboldt, 
,UBea in (ivrmatiy. j 

.lie ur Pali Inngtinges have ceatied < 
I ill any pait of India, Ijut both ^^^' 
ID aie Ha the MU-rul tanguafi^s of Moorr'k, 
ical hlodoo4 and iho buddhiata. | 
f« which have la-eu usitd for 
•tfCfl ftwribf'd on Hcnlpture^ hare 
tU&asai Vijayatnuoder, io Uday- 
a Ftotie biat) I'liiro a temple at 
al Onjuin. All oM form of cfaft- 
mvvd uu th« Alliilia)<ad colamn, 
iioe t)!' two liionse liidanU found 
m iuOurhnal wu5 in this old cha- 
' in ni-nriy niodiTu Deva- 
I -r ItAf* WkU lurjoly eto* 
ting Saniicrit in i^oiiiGwImi difler' 
ixl at it \fi DOW iiHrd, hni nnnlhnr 
I known (i« Knnouj-Nas«ri. The 
Ihe Altntml'iid culiinni if Dcta- 
alfu, iditnik-al with ibnt of the 
ptifia. and alio, like Ur. Wathea'* 
from Gnjarat and thone of Ma- 
Tlw character of the Gaya io- 
known to h«5 of tlia elevuulU ceo- 
KaI w» foDod at Afieertrhar io 
engraved with a l>cTa-NaKAiH, 
ibe Gaya or Oaur, arproaehiot* 
htA- That on the liljiinri l^t 
Ghaxtpiir, is not puri; Sauskrit, 
iBlalligibloi but its cliaracter ra 
a AlhJaib*[], No. 2, or Kodoi^- 
Hli EromeroDS mis-Kjiellinge. At 
t TtlUge of Maguu, tiialriot of 

131 S 

p. 41 ; Prim. ind. .^»^, Vol. ii, pp. 31, 33, 
34, 45, 46, 50, 51 and 67 j Wilson j Latham ; 
Sopp't Camp. Gram. See Hindoo, ludia, 
Imn, Kama, Koh, Hatnn, Yarnit, Yavaoa, 
SaDfkritotd, Sauscrila vnch. Swastika, Tope, 

SAMSKK, a thieving raeo of Ibe Panjab. 
Id 1963, efforts wei% made to reform ihcm bj 
imhiRin^ (hifm to undertake hf^riniltuve. 

Syu. of Sanseviera jteyliuiim, H'tUd. 


S' roxUirgluanft, j>rA>dt. 

Tbo trea. 

Rtxv. I UoorahAlMt llixp. 

DahI Sn«». Sagft Kfif, 

„ I ChAgnlnga, BCMOH. 


Uoorgabi ka gndda, DcK. I kUmol kaluag, Tail 

Murouva, HAlta. | Chui)|a gaidi, Ta. 

The fibre. 

HIM). Uooisltbbi. Hnto. 


Vitat &*%»., IJa^^a, Nsr, ,, 

Mur**, SA.ta. 

U«Tal. Tin. 


Manga, „ 

Murlp, ,, 

Muorva. ,, 

Muurval'Ufrs. An.-Hikd. 
howslriug Ueniii, Kliu> 

This ji^row* sloo^' uU the couts of Soutberu 
Asia ; hM smooth nlilong-aeute, Hut, nnd lincjir 
lanct'utBte, t-bannflled, glaucous IcjITefl, which 
lire Khortf't Ihnu the acnpe ; the stylo ii« long 
aa the i^lamen^, tlie hracl^ equalling the pp. 
duiM'le in lL>nt>lli. It rewmblen the Agare in 
Mime of its chnractera, but pruduce^ fmer lihrc!>, 
which are eiuvily Aeparated from the pu]|), and 
have been long kuowu us a useful material' 
for i-ordaKe, being soft, silky and pliant when 
well prejiared, about equal to titi^ Agave librtt 
in :j"iQtof fltretigth, butositi»B Quer mntcrinl, 
it mi);ht be applied to a better dcAcripliou of 
iniuaufnctiu'cs. The plant tsea)>iiy propegateJ, 
nod yiulds a good crop uoder cultiration. It' 
waa tried a^iinst Rusaino hemp, on board 
the Thalia, Kost lodiaman, when commanded 
by CHptaiu Biden, and was highly appr 
of; it hs-s also been made into fine elotfaf 
thread, twino, rope ; and cords ore mnde from 



ihh fiiirp. The ronar, the tacreJ thrcaJ of thu riffJit Lip, for u Iirnhmin mt lh» 
tbe hititlou, Was uritfif^'il hy Mvini to bi- iiiwlv Kith vcm' ; lor n K'IihUjth uti 

ol" tb»! flbre^ and the fine netkliicv coi-<l, on 
wtiltfh hiiuloM fltrioR ihuif iiucli onmiiieiitrt 
is uiailt! uf it ; die flhr»t me oonimimljr u)wd 
to make haw.4trin^, aad the |>l&i led- left res 
form no exccltcnl sod oiaL The root id 
i» A ttlight (legrae worm to tho ti^U!, in 
not of nn iinpleauut oiluur, mid i» prescrihed 
by tho iiNtive Pinctitionem, in tlw farm of 
clacluitry, in coiiBumptiv« cise», mid cooghs 
of loDg 8t&ii()iug. The juiro of Un^ louder 
Bhoot« of thu plnuC (which la lh<> Kiiiukii|tel 
of the Hort. Still.) U ((iveu to yomti- children 
for the purpOM of cIcNriiig their thronta of 
viwid phk'^iii.— Raib. Ft. /«</. ; P'oSgi ; Sh^. 
Ci/c. : i/. E. J. R. : Aim. Mai. Med., p. 88 ( 
~lO]fle, Fib. Plantt. 

8A.NSI, tlie sun, domiDating the earth and 

SANSIO. Jap. A mlddle-fllzed tr««of Ja. 
pan, with prickleA. l*faty mske use of ita 
hark and huskii insttiBil of pepper or finger. 
and tliejr «at tho plmsaur tastiui; aioiniitlc 
"ivkvet.—AmftH. St., p. 892 ; Tkunberg't 
Iltttori/ of Japan, I'ol, j, p. I IC. 

SA^'SKiVUjV, Sans. Id hiodnivm, ciwen- 

il rtUM of Trliich tho hindoo religiooixt hux 
or twelve, 

Garbbadbann, worjOiipona woman** evinc* 
ag 8i^n8 of prvgDaricjr, vomethnes on attain- 
Eng miitavit<r. 

PanuTaua, worship on (|uicketiirifr, to ob- 
tain B male child. The Mahmtta^ jierfomi — 
this AH tJieIr 

Anavatohbaiio, to obTiate mis-ouringc. 

JjimanlonnafaDa, jwrlini; tho luur of tho 
^lioad of a prcgtuiut woman, ou tho 4tJi, 6th 
[«r 8tb mnnih. 

VUhnubttU, amooK^t tho Mahrattas, a auri* 
Que to Viahnu, on Iho 7tli rotiiith. 

data, karma, coremouie^ at birth, amoogiit 
othi*4ii putting of ghi iiito (he child's tooutli, 
^Vith a goldeo apooo, befora cutting the tiavel 

Nama karaoam, naming the child on the 
10th, Illh. 12th or lOlat day after birUi. 

Ninhkruinanam, taking tbu child ont of 
%he hoiisv when three months old to see the 
IMD in the third li(;ht fortnight. 

Suryanilokaoam, showing the mo to the 

ild irbao four moatha old. 

AoBapnsaoa, feeding the ebild with its 

It riee, on 6th or 6ih raonlh. 

Karaavedba, boring the earA. 

Chnda or Chala karaoam, on the lat or Srd 
jaarand not later thao the £tli jroar, elmving 
all tho bead savo one lock, callod the Chuda 

or CTMt. 

Upaoayana, Investituro with tbo saeriflcial 
tbrnd wbidi falla from tbo lefl ahoulder to 


uot litict ihnn ibe 2'Jurf, imd for a Vt 
tliu llith and not later (bau the 24th. 
conatlttitea the Ihcija or M:<X)ud birth i 
three ravM. 

Savitri maba nnmyn, at the time 
dnjs al\«r ihe tTpanHvanif when 
is Utigbt iiiid repeated. 

Snmavarrttaiia, the oeremony 
dent's completion of hiii atudioi 

Vivfthtt, marriage. 
Swai'gai'ohatta, ufrcendtng to 
ral cei-cmotiieii. Of tlicM-, the Srd, 9ll 
Ntli and loth, are either local or m 
lions of others. Women have also 
kara of marriage. — Wilt. Clow. 



SANTAL. TheSanial. Mundnh, 
and Huracps,9peak iBogaajren nefti'ly Id 
They oi'cnpy mnnt of the BriLi»b dni 
Chotn Nagpore, Siogbhoom, Maobbo 
thn Itiily part of Ubn|;iilpur, (the Rl 
bills excepted) now known an 
pri-gunuahs ; also, parts of Wt^t 
Midtiapore and CtitiAck, an L'Xtenfll 
try went of Calcutta. Tbo Santol 
simple, induitrious, people, hooent aof 
ful, tractable nud fk-ee fVoia caeto prr 
Thieir country i» hcnitliy, their niimi 
inereA^ing and they are much fMwgl 
and prized an Iaboun>nt, by the Bcnga! 
plantom, and ou tlie railways, and othe 
of Wefltorn Bengal, and in the Am 
ptantatioDS. These tribes live a|Hiri 
tacliM honsee nr i»oUted haraleta, oi 
Dieada. The Sanul are o brancb 
Mundab Kol. They «eem to ba«l 
rated when the Mutid&h fell back oi 
Nngpora from tlie Pimiudah rivovj 
the 8ontal call their m'U, and they p 
tlie ushf« of their di'ad until an; 
luntty cjci-ui'H of throwing thcio 
fitroam nv burying them on ii» b«| 
Saolul are now moi>t numerous in 
pergoonahii, but them are macy 
bung, and thoro are sevenil colooU 
in the Siogbboom district. Tbi 
erratic n<se ; but, Lieut. Col. 
that they left their chief arnlenti 
Damndah river, from having beeu 
tho KurmL The Soolal, Bhumlj 
dah tribca have long been kiiowu 
niatcly connected, and they have" 
with the wild clait of tlic Korowah i 
and Jaipur, |b« KherUth triba 

8 132 



autl Ibr JimtigD of the Cuttaclc tiv 

mittinU. Sinre Llie liegiiinin^ nf Uie 

ith ccnturj ibey Iirto iotnidrd thom* 

iuto eninu of tliv Rjijmalial diHlrk-ti^ 

rliii-Ii thcnjforc now conUin two popiilntionn, 

llird to each oliiei-, but f>i>e&kiQg iNitgaageB 

lid to tie muliiulljr iiiiiiitelligibtp. T)te 

^total atiil Bbuiuij caoes have ouffrrccl in 

tit^m ill ciiti>>e<|UL'iii.'e of tlio liuinitii eacrifices 

relfrred At the Hbiine nf Knti, us Rimkiiii, but 

[llit"*r ini-^s ^cnoiintly do uot niuvh cure for 

Jlhtv godileK.*, at wliorie ffhriiit- Iho. ft.= UtttliHU- 

nn^tit anJ ritual ore 4>M:4riitiullj' htitbaiiDii-fil. 

rho Sniitiil And RMJtunliiili nre markedly dif- 

trvni ID habiiH, nppeutancei manncifi Hiid 

rtiatioiiul cbaractenfliet, uiid ou the Cliota 

l^afpirtf ttlHlfAii, ilii'tv diSeivtii-t>(i am vpry 

llnarked. TbeSaniitl nrun very ugly ructi, with 

itmt bruai) tionvd featui-oft. Tlify «r« a ttHirn 

r*impli\ mild and indtti«triau!« rare tbiin tlie 

^ ijniMliali, Goud, oi- KHoad. Thou>;li the 

tnial are fCun^nipbi<-Blly near the plains the 

Saulal Nfcra to be- more cby &ii<| more socially 

i-aUt«^i lliAU ttitt Muiidah, Btiuini and IIo. 

Tbry liovr kept tnoch lo Ihemwlres, prufcr- 

localiotm viirroanded by jungle and 

lied fnitn the world, mid uiilUvalf ihn 

laiid* of iht-lr roviniry, bin they have 

'Uttrrlr fakfQ lolubour for h'ne.—lJa/trtn,pp. 

151. l'/;5. 157 : Mr Camphrlt, pp. Xli, 4. 5. 

SANTA CRUZ ISLANDS, arc two Fmall 

itlaods un the wi*!'t4?ru nidti of tlio Pbilip|iiiiCH. 

BANTALACK^; R. Kr. The Sni.ders- 

wood triW of 6 geo., 1 6pe<neff, vie^ 2 The- 

linn ; 2 tantalum ;2 0i<yii8 ; 2Spicru('iiryu ; 

I SclrTopvnitn ; 1 Oftariltum. 

SANTALK ROI'GK, Kr. Siiundcr« wood. 

SANTALUM ALBUM, I.intt, ; /iarl>. 

i^MTtx. Aiiiboin, I ftkku'T 

lurti, AAiwlom UUtnl. ' Sttixbdo. 

BftaiJabikJ, Au. 

C^aiUua, Rrso., IlrvD., 
tLtlMJJ-, MAl.kT. Sasm. 
lubU-ktt. Iiunu. 

0«a.taf» mxra, ,, 

■ iiimfc Coi3, 

fc»M, [>t'K., Hutu. 

Qmulusnii ,, 



Saadal amkta, 
taitdal takAx, 

CTiaoilM)* , YQ m , 




rKaniliui, Mabh. 

L'haiKlanA nun. Halzal. 
ItiiA'aIn, Uitiniipuii, 

NnauD, New U «tiHt!ei. 
Tuh-turi, Oiwrn-|»iAn<I*. 
5<Bn(lrl Mifed, PsN-i. 

HiA-bi, Atinitir)«h It. 

CbaadkiM, Bank- 

BRKdraJirt, ,, 

SuidAD. SlKOH. 

Balhihrl, „ 

NabUm, Turn* laUnrb. 
Rimeo, TiJiili. 


Cbttodaoatn, Tak., Tkl. 
ClimniUnft, „ 

ShABilnnam, Tah. 

rhuiilniupu ebeUn, Tau 
TclU. ohuulaiuiB, „ 
Kriituta „ „ 

Kaktu kriiboa ,, „ 

Aika mmil. Timor. 

"nieayDODyiu? of this plant are aliio f^^iveii 

[vndcr «aDdalwoo<), but Arranged according to 

It^ir di?rtruioQ. This small, but very vnlu- 

tbletrce, tlie wbtte or true eaudatwood tree, 


is found in abuudaace ou llie bills wbich 
)U.'|uil'Hte thp CoimbHtrtre <liijlri«t frnra My!>nrp, 
alxc, in abundance in Coorg and Mysoi-e, ond 
(tpai'inft'y in CAiiura. In the Oekhan, thi« 
ri^ee grow* both in k*'^I'^>i" oid Ibo junf[teH. 
It 18 ufualiy cut into billets, and disposed of 
by w<?i]^hl. The f^cent \n believcfd lo tie murh 
modified by pecultnririen of soil and elevation. 
Ft is r^'iuitrkithlf fur \U a<p'4^t-able fnigramriff 
(9 a preoprvarivt' niiAin^t tnsei'tR, and in miii^K 
apfi\ in milking W4jrk boxei^, walking stii^kn, 
p<>nlioldeni, amt other nmall lu-tirles of flue 
onimnt-nl. Siiti<laIwoo<I is a favorim rofmettc 
Willi Biinn<>i(i- IndieH, It bcnrx a small black 
berry, whi-di ifplnntcd grows wirhoui. any 
trnuliln. Tlie woimI h ■;e»ei-itlly brou^bt for 
i>nlo in cmnll logs wlduin Pxoeediiij^ eif^lileeu 
inc^Sfs ill letiffth- Ao inferior kind of flaiulsl- 
wnod in prmluefd by a titstt in the eoutlierti 
pfirtof Mci'coi provinre, nnd fomm an anirle 
ofromtnerce. The Hnktn Clmiidaua In the 
rtvl winders wood (Pt(!rnrarpii») niiiilAlinim). 
The Suntsbim or Syrium mytrifoiinin, ci'i*« 
iu tht* Nortbein Circar*, and Dr. RoxburjiU 
eon^idt-rfi it a strongly marked variety of the 
Mnlnbar Miiidal tree. The attrArtive Qfiure 
nf the !<jindal tree it) deH<*ril)ed in the soka* 
" Hound the SH-m of the Chandana iwoll 
bcrpi>iit«, ou its lop birdi, ou its branchoit 
monkeys, ou its flowei-s bee^, — so the rirhea 
of a gooil iiinn arc heueficinl to all. There 
are three kinds of tandul woods xuown 
in commerfc, the white, the yeilov, aoJ 
the red. The latter is from the Pterwarpua 
fianlaliriDH, /.inn., aUo railed llaMnder^ wood, 
or red saodcr'a wood, but the wHle and 
the yellow are botlt fVoin the Siioialuir albnm, 
a small or moderate '8 ized tree whim grows 
in both the Indian peninsulas, iu Atisam, 
Cwhiu-Chiiia, Cbiua aiid, as the vatiom 
namo!!t will 8bow, in some nf the slnuda of 
the Kastem Archipelago in sotiibm India, 
it grows in a wuvy inn't from ». Caiiaru 
eoulhwnidfl into Mycore and Ccmbatore : 
its wood Ik i-ut iuto billets of ^ to 70 lbs., 
Aud jiuld by weight jii tlial It is 
burnt as a perfume, in houses ad temples, 
both in India and China, is ued iu the 
funeral ceremonies of Oie bindo<s ; is em- 
ployed for iruukii, almirabs, &c., a a preserra- 
tirc against iuHocls ; is much ueA in making 
work-boxes, walking Rticka, penboldern aud 
other i<midl articles of fine opumunt ; its 
powder is a favourite coemeiio vith hiudoo, 
Chinwp and Bartnese ladies, am liindoo* use 
it to form the Bectariao marks <i tbeir fore- 
heads ; it i-i much used fliuon(tho Cbiaese 
in cabinet work, and in the moofacture of 
fans, and other ornamental articis, and a t»\u- 
able oil, used aa a perfume, is listilled from 
its wood. The saodalwood irM U Mjeot«^ 



Cauirn, CoiiDbittortf. SkIuui, «u(I «osa In i guUrljr, iiitheArchif^lago^ where ilgeo w iMj| 
North Ai'i^ot, iHt'eivftl iuul'Ii «[leuliuti Troui tiiuitu a litright of S fe«t williout 

l)r. Cleghorn, it'* fixitilniiuous ({i-owlli bus 
ificivuM-J lu » coiifitlfiiibiu tiXiciil, lUiti lio 
tltink* il rcruiiu that willi tliv vi^ilNiit bu|>ci-- 
viiiou of local r>ni<-er3 aitd aliffht apaUranuii 
t4i uaiuru iu cleiu'ii>if llic ItcstlH of. ynun^ 
plniit^, \v\mU are often mniU'ii Oowu t>y 
Hiruufi L-it'^iHirit, ID aJdiiioQ migbi aovriK 
ut UiQ n-vL>iiut> of ihew piwmi.-Mi Id Usauur 
mill [>L-nl(iiiiikuiu are hukInIwuoJ juiigln. Id 
My Nile lliQ ('olkiir aie einptuved la il«- 
Btniy tlie i^trviiti; crtepeii* wliicli Uiiul lo 
chuko (lie youn^ plaiiU «|iriii)4iu;( f'lutn mh'U 
ilroftpivl in li'.'tlt^ei'on-s liy biiiis. ll if llii-ii- 
iltilyaU>to t:ut, aiinirHllv, till iliu ripe lruc:>, 
20 yeiii'» nlil iini] no ollit>r, un<l tti lake cjire 

aoJ 30 ftfct wjib ttrauchea atiil S f« 
iliain<<ler. The livart^wood of the tfee, 
ibv oil and onu |K)(iUil of tlic wood Will ;^ 
about 2 tlraau. Tbe wiMii iiii;tfa«en iu 
(i;rauou ill age. Tim Maudnlwoud of ibu 
wicb fffoup U froiD two otUer *|Mt:iea of 
Miue |{enu», S. ffe^oiutHianuin and S. {>airit 
bttum : Iwit fbe niitne i» al>o applied to 
wood of tbo Kxo(»i*puhlatifolia, wbit^h croi 
in tlitt Pvray iKlaniU, Kt-pulw Kajr. Ci 
L'lHiUrt.ritlm Islands, &<-.&c., U>oughitU 
lcii« ta A sulwiiituto. la 11147 iieiirly \JL 
ti>U!)oftliu tnit* MiudHlwood, prcurcd 
irom Nnvr Ctilrdouia, tbtt New llcbride*,! 
were (•xporU'd, fruiu Sjrduey tu Cbtna, wl 
il in Niiriil witb nllicr iuccnw tu ibe t«l 

Uiil tiw billfU ni-B prn|ii.*ily prepanrd nnd 

•orteil, and brouttlil into ibx »nudal codon'u. • Tltu AandidwiHid linde in tlioa^ ivlntiJi 
Theuindiij Uif<.-pru>wnto p»rfrcliuii in M)>ure, | viuplu^tutrui tu abuut «ix amiil) vesseU 
Dt.-iiltiii:iki>cia, Atiilytir, Colle^^l, and Sulli- ! ittfi Lo Sjduey. In Chtoii, it ivallEee 
ntuigMlitra and yitddn a \»rf» auuunl ii>vl-dub , £3U \tvr luu. Tlie uil cxpurtA ft-om 31 
(o ibo »lntc. Il bUo Ibrivi-i wtfll in «ome I ]toiiflof the Cbimduna iinnn.Til- ; Cbunt 
pai-hof Salem, (^timlratore and Xorlli t'linariL. I yenuui. Till., aniount aoDUally lo ubmit 
Dr. i>il>M)n (R(.-|M>rt, p. 1 1)3) inoutiuan tbnL ilic iwl. Oil of llie w^vd, or eaadal ^o-.l 
(Uiudtlwoo«] HpiKwri to grow fri'vly williuut ' fvotn the eecdi of the snndal-wood I 
uuy 'uUimiioa iii all jiarlB uf Uia Bauibay , Tbey yield by rxpiviuuoQ a iliiiJi bikI « 
~ ivi-rtit and may Im)ih:(^'U ill (|imnlitit"< In wwaU^ oil whiL-h ifl burnt by the poorer 

iu lomps.— £>r. Gibson, Conaetvutor 
portM, IS49/W I«5t). y. 162. and It 
I hOO, /». .58 ; />r. CieglioiHt CnHSti roMr' 
flf/for/. p. 4 1 ; McGtliivroya Vni/a^e, 
i, ffp.ifl-H : /[^r /fV^A/ ; Brnnrit'* ft a 
ingt in H. S. H'alet ; M. A. J. R. ; 
J R. i fP'ivht, i\ii. y\, Treifanrotr 2& 

rdeis bihI o\'va in »i»mu of tlivir gnwr 
prvM'lvt^, Hud (n>c^ niiiy bn pprit in uumbRrs 
of till licdKi''« along llt« wati'i-<-mir)M*> in 
woeteri Klnuidivli. Iltll, llin uortlu-rn Ucm- 
twy sa(dn1w<>u>l ha8 not Uie IiikI) qunhtiw of 
tbat fuind iit Lbo mora eoutburn provit)<!««. 
In the 'Jliai'waf cutlt*t'Uinili< tbt-rp an) uboot 
1 63,<)QC>tnwfl, B uumbvr wbi'*ti much «?X'eed» 1 tore \, CooryZ, Maiuiipntnm. Madras, 
that fnutd in tbp whole k'ugtU nnd bieH>llli ut' | Hurdctt "Ja, Ctcghnrn, Mf/gore ; Rit 
ibu Biortnotilioni province*, SmididwtKHl i* 
very liabe to Lhc hoJtrt-tbaku wbirli ducrvBR-it 
its value'wenty to Uiirty per nonL In North 
Caunra, lieru arn maiiT atiils for making 
Miidnlwod oil. Tbure ia a current beliuf 
that the fagniDCO of the woixl. depends on 
tlie loual crOHtaBMuota of lU erowUi unH that 
U i«mii>'b Qodilii-d by peeuUnrilien of xuil nnti 
eli'Tttion. A Cliim;«ti mcrt-lmnl meutiuiietl 

at th« ndalwood ffruxf ioi; on rucity moun* 

ias contans the ^rfal<>i>t ipiNiitity of uil. 
That ulNnrbCananii* not uflhr fii-ot •jiiHliiy. 
and i)r- <^>'«oii, wbra at tluujtul, Lricd tli« 
froth WDdatroDd by QUiting into aeverai of 
lint ripe trofl, and, he fuuud lliu wimk) very 
.pfleiont in litRruuco an ronipareil to liiat of 

ynortt- Tbre h a d<'ptH for thin wood in 

ronvtaurDeukiuakotia, wbiuh Uio pooja* 

for a fevtooutha of tho year, work very 

iWiooOy lid cheaply, folliufi, cleaaioft. 
Ibfeving and e«tinii Ihf trees itiUi bllletaof 2i { buiciHilato leave*. The wood i» of Utile 
to S| inaundinf 2£ Iba. oach for ooe Rupee ! according to Ur. Roxbargh, bat Dr. W< 
and brining the BUM to the uojirnt Alore. I sayi it ia * o«rle odoimticaimutn.' Alioai 
'Jlto uudftlwod tTM grtmi tlowtyiuidirro- ' t«ui of ttotUlirood arc umullj iai 

U4 8 134 

Mutau \ Flora Jndirii, Vvl.U.p.iGi ; Hi 
Tfteaf.. Vol. ii. /). «J6. 

iinndalwiKMl tree of ihu iSauJwich l.-lat 
id fiocn two tpucics S. freyciuetianum aad 
pnnicnlatiitn. And, tbo nameof Mudalwc 
uNo given to Iho wood of the Kxo< MrjMjai 
liilia, fvliii'h thrown in lh(> I'vn'y I«UiniU,J 
puUe Kiiy, l-'u)H>-l!pk(ai'ti Palm Ulaud*, 
Ac, but it is u'fltfM una MiWtiinli 
^w in the sunlit Sita Ulaudii, a| llawai,' 
anil New lU-hridoA, but hu boon ii» 
extirpuic-d by tlie avidity of tmtlen. — i 
aett'i fiiithrrini/s, p. 4I!(. 

mU! rpecien, or a 8lj-Qii){ly marked vurietj 
H. altiUTa, found by lit. BoxbufKh iu 
mounuins of iho Rajalimundry Circar, 
fit;urrd by him in Plate 2 of his * Coromai 
P)ant« :' it i* diiittifrul%hed by iia op| 



Iwitift from the Mulabur I'fw**. bik) t ilerinfTTRfeiwis mendicant, pentrnlly i M 
wicc na miirli ioto Cuntnn from llie ' tower i>\' ilii- tSitivu sect*., 'i'iie Ssnyiwi is n 
of liie IiiJimi Aitliippliisn. Di . ' prolVrsKeJ asceiio, IhiI hMne of thciii morrjr, an 
[>Sfa»Uj>bn«wr f,ny* Sstiiiiliim mj iiilViIiiim h iiisltiuce of wliiili in lS(i8, vrns llit Sanvjtsi 
moDjrtncHi't willi ilieS. sll-ijui cifRoxlmrph'*' fiimily iit the li-niple of .MwliHiJeo at Ituinnjuir 
OirtMundt^'l plnipK n ontivL' uf llii-> ooiiUin-iit [ near Mtniiiimlfad. AmouRJi llie Viiisliiiav», 
•TId-Iii. Timur, &<». ; tlna U is u small ir«t. llm u-rmr* Simayn^i and Vitiiniti are in a yrMl 

wMlilvnuw duwvrvf ill slalliLeil, Iriliil. nxillfiry 

rr*. leaver tmrrtiwr and ovul, iiinl atrtU'd^ 
madmi mtxni of ^ialai-ar. He ndUii thai 
R9XlKir);ti iaii)h.'s tlii' Suiilnluiii ullium nad S. 
■rrtit'olhim. iwodisliact 5|K'<-i<:'9. 8. nlUnm 
tfiritra luxuriaiitly iu tlif CuJ'-ulta Garden, 
iiin flower anil sri-d nearly tlie whok' yea*-, 
abJ ia tttiily (»rowu from &ced. — £«ir. Cyc. ; 

SANTA MAKiaroRT. See Poveiisitc. 

>■ ' ■'<». 4tyj Kyaii. 

y '..Hind. Dodotin'ti liunnnriniann. 

> 'RE, a town of Kud.iea. In 

Ac " (viinieri are ol>w?i-ved. iliat li|;lili 

[famalo farm, tUat Blunder and driicalv nrnke, 
lAu^natfal kIui{>« noil elr(;o"i^^ ^f* |>to[>or- 
bins and thai !<m<x)ili, snfk body, wliicli wjii- 
■uinift thp native t)cauty of BeogoL— 2V. o/" 
««</. Ko/. i, p. 22. 

^ . »■ ., . .*. I ,,j, ^io( Xhora^', a wa coast 

(nil' . 4 miles to tlin ^onrh. 

fc.\->f h. 1- AJKF.UA. 
SANWAK. lUvv Oplistneuus frutncn- 
torr ' iim. 

^. < of elavee in Chnia 

Kfe|i{»urt:, a Lcii^ditiii-y blate ; the Knndha 
Saawak ia a elnve fur liff, \'Ui ^Iimu cLil- 
1 ^nn ar* Dot 8la*e8, and the Ctiula Saiiwnk 
\m dtiarribed m» a ^lnTe fur debt. Aliio io 
iOmu Kut^pur, I^m<^rb, nnd Huinrtiin^li, 
[ihw* ""^ >**itwak life-i-lavM, gtnitriilly fi-om 
fibf s. — ft'ttfon't Glossary. 

Sn.< ■. ;i i;, UiKi*. Blmzya diirusa, Rhazya 

lljCflBifMict plaiit, adaplvd 10 covtr n ninall 
fiaicb or bed, id tJie ilowor gulden, colour 
rjfttaw, and r«i»»"tl fi-orn w-A.—Riddetl. 

SAVVAL I'EN, or Suualk tho spirita of 
lb* dcMrted, ain<ing!>t tlie Ciond aro wor- 
MfftA or propirinted for a year after dnath ; 
Wl penoBi of note, Iieudmea of villnges <n- 
pMtt are tmled w godtt ftn- yenrs or vf^we- 
fuScaii, aod saoriflcn are usually oflui-«d at 
ihair Sibapann or filirinee of earth. 

SANYaSL AmoDgst Ihe rtilcB prwcrib- 
Wfara hiti'loo tnao, the lir&hinai), the Kshn- 
tcyi and the Ve^ya havo to posA througti 
liv ibi^ea (aerama) ill life, the Brahtnachari 
religfoaa student : t!i4 GriliastiU or bouM< 
Altr, tti« Vauapi-nelba or hermit) end the 
Hokibvka or Sanyosi, religiotu mendicaou 
^WHMPtCt Gioitaiy. 
SANTASI. Amoogst tbe hiodoos, a wno- 

135 ! 

inciMure res^trirli-d lo {^ocnliar cI»im>*, but 
nmnngM titv Suivn, all tbe »^ti, exn-pt lh« 
yan-y(>{;i Atit, are ni fur excludMl f^oin the 
world, at) not lo admit of mai'ritvl teachers ■ 
(rirrumi^t«n<'A not imi^ommmi ainongist the more 
retihed followerH of Vichnn. In general, tho 
Ilraniarbnri ur ^.Indent, a»d tlic AvndliUta or 
Avdbaula and Aliikliuanii, exprvEs all tbe 
Saivi cltt*» of nifodi'.anis, except perhaps iho 
•To^i. The nrnhniHubai-i or etudenls nre aUo 
fiyjai'ded us 8iii)yii«i, and whvre the tei-m is 
uwfl in n dHiuiui »i;use, the twelve claMeo. 
viz , ibe Dandi. Rrabutauhfiri and ten Daa- 
iiMiiii orders are imidicd. Siinya«i and Viragi 
aiu terms applied gi>norally to all the erratic 
mendicant» of Iho biud«-'o«, of nil iWipioua 
ordure. The (eriQS M^ify a man wliu haa 
abandoRcil tho world or oven^nrao bis jjaiwionn. 
Occaaioually, however, the pcopio ilistio^uii'li 
Iwtweeii a Sanynsi and a Vinigi, in wbicli 
case, the Saiiyiwis imply Iho mendicant foU 
luwem of Siva, and t]ie V)raf{i« IhoM of 
Vi^llnll. The disiinctioii thus made require* 
u pecuUtu" exception, for besides the indiscri- 
minate applirntioti uf ibe term Sauyasi lo the 
Vainhnnvit, as wull as other meudicants, ihi>rn 
ie a peculiar cIukh of thein t4> whom it really 
pertains, tliPiio iirc the Tridandt or Ttidandi 
SauyaEi. Th^te arc such membcra of tho 
Itamanuja or Sri VaiKhuava »ect nn bare pawed 
tlirou^'h the two ih>t hiaten ol' tho l*.rnbma> 
nical order and eutered tbfti of tho SitnyaBi or 
tbe HHcretiu life. Their practices are in some 
other rctpecta peculiar : they never touch 
metals nor fire, and Subei^t upon food obtained 
ns alms from (he family of ilrahminn of th« 
Sri Vaiahuavn failli alone. They arc of a 
|p.>w errnl-ic difipositinn tliau mo»t other meu- 
dicanla, and arc rarely met with in Upper 
India, botaro found in considerable Dumbers, 
nod of high character, in tbe ttniith. Tn iheir 
general practices, their rcbsious wonthip and 
phitosnpliical leuet^', tliey conform to the 
institutes and dociviues of Ramnnuja. — If it- 
ION, Hindoo Sects. See Dandi, Hindoo, 
Mendicniittt, Siva. 

SANVOGI, a married mendicant ; Vivogi 
nr Byogi, an AKRpLir mendicant. 

SAN-Y(.1G1 ATIT; sec Snnyasi. 

SAOO-HITLDEE, Hiki>., a ceremony. 

SiAOKI, Grz. Hystrix IcuKura, Syket 

SAOUIU KUTS, seo Sowarrow NutoJ 

SAPADAS, also Atya, Maiat. Ginger. 



SAPAN wool). CiPSttlptulH Milan 






tJaiujTft, Koto, liOLiTV. 
i«M((uiifum, mUo Vut. 

Oct., HUd), 


Thv product orCa:t)ttl(>iiiiu ftapini, a tlioriiy 
tree iuilij^unuiiti lit Siam, I^xiif ^^^ Philip* 
liiiie Istaiiilis Tcuft»H-riiR, li<:ttga], Ccj-lott, 
tdroujfliojt itio ArchipL-lagu uiU the Soulb uf 
Itidia. Supan wood is itnporit-d iiiu> HomlMy 
from Sinm, imd tiiogapore ; and an inlerioi- 
<le«uHpUoii, ia Mnall rjuaitliiieA, from tli» 
Matabu- CnadL. The Ibrmtr kindti aw wca- 
«ioiinlly re-exported to Litudou. Suptiii wood 
ia au artittlo nf con^idcmble eoinmerc-ti in the 
Ea>.t. (n IM2 m much na 78,000 cwt»i. 
Wtrio shipped fi-cira I'rtIhii, tjiit lhn export 
from thoiice liM decrtasvd. This ii*laud, 
liowever, ships dye-wooda annually to the 
atnounc of 12,000. A Iai'g« qiiHntity is 
exported from Siam and ilia Philippine U- 

9JL^\yi WOOD. 

Green ElKiiiy, and Co- 

cuKwood 1,457 ... — 

B(m1 SaiiUera 6.'^ ... — 

0«inn'ut>l , 416 ... — 

limzit Aud Bl-azillilo.. ;)U9 ^ — 
Thu iiniitinl conntiiiiplinn of limry d] 
woods in Htiliiiii ill dyeing vullon. Iiii*«,j 
woollou mill silk •;iK)dn, &r^ ex>t'c*\f> in wcikIiI 
01,000 tons. In IS50, Grvat Britnin tmpof 
ed 3,670 totia of sApau vrooil vnlurd at 
to £12 per ton, dnty t'lee- Swpiin wuod, il 
impot i^'d ill pieci?s liku Bi hxiUwomI, to wliii 
for Uie puriKiKOS of dy«iii^, it is greatly it 
rior, it is ((caerAlly too uuiiouod to he uMftil^ 
fM* tiinHti);. At the Mndrns KxUibitioa 
1855, spcoimeiiH wpi-e rxhibit^d to billt^ta aa4j 
r.hips from Tanjow, TniVRDcore, Go* 
CudtlApnh. A red dye in raadu from 
aijueouH tfxtnict of tlie chips of ttiia wood,1 
but it is not reported to l>e u fatit colour, uj] 
U pritieipHlly useil fur nommnn and cheui 
rlolhp. It 18 precipitated dnrk brown wiiaj 

)4tnda ; aa much as 200,000 pii-ula aiiDUulty iroo, aud red willi alum. A dt>(U>ctioD of Ike 

from the former, and 23.000 picula from 
Manila. 3,524 piculs wern shipped from 
SiD^apore in Jtf5l, and 4,074 picuU in 1852. 
The picol ia about onccwL and a quiirt«r. Il 
fomit a large export from t.'eylon : tho «liip- 
mcniK from iheut^ wprc, in 1842, 77,694 i;wt. ; 
io 1843, 1 ,692 ; in I 844, 2,592 ; in 1845,2,854. 
Id 1887, !i!3,695 pivuls of napon wond, and 
2,2fi6 |Mnai* of roota of ditto were shipped, 
aiid iu the lir^t «ix monUia of I84;l, 22,326 
piculi WL'i-e Hxported from Manila ; a large 
|Hirtiou of this com«K to Furope, hut some 
goes to Chiua, tJiH United Suttcs Sittgapure, 
&a. 15.5(X) piouU wora shipped from Manila 
■o 1844, 0,250 ditto in IH1.1 ] and 1,310 tons 
ia 1850. About 3,000 picuU ofsapan wood 
and the same quantity of otlier ityMiotTii are 
■nuuftlly imported ioto Sbaiighap. The price 
of slraiKht tiappan wood at SbanghM wan 
tliirtj dollara per pirnl. In Calcatta. in Juoc 
2850, 4,000 piruls of the root of Manila 
sapao wood sold freely at about 7.<. Gd. per 
factoi^r mauud, ^iam, ditto S*. 75 tonn were 
imported into Liverpool in 1849: and 120 
Uitis itl 1650, from Calrutia, The imports of 
■apaa wood into the United Kingdom, in IB50 
•moaaleU to 3,670 too*, worth £}*.to Xl2 tlie 
tODf Bud this cuiiiinued the price in January 
1863. Oue Liverpool house imported 600 
tODB of Oye-wooita in a single year, worth 

DjnnKNk laiporWd ta laM. EcASforM. 

Foaa. ToKi. 

Logwood 32,930 ... 4,332 

Ku^ic 9,808 ... 1,771 

Nicaragua.,..^... 7,909 ... 112 

UftrWDod 1,696 ... 1,229 

Bif«ii....» » 8,670 

wuod in uBod by calico printera as a red dy« (j 
tlie woo<i coQlaios much gallic and taaakJ 
acids and h an exctillent nubelitute for l«%'\ 
wood, ihongh weaker. In the ralloy 
the Tenasserira, between the latitudea 
Ta**oy city and the month of the Taroyl 
river, tlic bilU that border the valley on tfaaj 
eiwtem ?ide abound ia sapan-wood. C^ 
able qnanriiiefl ai-c exported every y> 
Mcrizui, mid that province is usually Mjp^uivil 
to contain ihu tn-e, though it is roatly wuhia 
tlie province of Tavoy ; but the facility oTl 
water communi<uilinQ from tlie in(t-nnr to, 
Mergui, makefl that the only port to which ' 
the wood is conveyed. This narrow locality 
in the only una in Hie Province in wbkhl 
the tree is fount). l1io tree has a moAl 
wider ran^e, the Karens say, on tlia Meii 
Hide of the oionntain in Siam. Morv ibMl] 
Ave huDctred ihousiuid pounds have been 
ported from Mergui duiiug Home yeanb^l 
tweeo 1880 aud 1840; but lAtt^ly tfaal 
foTttita have not been so produeijve. 8apaiv-| 
wood, in sbmiilAut in die iMaud of SoBl>f 
hawft, and in the Proriocoe of Iloilo lal 
I'luiay and Paii<;iu>!iiau in tlie great ■•IddiII 
of Luzon. In 1850, there were exporlnl, 
chiefly to Europe and America, no leaa ihaa_ 
I l,0<)0 tons of this article from tbo POllt 
Mauilla. It has, like many indif^euOttfl 
a distinct naoM ia the dtfTerent langua^n^ 
the only agreemeni, and this not perfeoi» 1», 
ing between the Malay and tbo Tmranrat,! 
th« first of which it in called sapang, 
origin of the Kurupeao coraroorcial and iflM 1 
ti6o named, and in Javanrae sacbaDK. 
one Ungaage of the troe Holuccai we tel 
it as samya, aud io aooihor as roro, whilo i 
S 13G 



il ts Inliin, nnd io the Tnj.'&li or 
Mtic» *il<iilui9. It «e«n4 i>rc>l«ublf, 
that Ui'.' (-frmtpininii wliich proilupe 
fdjFY^wtio«l ori-ouiitrtcs wliii-li I'xieirJ Troiii 
Iki 9ik •U^TBo of t^oiidi lo tlie t^ili o( NVih 
Istiia4c; iiMijr bf a liiBtim;! &iK-(ie3. The 
Mftft-wood of Luzoa u by from 40 to 
M )" I vttluniile ttinii tlinl of Stnin, 

iWl < ' M iiiai.-b mun* of colnuritiic 

■Htitt. li^ tuiA rr9p(*<-t alt tho A^Iatm 
jv^lpiains ntnk Tar Im^Ihw iboiist.' (if Ut-nzil. 
•invxt. IN Inriiclr ex^nitUii from Muiliii? 
For mnii^ yenrs piisl, h Iraile in 
frtwn Mffgoi lo Dccoa 1ms Ijci-ii 
^■v iho unlive UisiK iho at'ticln 
il frnm tlie rapHU-wooil foi-C'>>u 
.. .. '. tVoatJvr )iil)», fVoui (be viateru 
«r wliicU lartfi* supplies nre niiiiiially 
led l)irou*:)i Btitifikuk info iJintnipotv. 
«fao fnuiiil Ibniu^liout itiQ vallpy of 
Irmt Tcuasscnni river, snil is s»i<J by 
■R-o» to be pleniiful In (be vicinity of 
wairrs of tlic * I loin bwni,* «Dti 
in Unhioil psk'tic^, but gviierally 
' the whole pixiviiices. 
/ |ier 133 Ib^. In ibc 
111 M 9». uJ. per 133;i Ib«. 

p*> ■ I V the luj;-wo»ni of ihe An-hi- 
whOTice It U expoi'tcJ iti bi'j'e <iuan- 
lo Europe, where it u! employed as n 
lil^e^ In Clihia ilA ilcctMTtiiiu is iimqiJ afl h 
tm4 ma ■ «-litiuiii^ tiiiilenal. Thu tnx 
3ir» at-iqattaiiily in tho wi-slein, eoulhern 
rnewtrnl pr«irim-w tif (Vyloii. 1 1 i» fit for 
illi«t! wbvti abuuL 6vu yvnrs old, at which 
a height of teo or Iwclvo feet. 
I t-tn Cvylofl have been fur the 
" .lit (i.lXlO cwts, nnnunliy. — 
••iifs Dii:l. ; Trrdt)olti ; M. 
Mutuft ; CravJurrCt Dictiauaryy 
4tlr, S4atistii-t nf Commerce, 
i, i\l »nt. Sapftti-wooO, Cieiuil- 
/.i»n. ; Rrah. ; H'. ." A. 
VA CUHUDY.Tam. Hibiscun roM 
/.lan , at^'> prououiiceJ Sftpatafberri, 
Safwiapu, T^iM,. the Howcr, and 8a- 
lirri. Tam, the plaul oCUibiiicuB rma 

*KC. .Up. a ca«h, nl»at the 5,200tli 
tlar, iJodifton't Sagatuki, p. 132. 
'EKt a Tartar mom-y of aL'coonI, equal 
It od. Kierliiig. — SimniontTs Ifict. .See 

LPFALI, IlixD. Dulpliitiiam bniuom* 


Ci05. I Liihlcau. CHIX. 

tM-iiiiIif'il and pennnnent dye*stnfr, is, 

'uct, ill great pui-t, of the 

'j:.ju&. It is made in Sli&n- 

^,lla-p«li,Cht'h.liiong. That of Hiuikow 


is oxpcusivo flud is sold in tlie form of tliin, 
diy, blui'ih scalctt which when rubbed Dp pro* 
diice a hluirih grCeo pigmoJil, USCd to colour 
dhark akia for covering epectacle esses. It 
has tho purgative properties of the buckthorn 
iu tho crude slute mid inakc» excellent inark- 
iug ink when mixed Arith lunar cnuHtic. 
Lime IS pre^rnl in the sap-cr^ca of China, 
as it is added to neutralize ihu acetic acid 
which h apt to form in this as ivelt ug in the 
nyriip of bucklhoru. — Smilht Mat. Med, of 

HAP'liARA, palanquin carried oo the 
>iLouMHr!^ of Xanibi brabmana, Taylor. 

SAl^niR, Fk. Sapphire. 

mnxiina. Ouch. 

SAPHT. Et.TPT. ITyof^eiamtiR niger, Linn. 

SAIM. .Malay. A wild bix>cd of ihe geuua 
Dot>. The Sapi tits niuoh the general ap- 
pearaace of the U»li enitle, hut hua not the 
while patch on tho hutloek ; lliu horua are 
suiiill, curved inwanl, white, tipped with 
black ; the foiehend lii flat with a tuft of long 
hair ou it, purlic-uluviy uu the bulla \ the back 
is curved, tlie hij^hest point being about tbo 
centre ; the epiiivK of the vertebra are usual- 
ly long ; tho totnl height nf an anJmril killed, 
from fool to epiues of dorsal vertebia, was iix 
fi-et two inelics ; the hair wrb fimootli and 
»ilky, of a brown colour, except on the feet 
which were of a dirty white, a mane about 
two iucbe« long ruus the whole length of tlio 
spine. There is no dewlap. The fibre of 
iJie flesh is fiiie, well mixed with fat, a most 
delicioiw meet for flitvoiir, tcntlertieM aod 
juiciness that ovur could be tasted. Theotber 
»peciL-a of wild ealtlo is tbc Satadaog. A 
Malay guide luchi Uu^ow staled that tbo meat 
was coan^er than the bul&lo and not good 
eating, but that the animal was much larger 
than the Sapi, «ouo of tlio bulls growing to 
seven '*asla or cubits." This is tlie moderate 
height of 10^ feet- — Jount. of the Indian 
Arc/tip., yot. vi, Aoe.v and vi, Mo^ and 
Jhhc ISiiO, p. SoS. 

SAPIXDACE.^, Jvu., the Soap tribe of 
pinuta or SoRp-Worl.s, a natural order of 
plants belonging (o the catycose group of 
Polypetalous exogens. It eoneists of trees 
or shnibs rarely herbaccoua plants, with erect 
or climbing slcmtt, with altoniAle ofteu com* 
pound leavitg, raroly simple, with or without 
stipules and often marked with lines or pellu- 
cid dol:^. Their inttonrflcence is racemose or 
poniculute, with ttmall while or roie-coloui'cd, 
rnrely yellow, Ilowcrw, which are seldom barren 
or hcrmiiphrodilc. Tiie cnlyx consiMt* of A-o 
sepals, slightly cohering at tho base. Tho 
petals arc tho same in number as the sepals, 
oQc being occasionally abortive. Xhcy a" 




in general fiirtiished irith a petal-like scale, 
l)at are sometimes naked. They have a 
fleshy glandular disc occasionally occupying 
the base of the calyx. The stamens are defl- 
nite, flboat twice the number of the sepals. 
The filaments are free of slightly connate, tlie 
anthers 2-celled, the ovary 3-ceIled, i-arely 
2-4-cellcd, the celts containing 1-2-S ovules. 
Style undivided, or more or less deeply 2- or 
3-cleFt. The seeds have usually an aril, are 
without albumen, and have a curved or spirally 
twisted embryo. The order contains 43 
genera, 1 50 species of which inhabit the West 
ladies, Mexico and South America, 1 in North 
America, 2 in Bengal, 4 in Guinea, 10 in 
South Africa ; 1 in Madagascar ; 9 in Bour- 
bon and Mauritius ; ■'lU in the East Indies ; 2 
in Japan ; 4 in China ; 2 in Timor ; and 
about 10 in New Holland. The East Indict 
genera and species may be thus showu : 
Cardiospermum halioacabum, L., all Indii. 

CAQescflDft, WaiL, Burmah. 
Sioja mn^uiiiaria. Bach,, Qoalpara. Sjlhet^ Ava. 
SobBudelu seirata, DC, Peainsula of India, Bengal 

apnretioa, Roxb., Sylhet. 

glabra, Raxli., ChitlagODg. 

villoM, Wight, Chittagong. 

danbaU, WaV., Assam. 
Saptadun aapiaaria, L, West lodioa. 

launfohiiB, ^u/'^, Pcniiisula of India. 

emargiQatUB, FoJU., Pflninaiila of ludi^. 

detergcDS, Roxb., Bengal. 

rubtginosua, Ritxb., both peninsulas of India. 

polyphylluK, R<Keb., Pegu. 

unduIatiiH, Wali, T 

acumiaatuB, Wall,, Nepal, Ilimalayan valleys. 

fraticQSUs, Roxb., Holuccna. 

danura, Rojcb., 3iinderbuDs. 

angtuUioliuB, Waii., EhaMya. 
Cupaaia canescenis Pert,, Circars, Kandalla. 

IcDvis, Pert., Bourbon, MauritiuB. 

roxburghii, Wiyhl, Sylhet. 

Bapidn, Cambtn, Guinea, cultivated in India. 

madngaacareDBiB, O. Don., cultivated. 

alternifoilia, WiVde, MauritiiiH. 
Harpitlia cupaaioiden, Ro:^., Chittiigong. 
Bacoaurea pierardi, Back., Tippvro, Burmah, Cochin- 

duloii, Widl., Punan^, Sumatra. 
Nepbelium ticbi. W. A A., Cliina, cultivated in India. 

ramosum, W. A A., Sylhet. 

lappAceum. L., Rambutan, N. E. Archipt-lngo. 

longan, Camhtu, Cbio.i, Cnchio-Cbina, buth 
PeninBulaa of tudia, Khaarya. 

rubrum, \Vi<)ht, Sylhut. 

verticillaturn, W-dl., Moluccaa. 
Sohleichera trijuga WUUU, PuniuMiila if ludin. 
Melicocca bijuK&, Linn., Jamaica, Kaat Indiun. 
Kolreut«ra jtauiculata, Laxn., Cluu;u 
Conignia bourbonica, DC, Bourbon. 
Dortluiuca burruaunia, J)C, Pcnintiuta uf India. 

dii>eca, Roxb., Hindiwtan. 
One genns is found in AiiRtralia, Dodoncn. 
Tliifl order i« elo:»ely allied to A''ern<-c.T, 
from which they only differ in their allcnmlu 
h-avcd and petiil.t. The number of their 
ataraen; 8, with 5 unequal sepals, point out a 
relation with Polygalaces. Their cliinbint;: 
Iiabit and tendency to produce tcndriia 


give them a remote relation 
cem. In this order, although tin 
branches, and other organs act in b 
ous manner, yet their fruit and seedi 
able and wholesome. The Litehi 
Lougan, favourite fruits in China, 
duced by the genus Euphoria ; the 
are sweet, with a snlMicid Ouvot 
are considered a great luxury iu CI 
are sent at a great expense from tlie 
of Fokien and Quau-Toug, whore th 
to Peking, for the consumption of the 
Several other genera bear fruits v 
veiy delicious, and are eaten in .1 
Brazil. Snpindus is remarkable foi 
a pulpy fruit, the outer part of w 
been used, on account of its deterj 
perties, as a soap. Some of the s 
this genus nido produce eatable fruii 
tinia is another genus which has | 
properties residing in the leaves i 
parts of the plant, whilst the fruits 
able. The whole of the order parta 
or less -of these properties. In CI 
seeds of a Sapindus, besides their 
cleansing, are worn as beads " beca 
the Itudhists, "all demons are afrai 
wood," ono native name means pre 
of evil. Euphoria li-chi, is one of 
delicious and delicate-flavoured frui 
east, and though a native of Cljiita, 
well in most parts of India, as it d 
Euphoria longan and Nephelium, t 
bootan of the Malayan Archipcls 
edible fruits ; as well as Euphoria ri 
nibru, both inhabitants of the Sylhel 
which are eaten by the natives of 
trict ; 9» arc those of Melicoccu triju; 
even in the didtunt parts of India w 
tree is iudigenouK, knsoombha and 
and where, as in the Doon in Apri 
be readily recognised at a diiitanc 
red colour of its young leaves. All 
of fructification are liable to con 
variation. The pulpy sub-acid aril 
lloxburgh remarks, forms a pratef 
the wood is hard and used as 
Scliinidt;lifi serrala, of which the ro 
to be astringcut, yields al-'O an edi 
The wood of several species is clow 
and hard, and forme vuluablo timb 
Saptudu.'i rubiginous, and of Euphur 
and li-clii ; the latter also one of 
oniameutul of trees. The edible fru 
Indinn tnul iVulayan species of I'icri 
saliva !i:id dulcis), a genus referrt 
lilutnc tn Kupliorbiaceic, is known, 
ter, Dr. Jack is of opinion, consist 
varicricb ; the Rambeli, of which Mr. 
ha<t given a figure iu his history of '. 
(PI. vi, p. 1 01,) btiloDgiug totliopcu 





.VultDown n( i 

>tn wbtcbDr • i 

*t|MiOi. {Jt abundMDt ut (be latter pliir<% but 
fooni} I)> ibe former. To tins gOMu» is 
: Dr. .Tuck 9lii(«ii, {Lin. Truiia. 
nv 13 Hjdnncarpug, of which the 

<^-fi II. moliiyflnii^, yields thu Tani|)ui, 
. . i! ..... ;., point of bitttu ttiiU flavfwr 
'i' 'eh. Xhu^belooguigioihc 

.1 i:i Jiifk (I. c. p. IlaJ h closo. 
! Inmof Roxbni-|:li, aUoyielJiiig 
iK'iv initt, kuJ Lulh Ijcloiigiu}^ to Ibc 
•iiil rti nmoy rp.spr4'tii rc»enQb)in|; 
>i- ing the cou ui^ct ioD be( wecu 
Sl'vciuI spcfifs riii-iii)tb 
'•■•fni laiilwr^, atitl e.lil»le fruits. — Hoylf, 
BaiK f'ln^f. ; Etu/. Cifc. i Wtltiamt Midd. 

^ S,«gCDUsof plaataof tbenutii- 

onler &«piinl«4.-LW, uamea dorivi-d from 
f&tM-. tii.tiRuw or luJijiii soop, tbo Iterriea of 
'' Uie epeciug being employed hs a 
.u.«! fur Mup. In Ainrricn, the S. Sftpo* 
[twitt, io Jmvu, 8. rarnk, in India, S. acumi. 
t Ifoliu^ uiid S. cmarginatus nud 
fliP hut, Bccordiog to Dr. Rox- 
\ tiVJUij allied lo S. Mfiouariu), are all 
for iht* puiposcii of Honp ; owing, it i» 
Emr aaccTtained, to the pre^-nfe of tlie vege- 
^MJ* pnaci|ilo Called sa|H)uinc. This hns 
fnevd ill manT other vegclatii;!, wJiich 
tbe pi'opeity of formiitg u luihcr with 
Some uF tliis genoA, as Sapindnii 
and S. MDCgalenpis, yield edible 
It. SapinduH luunTolia, Roxb.f in a stout, 
^v ixfx^ of v»iiou8 pai U of India : ! 
j«ui, R. 19 a natiro of the Mnliiy : 
.■ .-.,■. .-go and of the inlaud of Na^nulaiit. ) 
[& ItMjrifoJii and S. fruticoAii>, R., ami .S. wt^ 
I R - are lire* iif tlie Slolnccas, — WiUde ; 
f,///. /lim. Bot.,p. 138. 
^PINDLS, Spevics. 
^<trcw. Cix- i Kbotc. SUni. 

II in Caaam and Sandii, in 

. hut i« nol ronimon on Ihe 
L:i"afa : its wood is not used in 
J»ai for buildinjt purpoftes, is of 
'y. — Dr. Gibson. 
S. Sneries. 
Tahefk Uiyeo, llrnv. 
.X^ spteJCfl i» ihaad on tJie hills, sod in 
■kirtin^ ttiein in DriliAh Burmah 
tbe wood i« pi'ized for houw potit^, 
Iff &c. ItM color is grey, with a benuti- 
mottlcd grain. A cubic foot weighs 
In a fdll ^-rown tree on gi>c»d mkI 
t.t' fjjfr' Icngib of tho trunk to the first 
1 --Ht. ttnd average girtii meaEurcd 
....d the groQod, is 6 feet. — Vr. 
Cat. Cal.£x.,\m2. 
TDCS, »rtct 



Not unconimou in MurrRc nnil Uazarn. 

SAPlNDLa ACUMi:iATL'S, If'niia, 
RoyU. A tree of tliu valloys of tlio Ilimn- 
laya, of ^'cpuuland the Kbns&yn moUQUiuEi, 

SAPIKDUS ACUTA, Box*. Syn. of 
Sapindus hmrifoliup, VahU 


Do (Inn, 

SuBii nut tiwf, 
™ borrji „ 


A Email but hftnd&omc 11*00 ; berries use'] 
for wniihiug woollens and silks al^o for the 
hair of the head. Il fomis n soapy admlxtui-e 
vrilh wntrr. In medicine, oppljed externally lo 
pimples and abseesK-s, iiiLt^rnally in casoj of 
hi-itdaohe, nUo iu epilcpsy,Hiid nu au cxjtecto. 
niuL ; if iKJunded and thrown ioto water it 
de»lroye fu^h. Tt i:i aim recommeudod us&a 
cxpeiMoruut and for the care of cblorostH, 
al&o to stop epileptic fits by placing ita 
powder in the moutb.— i?ox6, ii, 280 ; Voi^t, 
p. 94 ; hi. Col Lake ; Dr. J. /.. Stcmirt » 
Poteett Uand'boek. Vol. i , p. 330. 

RoxL. ; fV. und A. ; ///. Graham. 

Tlip Ti-oo. 

.Sonji uiitlrt».% 





PeuDlft-ni, 8i 

fuvKSdi, ! 


l*uoli n-cvltii-tDamm, 


Tho Wood. 

Soup nat wood, Ekc. I Kankada kurra, Tra» 
Kuiikuda irou<),Ava.-Tl.. I 

Ths Kut. 


Soaji Wn7, 




Riiap- nut-oil, 




Th» Olt 




UBui-|>iinntii kal, 





KaaendunHtus Tl 


This hntidsomo trco grows in the peniusiila 
of Indt.'i, «nil iu Uoogal ; tc is met with in 
the villitgc.>r>, >I^ fniit is fold in aEI bazars a» 
a detergent, aud in many rares yields a inortt 
]iroliluble return tiittn any oLber fruit tree. 
The wood ia white, aud Dr. Gibson bad aeea 
it used only for fuel, but Captaiu B(>ddouio 
defieiilios it aa a yellowihh, pretlily grained 
wood and adds that it in tolerably bard. Its 
Aomi-sotid ui!,extr»i-ted from th« keiuul, ifi used 
nicdiciuftlly. Its coat prevents its general use. 
When ilio ^oap uut is mixed with wtitcr it 
froths like soap, and is used inateul of Uiat 







substance for wasliiog woollenii, eilka nnti 
hair. Dr. Slterwootl has iDGiitioued that the 
seeds pouuJed with woter often put an end 
to the epileptic paroxysm, a small quantitj 
beiog introduced iuto the patient's mouth. 
Another species, the S . sapounrla, has been used 
la medicine in the ti-eatment of vlilorcnis, in 
the form of the tincture or extraut of the 
soapj matter of tlio capsule. The nuts them* 
selves are exceedingly hard and tough, and 
as thej take a fine polish are employed for 
necklaces and beads. The kernels of the 
small black nuts of the S. saponuria are enteo 
in the West Indies, and deemed as palatable 
as the hazel nut or almond. The roots as 
well OS the capsules are used in washing, but 
it is stated that the fabric washed is rapidly 
corroded ; this however rctjuircs confirma- 
tion. Wight suspects the Poochay cottay 
manim, to be the same as S. detergens, 
Soxb, The fruit is used for the same pur- 
poses as indicated by the characteristic native 
name. His S. emagiuatus may be a different 
plant as the fruit does not correspond. Mr. 
Mclvor says, the wood is elastic, strong and 
durable, common tn Wynnad. — Dr$. Roxh,, 
Wight, Gibion, Cleghorn ; O'^Aauffhrtetsy, 
p. 241 ; Captain Beddome ; Edye, Forests 
of Malabar and Canara ; M, E. J. B. ; 
McIvor,M. £. of 1857. 

shrub, native of the Moluccas, with pretty, 
rose coloured, Bmalt, flowem, in racemes in 
March, and fi-uiting in May. Introduced 
into the Dokhon from the Moluccas.— Voiat ; 

BapinduB acuta, Boxb. \ S. trif oliata, Linn.,Iihtede. 
PuriMJi, Malbal. I Urinji, Maleal. 

This tree grows in the Peninsula of India 
where its fruit and leaves are used in medi- 
cine. Its berries are saponaceous and used 
by all. 

if A., Willde. 
S. fiaxiDlfolla, DC. \ Moulvinia nibiginosa, G. Don. 

Kuitv soap nut, 
Hani punguni, 





IsakanAi majiu, 
Uuilunigu matiu, 


This tree grows iu both the peninsulas of 
India, it is a largo timber tree in the moun- 
tainous tracts of the Circars, it is found, 
though not very plentiful, in the Pegu district, 
where it attains a girth of three or four feet, 
growing tall in proportion and straight. 
Its wood is white coloured, large, strai^-ht, 
strong and durable, and useful for a great 
variety of purposes. When diy it has some- 
thing the appearance of teak, but, towards the 
centre it is choeolatc coloured. Its Tamil 
Bune !■ derived from the quaotittes of lilex 

or sand it contains, particularly near the 1 
and which injures tools used in working 
Voigt ; Hort. Cat. Cat. ; Mr. Rhode's M 
Dr. McClelland, Flor. Andh. ; Boxb., 
\\,p. 2ft3 ; Aim. Mat. Med, p. 2\3. 

Aritha; Kitha, HlND, | Soap nut. 

The dried berries are brought to Aj 
from Kotflh, Malwa and Mewar, they an 
used in medicine ; but are much empl 
iu dyeing, and as a detergent : eight i 
are sold for the ^upee. — Gen, Med. ' 
p. 122. 

Rheede. Syn ofSapiitdus laurifoliut*, \ 


tree, iu the Hewahette district of Ceylo 

an elevation of 3,000 to 4,000 feet. ^ 

not known. — Thw. Zeyl.^ p. 56. 

SAPISTAN, Hind. Coi-dia inyxa. 

SAPIUM, a genus of plants belongic 
the natural order Euphorbisceas. 
flowers are monoecious, the calyx bifid ai 
toothed, the style trifld, and the capsu 
eoccous. Wight gives Sapium biiccj 
S. Indicum. S. baccatum is a tree of Ai 
with minute greenish flowers. — Boxb- ; . 
CtfC. \W.Ir..; Voigt. 

SAPIUM INDICUM, mild., Boxb, I 

Hurugn, Bexo. | Kitri nakooloo Gai 

Benjieri, Maleal. I i 

A small tree of the warmer parts of Cc 
the Corom^idel coast, south Konkun. 
Sunderbuns and Assam, with minute gre 
flowers, and iu fruit all the year n 
Capsule'or nut globular, size of a nut 
3-cetlcd, 6-valvud, thick and exceed 
hard, seed solitary, fixed by apex, na 
juice very poisonous, taste exceed 
nauseous, seeds used for intoxicating ft 
flort. Cal. ; Roxb. ; 0'Shaughnessy,p 
fi92 ; Thw. En. pi. Zei/t,p. 296. 

SAPO, Lat. Soap. 


Achrat lapota, L. j A lapotilla, Browmt 

Bully tree. | ConiraoD aapota. 

This, a native of the West Indies, is lai 
cultivated in the East Indies, its fruit, ^ 
ripe, is luscions, its bark is used medici 
and its timber makes good shingles. 

tropical plants furnish useful substitute 
common soap. The aril which aunt 
the seed and the roots of Sapindus sapoi 
an evergreen ti'ee, is used as soap in £ 
America and tlio West Indies under the 
of Koap berries. The seed Teesels are 
acrid, they lather freely in water and 
cleanse more linen than thirty timei 
weight of soap, but in time they corro 

B 140 


Iiim li>c linpn. Tfumttoldt stye Uint procpfHl- 

• -' '■■; tho rivpr Cmrnii'iiiir, iii Uie flulfof 

tw! »»w th« IruliAti -wotDcn inutiiti^ 

t.Mi.- hnrn wilb llie fruit of lliif Ire*', lIuTo 

t»\M ilio parnjmni. Some other f|iciii'« of 

8«piailo« anil oT Gfit^opliila liavo hiiiiU.'ir 

prOfvrtiPK. 1'hc liniisfJ leaves ani] roois ot 

Saponfttift officiunliB, a BritUb Bfit^cK'?, rorm 

'» Ulli«r ■«')-ir-S mtidi respinhlefi ibal of hi»ft|i, 

tail U •" ^ficacioas in rtmovini: j:n'«-,; 

f^u. I . iif mtiny fpecicfi of QititUiu, 

tt *J <apoaiiri&t when henu-a bclweeii pifvrtcs, 

WMkt* I tntber which caii be uwl as a 5ut>^ii- 

tale foTMwp* [q washiD-; woollens niid silk 

flcrthea, anO to cJean colors iu dyeintr, in 

CtiUl anil Brazil, but it Iui'dr Vmnx yellow. 

Tha ftnit af tirrtmpUa pto^lii is c()imlly 

viefiil. A vefTotalile ioap was prtparcl 100 

Ttan iC^ in Jaaiatca from the IcuvtM of the 

Anwrican aloe (Agave BCDcricana) wbii-h 

«» ffiaod BS dotr-r^ftot xk CuKtite itoap for 

«**Iiin^ linen, au't Iwl tho «upofiar finality 

of mixing nn<l fomiinf; a lather willi 6alt 

aatrr as wi.'ll ha fresh. Dr. Koblnfon, a 

utartflUt, thus dp^cribcs ihc procoM he 

•JofrtOil >a 1 7f iT. and for which he va» awarded 

S pmoi hy tlir Hoosa of AHWmhly: — "The 

Wwct I'-avrji of Uie Cunica or Coratoo t Agave 

Uniu) wpro pii»(«d hclweon heavy rollem to 

cxpresa Uu: juice, which, after being straiDcd 

thrmgb a bur cloth, was merely inspiasaifd 

by tbr artioo of the sod, or n slow flif, and 

cait ifiiu Ulls or cukfl. The only prccaation 

ononry was to aUow no mixture of any 

ueCnoB* materiaU, wblcU destroyed tbu cffl- 

cm; orUio map. A T^eublo soap, which 

lit* h^^m f'Mind PTrplIenl for washing ^ilk, &c., 

1 ; to oofl part of the 

i one anit a half part of 

J. macerated iu one ixiri of 

r twenty-four hoor^ un<l with 

«l Iron) thi» dt«oction mix four per 

ro^in. In Brazil, Mnp ia made from 

n of the ba!r#um or broom plant (Sida 

l) which atmuudB with alkali. Tlicrt; 

focne ftoap barkt^ and pods of iiAlive 

tu n^ed in China as .■•ubstitules for »oup. 

bark of Quillaia aMponaria reuders water 

frMky, aod in u-^ed iw. a detergent by wool 

4nn. SaponariA Tarrana is eoicmon iu India. 

Thv [lericaTp of Sufiindus omftrginaliis mixed 

with water, froth<^ like Eoap. Saponnc'eous 

brrlc* ar« tnund in Jnrft. The Sapindiis is 

tmi a* a nubArilot*! for soap, as Sapiodue 

■MtiaiBata. I^iirilbliuJ>emBrKlQalu?, and deter- 

ffiiK. all of tJipm. Flni^t Indian plants are 

|hi . .}.— Sim/BOHrfj, />. 5TS. 



in* Iiabit, suited for coverinff rock work. 
S. ortyuiuldt.-^ is one of the mnul cU'^^aut, ftiul 
is also well ndjipted for rock work. Tho 
pro|)ert)t«i of S«po»Hrift vaeraria, well knnitn 
in Indin, arc idcntii-iil in every re»[iei-t wiili 
ihoee of (ho S. otBc-inali^ or »nnp won, llie 
'HvpavOiov of DiosL'oridt-s. The la'te of the 
entire plnnt is hitler, Uit- moti^are cvlindriral, 
iwf» or tlin'e ft-^-t loiif;, the tliirkneiis uf a 
swan qiiill, Uuturhing above, oplderniia ruddy, 
thick, and ell^ily sufurnhle ; ikarciiebymn 
whiio and solid. Tin- lasce of the root !» 
bitter ami mucilaginous ; the iufut'ion is 
blackened by calts of iron, and tho deroction 
froiJis like a solutiuu of aoap. According; to 
Buchote' aaalyeiii, tfae(« properties are due to 
tlio pn!8encc of a murtlBginou<i extrnriive 
called aaponiue. — Hiddeti ; Etig. Cyc. j 
0'S/inui}ftnrsxt/, p. 212. 

SAPONK, ir. So-ip. 

SA?00,SiNGii.,»si»fi,firm, hut rather opon 
ibouph eron prnirit-d, lighl, {'cyltm wciod. 

SAPOOMIDILK, a sofV, raiher coars^ 
open {fraineil, light, Oeylon wood. 

SAPOK or Shapor, the perond Mvereigi* 
of the Saei^nian dynnsty of Persian kings. 
It WHS thif- Bovn-eign whoraptnnHi the Rnmnii 
emperor He niineeded the Artax- 
erxeti, of tho Greekjiand Roman*, llmt Mng 
their mode of prouounL-inp Ardci^hir. Atde- 
shir BabeL;an, the eon of Sa&snn, wa» nu ofGccr 
of tho Parthian king, Ar«iCP!"ArtobanK9 V, aiid 
awtnmwl the Persian ihrone as the flint of the 
Sassanian dynasty iu a.d. 226 ; his siieressor 
was the Shupur or Sapor who eapiuved the 
emperor Viilerian. There were other Artax* 
erxes *he first in a.d. 381, ami the ^erond in 
A.l>. ^29, and ltir> Sus^^anian dynasty ended in 
A.I)., 6-U, wlieu Yezdejird or IrdejiM iii, was 
overthrown by the mahoraedans. Ariaxeixe* 
Lou^imnnu8 wan the Kui Buhnian or Adn!<hir 
dnraz-dast of the Kainniiin dynaity of Pcisinn 
kiugfi. Arlaxerxes Mnemon, a Perfiiaii king, 
B.C- 43t>, nt whoso court Ctexiaa resided for 
some yeArs. After Stjiax, Ctesias waa the 
next hiatoriau ia India, and iu his Indica cap. 
It., p. 190, he mentions that ArtaxeiTes 
MDemon and his mother Paraxaly^ pre«!nted 
him with two iron swords, which when plant- 
ed in the earth, averted clouds, hail and 
strokes of lightning. This is the fimt notice 
of tho lightning conductor. — Prinsep ht/ 
Thomas. See Gi-eeks of Asia, Kabul, Pergiau 
kings Scylax, Lightning cnndiictnr. 

SAPOTACE^T:, Ettdt. The Sappodilla 
tribe of plnntf, comprise 5 genera, 22 sp., viz., 
2 Cht7i<ophyIlum ; 5 Mimusop? : 7 Bafsia 

■- RTA, a genus of very ornameti- H Sideroxylon ; Slsonandra ; which may bo 

Ul -iiig to the order Silenaceie, i ihas shown 

wiiii jL ..; -,.u. ie? of rose coloured, piak or 
yaflow flowers : S. prDcuioboDS from its tnil- 
141 S 

Achna Mpata, Limn., Ewt aud West Indiea. 
•Mnhflofa, Poir., Manritiux. 






Lucuin«*B»»mmo»B, /•«»., Ani^rwo.CliIttft, Rul Mid binisoJ nncl iiiUbcil up to tlio OOnaiSteaejr oF 

'''''"'':la?to.A..E..DdW.I«.1KS.Aou.ri^ eremn. aud subjected lo n m«Icn. to !>««««- 
': Don.. A««m, Kltut^k. lu ncroOi bag ; Ui« oil cutia-oujs iinmctltatirlT^fl 

pnobii, H. Dim., Buurbon, Mauri- 1 >t 19 cxprepHcJ, aiiU ruUiilis il« iiousivlmaf ^ 

Mt n teni|K>rtttun) of 9i*. — LiMdhy, Fi. MrJ^ 
p. SHia ; 0'ShaHqhnf»$y,p. 427 ; HoifU III. 
tiim. Bot., pp. 2(i2-e3 ; iioAb., Am. Hes^ 
SAPOTA, Spteies. 

'l>.» 11 .ij^i. Lint., MoluccJkB. Ceylon, IwUi 

l^!iiit]«iUu of IntLU, B^iDgal, SyUi«t. 
oUiihIoUi)*, Lata., Udiiritlua. 
kikuki, /~, Ji-Jil/u-, Uottr, MnUjr ImUmIs, N«w 

JfnlUnil, Moliiocaa. 
bexaoitruauB, X-}tif., Cirvnr inoiuit>Ui)&. DoiuUijr. 
MytbntsyloR, ffufer, llvurbaa, MAuntiiu. 
Dum l<>n«ifuliii, t^, C«]'1mi, U*labikr, Coruiuiudel. 
MTicca, //(., JikTa. 
Utifolu, AuA,, Pooiuaub at Imlia, U«lwa. 

but)-iuc«ie. Ih^.. Nopal, Atmonb. 
inrkd, ti Don., Wwt AMca. 

rogiuin, IVal'., l'.'gg. 
oiaoriuin, /xin., SlnuHtiiih 
tonenfiEinTi, If"'^., Otisiitx, 

Unwiii :ti«]U of Icdkt 

gtitu, UaUy lViitti*iiU, Java. Itomco. 

Tlila nntural orJur of trees or almib^ Iwve 
simple nixl allcrunio leuves, flower? solilsiy, 
oi- in roxctvlL-s nt Uie axillai of tlie leateis 
gor^oil with a milky wliitu juiw, Nu iuili- 
vMiial of t\ui urdfi- h rctA\y (Iitugd-ouj>, tlio 
Juice beiii^ tle%'ot(l of ocriil or iriitaliii^ pro* 
pci-lic». The Imrks of mauy species are 
ulriugoot, tho fmitA pulpy. floiJiilc>U5, and 
eilible. Thu bcuiIs eotitaiu nn oil )'ii;ti in f.'f!'''* 
Dtearmc. Ihft l>uru?r iroe oi Inaia, /ind of ssflicntio, 
Maogu Piiric. lltu^iu Luryrnccn, i:^ uue of Suj-hir, 
iJiEs fiuuily : it nlso coulniiib tiie Side roxy loo, 
ur ii-uti wood ; tho Aolii-an »ipoiJi, Snpoditlft 
plant, bail dtilicloiiii fruit with very bitltr 
flced^bulierediii MarLinii|itc to be powdrfully 
diuretic : tlto bark is dttmiid a subbliiutc 
for ciuiJionji. Tb« lodion Supotcn spread 
rroiii tliu Iiilnnds of tbo Indinti Arrhi|X'ln^o 
aloii;; tliO Miibiynu poitinftuiH to Sylhet, and 

rrt. T 

A tree of tli6 wo^U'tii proviace of Coyli 
I tho iMTries nrwhicli arc caiwi ty the iiatirrt. 
The wood ii little durable, Josliiig ouly 10 
yi'snt, but it is tiiK-d in voaimuti bnnt-i; Ituildiag 
pur[>oK-9. A cubic foot weighs 39 lbs,— iff- 

SAI'OTA, Speeir,f 

Fdavpau), Binni. 

In TflToy. n very largo ti«e, used la boiW- 
iog — Dr. tf aUh-h. 

HAPOTA Krj-::NCOIDES, .-f. DC, 1 
Prod. A Iarn« li-ee of tLe hut, drier rmrUflT 
llie ialiiiid of Ct-ytoii, commaii nn liie Neil- 
gbvrrii'fi, wotnl ^ironjr and elaxtio like* llw 
biiwllionif buriiH well when grpeo. — Z%«^ 
A'«. PI Hn/t., p. !7J ; if r Ivor, M. E. 

SAl»PAN-WO01>. Wocl of CicMlpliiii 
wippnn, h. ; Soi" Dyes, Uakani, Piitang, SsuaB, 

SAFPHIR. IlKK. Sapphini. 









Ssfiro, SftJlr, 




llDtn, T«1L 

from Umt to Niiiial, nli«i« the Iliuteia bmyraccu 

id found, OS wtdl aa in tho uei;;libourhood of . i!uiii[n:(udcul3 wore eiigi-nvci]. 

Almoro. Tbd must remurkablo pnxluct | pOKd to piescrvc the sight. 

ifl dint of the Fulwa w Phulwara, RiuiJiia 

lintyruiHUi, tho butter or ^beii tree of (he 

Almoninud Nepul llilU, which la of a delicate 

whit« colour, and of the coiisisteu«« of tiia- hud, 

bot without any di«tgreeable bmi'll ; it is 

highly OHt«emed as aliuimeutin rhcutnali»m, 

coDUiietion of tbo Wxahs, &c^ and wbeii usod 

by Djitirea of rank \a frequently impregoated 

witkaorae fi-a^riuit atar ; the tree very much 

iwombloa B. Utifulia but may be dUtlnguisb- 

Cil by its niuuh Ium dctiliy eonda and more i tturfncc^ ; it alfm occurs smutilar. When 

numtToun stamoUH ; it grows on tlm fiouthurn surface v* pdIikIkmI, a slur of ^tx rays 

lupect of the Almora UilU, floncriu^ iu i ponding with ibo bcxogouat form, ia to 

Toiuufy and riiH-niug its fruit in Au^u»t ; specimcuH aecn within the erystal. 
icU, otiout the (ize and shape of ! sapphire raoka next to the diamond in 
tATDefisily extniL'tcd from tbc Moooth I no8s. The Mpphire u used tu the jc 
' >tir()d |XM J<-Arpt>, whou tttcy are ! of wAtdica ; the oricautl roby, of floo 

Coiniodum, if irani-hicoDt, whoa red ifttbe 
nritnUil ruby ; when blue a sapphiro, irkaB 
t;ruc-n it ta tho oriental etuei-aUl, and wkn 
yellow a topuz. Sapphire (MipphlruA) vidi 
Ibe ancients, wa« n generic ttrm (ur ;lI' ' '■ - 
gems. It was on tablets of tJie ^■■'\ 
m ofieii ni«ntiQQ«d In holy writ, that Uk 

U waa 
It ocean: 
ports of India. \a Iho art«, mInrraU 
olii(!r colours arc also styled sapphire, 
Dfimes being dependent on tbvit col 
Wbiic snpphirc, i» traufljiaront or trauib 
the oriental umelliyet '\% purple ; tbe 
entui topaz, yellow ; the oriental ei 
grceu : aud vtytao other varietiea or- 
the chatoyant aud tho opaleflv«nt b: 

Chouiicnity, napphire is a par© atuin 
occurs in six-^ided primns t^n wiili uac 



wh frnw<<, w more vnluaMe itian » 
^f cqnnl weight. In Mr. Ilojie's 
te a bhio f>iip))hiri; wbioli cost 
iSapphiire oneurH in Cuylon, in tlola> 
I' piece (lug out o( nlluviuni tii^r 
N, ID 1853, WHS vh]ym\ ai £1,000. 
Aij sspphirett nrc ffiuml in tlie sani« 
MMbe ruMc^, l)ut ara. mticli mom 
^KL<iiorn1l)- iif u IwfiCer »r/.e. Snp- 
n?n or fiftoen niiti witlioitt s flsiw 
fetii, wherMis a pcrl'i^t^l i-uby of llmt 

ErHly ever peen. Tii« vuliit' of tlit 
lie? nnd Kiippliirc?, oliriuiict) in n 
itv frnm I j to l| k<', fi-oiii £I2.(K>4) 
10. Dr Ilflf'cr writing from Mei*- 
' *' n Kai-en informH liini that 
>ta« i)lnnr.'« are (n 1w l)n<l, wttit'li the 
te cyllwit Biiil cjiiry to Bimgkok. 
il lilt* piapc UH eigllt i!«T?' (listrtiK, 
^tknow whether it y>n^ tinthU or 
Tim p-ptfa Ni[»pliire, or ont'iiliil 
m, Is oMvn !:r<fn for fn\v mimti}; Ihc 
he rc<l Wjiphirc, or niUy, or 
In liroii^lit fiiiTii ntimtiili, wlirre 
lb llto commnii litiii- !^ii|tpliirp, 
!i«f \-m\\f-y of the Suhvcii. Tlir 
^1 il liy liio Aaiiie namo tiiiii 
Iwt p vwiom finniot, uod ilo not n|>- 
|Hwuya hI>1u to (Ii4tin';iii»li tlifm. 
^Hppiiirp, or orieiitiil anrethr-'t. i» 
ihe ^urnc Iticaliticft u-i ttiu cinumoii 
I Conindam pn)ijvtiiit', ruUy, i-mviMM 
K aru fodtiil in pTi-nt til)iini(uii«-e in 
^ula of Inilin Imt not wttli fiiflicicnt 
\ne to be vitluable nit pi^MrioUii 
(tome ^mall fhijimcnts of 5AppIiire 
pine], with llie mntrix in wliirL il 
fere cKhi^iit-J fium Masnlipatuui. 
L in roluur, xnry fiom wliitu to 
ftut l)liie aixl blank, biit filoiio^ hw 
varied hues. If helJ in water, 
ipp4, Uiefic coloan'd aitil tiDiniloinvi) 
fiU lie sctii, A very {^ood Min.- 
^^ke cnnit weight wutiM liii'in;L; £20. 
^^■pphire h '■omctiinc'i fiolil ns n 
^^e mlnniHiiT dcscnWcrl by I'lii)}'. 
RRRti of Pn>fei>^t>or TfUimni, was n 
.as proTc^l by iw form, and by tlic 
Itvhpn struck on nil aiivit by n Irarn- 
rmlit make nti iinii'iilation in ibc 
I tniBdiitnionJ, 60 tr('iitc«l, iroitlJ tly 
Lmmd pieces. Bnppliiro {Biip[>hrni^> 
BDcIriits WBo R (;cnfric term for nil 
k Ttiti fftpphti'c of (lie Greeks mid 
■ ■ I I'd ns in«"rmixeil nidi {.'i.Id 

'Ir. Emiiiaiiiicl, iliiit of S<-rip. 
^^wuparcnt Muc Elonc — A'm- 
HmPC^f., p. 151 ; Tomtiitson i 

INK h ralcedon/ tinged witli 

SAPi*nrRi:<K gi:knard. CutIc 

nic-iiiiuiis (lull, iu India, there arc epefic 
allied to Trigln htrundo Ihe eappliiritie gui 

SAPPHIRi;.'?. r,AT. Sapphiro. 


nllird to Unfflesiri, wbicli was dim'nirorud i| 
the .^K•am mountxina by Giilfilh, \s Llie tnofti 
rcmiitk.-ililc foiin kimwii tn iM-cnr lliri-e. 

SAPKOTKI. HiNU. Knxifi-uca U'.'ulala. 


SAI'UI.OKUA HANDEK, eco -lohorc. 

SAl'lJN, A river of Bnitool. 

SAPL'SUND, Rv.sG. Anilicrhoa mosi^hnt 

SAH, lIiND,, Pi^K«,, the heail. ofteu em* 
ployi-^l to fiirm corrpuund ■won!*', Snrdar, a 
rl,i«*f ; Sar-kar, a governmeut, n head H-rvaul : 
Snrliiid, n boimdnry; Nnrranliladar, the heni) of 
11 deparlment ; Snr-hnrd hejid'Wtidci, is Iho 
soiirco of tho lurbuii, Uiu e being 4:lmitginl 
into I. 

SAU, nisn., *icc Sarkara. 

SAlt, or Sm", IIiKif., a graw, Ttnperala 

SAR, also Mi-a, IItKi>. Sacdiarnm Mra. 

SAKA, Sandi, wit'i- of Abmbnm. ^ 

SARA, HiMi. Pii-t-a wcbbiaua. 1 


SAR, RAl.roii, iJio northern huUx\ from 
the juuulion of the Punjuh rivers lo the town 
uf Sihwiin. It is nUo n Slavonir ivnrd fiut- 
Ifrcr iiiid Nh-I)ul(r mentiob that SnurotuiitA 
mear.R uortiiorii i^K'def, and norih of the 
CiiUPHRus wree the proviiK-o in)d tribe of 
Siraccnp. — fCIUof, Hist, of i£inJ. 

SARARAS, se« Kyaii. 

f>AflACKN, *ee Aero, Knsr, Somilici 

SARACKN CORN, Fa^opyrum *;;. 

KARAK, liiE:i>. A nimtey vhaMgrr wF 
Imnkcr. » 

SARATII, an affluont of the Bc« riwr 

SAltAI, the <:npitul of tho kbaa* •# Ea^- 
rhult, founded by Itnlu : it al«v4a»A»l 
hank of the AchliilMi or nortlMr* 
the Wofsa. — Vute Cathay, t, f. 

SAUaI, HiNii. A cw 
for the fihcher and act 

SARAI, Tki,. AmA. 

8ARAIAM, Tah- 

8ARAIN', Ki'ff b 

KAH^UHt, Hi«fc 

ftiriinU'tt almul 
betwcfi) Mcnr 

uovelly, of * 
buildiri;{ In 





SARA LA DEVADARU, Tkl. ? Berrya 

aniiiiuiiillH, Roxh. 

SAttA-KUI*A, or the Arrow Foualain, 
has bwH identifieii with SArwaiipiir. 

SARAN, II reveoiie district of Bengal, 
formed out of the aiicieut Bahar. 

SARANA STUPA, or Asylum Tope, at 
Chiipru in SHnin. 

SARANO, Hind. Nymphoea puhescens. 



fiued to a comparatiTely bmall tract, wbieh 
forma one of the t«D divieious of Gujant. la 
the time of Akbar, however, it was applied ti 
the southern or larger lialf of thu peninnli^ 
which, according to Abul Fazl, extended frta 
the port of Ghoga to the port of Aramn^ 
and from SIrdhar to the port of Oiu. Tm 
Dame of the district is altio preserved hy Tenj 
whose informatioD was obtained at Uie Court 
of Jehaoghir. Accordiug to his accouot tto 
SARANG^EAM. These soldiers corapo!>ed ] chief city of Soret was called Jaiiagar* that 

pai't of lliL-ariiiy ofXwrxes; they were dressed 
iu »[ilt^iitlid and varietl coloured habiu>, and 
armtJ with bows and javelins. They were iJie 
Eiiei'gt.-t«! of the Greeks, a title bestowed on 
thurn by Cynirt, in gi-atitudo for the relief 
which ihcy afforded him, on his return from 
an unsucuessful expedition into Scythia. — 
KiMtieir'a Geotjrnphiral Memoir, p, IHO. 

SARANG-ij L' RUNG, Malay. Edible 

SARANGI, n stringed musical iostiumeDt 
of hiudoo! and ranhoroedans. 

SAU-A-FA, A suit of garments 
presented by mahomednu princes to those 
whom lliey iuteud to houour ; literally from 
head to foot. 

SARAlMI, see Serpent. 

S A llAPII AN, the drasa of female peasants. 

SAItA-PAPrU, Tel. Buchauania lati- 
foliii, S.-iriipappu nunai, its oil, . 

SARAR, Hind. Saccharum snra. 

SARAS, DcK. Cupressus glauca, also 
Ciipresdua sempcrvirens, H''itlde, also Acacia 

SARAS, UiND., hIho Surhuns, Grus anti- 

is, Javauagarh, or Jonagarh. — CunniMgha^i 
Ancient Geography of India, p. 325. 

SARASWATJ. a branch of the Caggw 
river near Thauesur. The Saraswati iim» 
tioned ID the Vedas (vol. 3, p. 5(H) as bndt- 
ing down the precipices of the moaotaiait 
fierce, mighty, vast, impetuous, overflowiig 
her banks, " having seven sisters'* evidentlj 
points to one of the great cooftuenta of tbt 
Indus river, and probably the Ravi, ito 
ancient Iraotes, that is Ira, (or Ar^ra-nti) 
and iu the Vedas the people of the Punjab ■* 
invariably termed Saraswata. In the Vcdi% 
heaven, earth, (Aditi and Fritivi) and OMUi 
arc rarely invoked, and the sun has eompMHh 
lively few sakta. Occasional laudatiooa art 
given to rivers, especially to Saraswati ; an! 
tliis nature- worship extends so largely at t» 
embrace the cow, the wood used in tba obh* 
tions, and even the "yapa" or sacrificial poat 
On the banks of the Ca^gar Saraswati, tM 
Arian race came into contact with otlwr^ 
caste became recognised, but their descendailt 
on the banks of that river have never adoptal 
the high liinduism of tlie brahmins of At^ 

gone, (lie tall Saras is fouud all over ; Gangetic valley, and continue agricoltont 
British India : they may be seen in pairs now ' The Suraswati branch of theCaggar, howem^ 
plunging tlivir billd iuto the shallow wateiii, '■ seems to have been at one time, a fine rifW 

now scattering pearly drops from their throats. 
Tiic natives of ludia strongly objcc^ to shoot- 
ing these birds, about which they have a 
multitude of curious stories. There is a pre> 
vulent idea that if one of a pair be killed, the 
survivor never fails to die of a "broken 
heart."— j5«r/o?*'* Falconry, Valley of the 
Indni, p. 68. 

SARASHTBA. According to Hwen 

flowing through a well watered and gnta 

. countiy. There are traces of its fonnar eoMit 

I all the way to the Indus, and ancient HiwiM 

, history is corroborative of this view ; it fa 

; now merely a dry bed which is filled \f 

surface water at the rains, and the coDatriH 

through which it flowed are for the moat pirt 

desert and barren. The Triveni or thnc 

plaited locks, in hindoo mythology, la dkt 

Thsang, the province of Su-la-cha, or Suratha mystical union of the three sacred rivciit 
was a dependency of BaUbhi. Its capital was j the Ganges, Jumna and Saraswati, aevenl^ 
situated at 500 li or 83 miles, to the west of' the consorts, or energies, of tlie three gnti 
Balnblii, at the foot of Mount Yeu-chea-ta, or powers, Siva, Vishnu, and Brahma. TH* 
UjjantA. This iu the Pali form of the Sanscrit, vcni, or tlie three plaited locks, is a njthfr 
for Uijayaiita which is only another name for I logical junction — a female triad, siinUar M 
die (iirinur hill that rises above the old city | that of the Trimurti of male powers, tk^ 

of Jiiiiagtti'h. The name of Ujjayauta is 
mentioiieil in 1>oth of the Girinar inscriptions 
of Rudi-a Dama and Skauda Gupta, although 
this important fact escaped the notice of the 
translators. The namcofSurath is still known 
ia this part of the peninsula, but it is con- 
Ill S 

Gunga or Ganges, Yamuna or Jamna, jojl 
near Allahabad, and the Saraswati, now • 
dry bed, is also supposed to join the other t*i 
underground. A hindoo dying near the IM 
agiucd confluence of these three streanu^ or 
even thoae of the Gunga and YamuU| 


ttltittlccouFcquetilly velfori^eir- 

lolklioii, htjtlf^h, tS:c., ate oicri* 

latai oo ibu poculiiu'ly Loly bpoi. The 

^Jmkmb of liiu liii-w waivni at AlUliHbad 'w a 

^^^pd pnym^, hUil au huiiuhI mela is licld in 

^VKh for purpinuA of ablulioa. JuuuiiouK 

■f auj Mirt, e«|M!cially uf waters, Nns h«l(l 

Hcn^ by biniiocw, aud al>ove all, Uie uuiou 

of tbe cacTciJ livei-s, GaugH nod Ynniuna 

lar Januut tusar Altahatuil, iho Ititt^r river 

IWriilg prvvtoDiIy received tliu 8»i-n-<wali 

Utnw DvUii, Ml lliat, iu fact, all tinea do 

juaite ai thi* fjimcd »ang&m or conflucoce. 

|Bal tb* Uiudoo pwt, fei^ua ■ i^utiteneiic Hun- 

'«f tttv Sttniiivrali, and u myfetiral uiiiou at llio 

(rbvre baUiiuij; U JtMsmed peuu- 

itius, Bud wlienj KmiuLo are por* 

taatWd tiiai »tili:ide i» of a [oo«c cuerilnnous 

i deaeiiptiua. Major Mour, uac« krw, rL I'imhiu, 

• wvll modelled group lu riajr, wlieix- R«<l'hft'« 

I leckj) tripartile, were plaitvd lulo tlio taysti- 

kealTriTciii b^- the aniorouK Kiii-liua, who Bat 

n|iCuiouclj odmiring the vork of, and in. Lis 

lUwla. Olittir riveisaiti, however, hvld t^acrt-d 

lylbaliiodcHWf, VIZ., the GoJaveri, llicSindliu 

ur ludtu, tlie Kiit<hu& or KiHtiia and the 

Brahmaputra. — Campbell, p. 62-63; Tt. of 

Him.!., Vol. up. 15; Co/*., MytA. /linJ., 

I ff>. 3W, 3i>S ; Moor, Hindoo Patitfieon, p. 

*^. Srr- HrahuiaoriiinuiyfliilDirbhn, CIiau- 

lai, KriaLiiH, LAkshioi, Maha- 

-Sa«-ta, Sataru[Mi,Tiiveni, Vahau, 

SARASWATI.ahlndoo ^oddp», Uio wifu. 

. or fonmie energy, ofBnihmii, is ana- 

a weaieru mytbolufi}- to Minerva, the 

of Ivaiiiiug, &v. Thu filth day nf liie 

MaglM U called Sn-|iAiijaini, on wliich 

iSaraiirati ur Sri, lUe {•oildi-eti of att^ mid 

lencc, is worshipped wiili ofTcringa of 

Sowtirs, uud drcfiKed rice ; vvvu 

ita of writing, and l>uoks, luv ii-paUhI 

rcviWGt, arc ont u»«it on th)» holiria}', 

are preveiileil to llio imn<<e of ihia 

|^J*»< Snr-K-wuri i», among oUier dcitieis 

|nf' '.itod iu the uairiage cere- 

iij 'itnnua: tho followiug liymn 

lilchaQted m her tiunotir : — "Chniinitig Sariii- 

ivali '. *xtifi as a nunc, whom I cclubiiifL- in 

lbs (ar* of thia univerfe, protMM this M>l<:-mn 

(itife O Ibou I iu whom the elcoieut.* were 

lucvd. in whom this universe wa-t frami'd, 

wKI DOW «lDp thai hymn," I'the nuptial text) 

'Vhkcb C(Hiililut«8 the htghetfl glory of 

ViawiidovA, like Scrra-deva, oif-aiis 

ItOik eollecUrely : all tlic f^ods ; i Ue Puu- 

" Oaf nblntion to th<» ii--4!>etnbled pfwis, 

natnt'd Vaiflwadera, both for evening 

moraiaig." Sanuwnti is the goddess uf 

>iBfr Ditwc, and poetry, i« the wife of 

SuiHwau \* alu) called Brahmi, or 

Ilralimini, the goddeas of the selences ; hJ 
Bharnili, the goddess of history. She is i01ne< 
tiniea tmen uit a white woman standing oo a 
lotus, or water-lily, holding b late (or Tina) 
iu her baod, to sliuw thai she i» also iho 
goddena of muwic j at othcre, ridiug on a 
pcucock, witit tliu e&jne emblem iu her hniid. 
Although the wot>liip uf Brahma bnH falieu 
into diause, iJie annual feslival of Saraswalr. 
ill the muuth Mugbtt, ia highly honoured, la 
the Puutliuuni Mytbioiiiii nf Fonicy, whfch 
formerly belouged to the laie Sir William 
Joue*, a»d is refen-ed lo by him io hif<dii-(!(?r< 
iatiun on the goflsnf Greece, Italy.aud India, 
lie l>a!>, iu various mnrginal and other u«le«, 
eouipared the deittt's of Uieea several rnytho- 
logics as follow :— 

Ilrthmft. ...3ntuniu. 

Yuna MUittn, 

VvruBa N«|it«aui. 

Surym Sof. 

C'iKuicIra Lcnai- 

Vajru ..,, .EolQi. 

AiDiniCAma-l Cuiator uid 

r« ( PcilItiX. 

Oftntihs Jitntts. 

Pav^iia 1*1111. 

Viraj*. ftrJThe Ri»cr 
VH,it«rini, f Styx. 

KuTeni I'lutfU. 

Ktivlina.... — A)>ol1i>. 
Nuviltt... ....UorDuria»- 

Rani& Bkeehus. 

BaU AMn«^...Uo. m Ilia 
of (ho uta 
of wine. 

SkuiU JkUn. 

Ihirgn.... Juno. 

So ra*wti ti. Minerva. 

Kccub'lu Vimiia. 

L'tttHK Aurot-k 

Swalft Vflsla. 

PritTM «.. rvb»l«. 

Sii _ CerM. 

Alari I>«vi Diana. 

AiwiDaU{<ii Gonli. 

liertLGuLL Usroulua. 


— Cohbroohe, A*. Bet., Vol. vij, p. 303; 
Moor, Hindoo Paniheon, p. 1 !i8 ; CoU, 
Mi/th Hind., p. 10 ; Mem*, ch. iii, v. 121. 

SARASWATl AKU, Tkl. Clerodeudron 

viscosum, Vf-tU. 

SAUATXI, Saxs. Ell. 

SAKAWAK, iu Bnrneo, is situated ia 

abiiytothe eastward of Poiut Api, at the 

foot of a ronge of mounUiius from one Ihou- 

sand Rvo hundred to tbree thousand feet high, 

extendiug towards Uie iulei ior of Ihc isluud. 

The Sarawuk guvcnimeut hare acquired the 

coa«t lerrtloiy from Capo Datu to ihe river 

Barratn. The banta of (he river of Sarawok 

are everywhere covered with fruit tree^, the 

mnogosteen, Inntial, rnmbutan, jambou and 

blimbing are all abuiidnut, but (lie Duriitn \a 

mo'^X t)0 aiul most extceDied. A bifautiruHy 

^ rc*plciulfut ouiid, iLo purticleii of which 

' resemble amethyRtft and topaxes, aud which 

i» u»ed iu Ills ndiilteration of gnld dust, may 

I [tcvhap!) \x lliought tn imlicatc the vicinity of 

other p.(-ix\ii : it is fnund at Liiigah, a bruucL 

of the great Bataug Lii[miv rivt'r, uot far fmm 

it£ mculh. Sago '\% innQufacturod at Muka, 

iiud auliniuoy at Baseiii iu Borneo. — Loiv't 

Sttiaivak, p.29 ; WuUic.h,p.'i!>. SucArtihi- 

pelago, Borneo, Kyana. 

SAK.-VWAX, HtsD. ristaefaioleigerrima. 

SaUAWAN, a proviuoe iu Belucbifltau, 

S 145 


Tbe great renliitl mmtnlaiu i-iiu;;e or taMe 
limil raDOtns nortli iiii<l 8>kutli compi-i^n ilio 
provinnen of Saniwnn, JliiiUwaa, auU Lus. 
See Bulucliistnn, KcUt. 

SAKB, hIbo Gild*, IIi?ip., Hupleurum mu- 

SARBASUTAI, IIikd^ I'lshtu. Spliff* 
linJIuvaiin, H. bTpnK-u«-ii, S. cBlloca. 


A moderate ^iisfd irov ucar LkniilagodU?, fa 
tbe lUtiiapoorn 1)i»tncC of Ceylon, ni no groat 
election.— 7Aki,. A'«. Pi. Xci/I., ;.. 279. 


Bniroo-pivi, 3t5cii. 

A tree of tbo Ccntnil Proviuce of Ccyloo, 
growiug at an elovaiion of -1, 000 u> G,(X)<) feet. 
The leaves are of a firm const^uiiioc, tlo not 
rapidly dcconipofie, Atnl arc um?(I hy tlie 
Siiigliolcso fur lliatching, — V'Av'., Hh, I'l. 
Zft/L, p. 279. 


S. trinvrrU, Wiffkl Te. \ &hial i ShOt, lliKO. 

A trro of iho Central Protiiu-e of Oylon. 
rorjabtindautatao elevation of.i,UOO lo N,(XX} 
feet. It ifl extremoly riirinUle in the shape of 
the ieaves, wlii.;h JilTcr from uwirly orbicular 
to iiurrow-liinceolnto acuminated. — TAw., 
£». n. Zfj,l. p. 290. 



tlie order Asclepmce«e of which S. acidum, 
8. trovi)ili{;tnn, S. biunoiiiHuiim, b. inter- 
utediuniaiid S. vimiiialf, uoeurin Iiitlia. Tba 
diimo i« (from <iaf^. Il('»h, and 4ndfi/tm, a 
crown, in rvfrreiicp to lli« lt*«1i«-lR of the inner 
eoroIU being fl«bY). Th« gi!uu» bus a ruUW 
corolla, a coronci of double 6tamen» : Uio ^ 
outer nne cnp-shaft^-il or Muuular rif iialed, itia 
iinn-r on« 5-lfavod, tiigher than the«uwr om, 
Willi fleshy •H'Kmciittf t Ui(» flijima i* n^rly 
blunt ; tbe folliolos slendt-r »iid ttmooUi au4 

the RPfds IMIIIUH4P. 


S. bn)»r9tigm», II'. Coiitr. 
S. Tinitul1<^, H. Br., W»'t. 
BnuaJ, Sliomlat*, Bcki. 
Sow, DUK. 

i^dlBM, IllNI). 

This leaflets plant 

Sum* lutk, 


grown in rocVy nMilal 
plai"e»i in the Pt-ninsn la of 1 ndi», ahool ] 
CorofnaaOi'l, Klmndeeb, Bnnit»ay, I'crio^l 
FjOoiiy, betwoen Uowlulabad nnii ibo "pperj 
Godavcry, tbronghoiit tlir Dekhirn and fn| 
Rengid, PooDH.Boliin Pw^HnnjnKRohilrdtiilJ 
The plniil yields an abiunbiii'-o of a niilifW 
iicidiilous milky jnice, and iravellpnt siK-k tu 
lender shoot* to alluy tidist. A londlrt (/j 
the twists with a bB;; vf linrd rompreMrJI 
salt if |iut iu tlie trough of awRter roiniHi so] 
ihnt tiio wnterfiow may become iwprcp- 
.SARCOCOCCA TRIXKRVIA, or Neil- I imted, will destroy white anta. ThU is iIm 

gerry Uox-wood tree, very common on the 
Keilgbcrries : wood hard, durabk*, tniglit bu 
nsetl as common box-wood in tJio Art*. — 
Melror.Af.E.J. R^ 1837- 

Aniunit, Ak. | rnjimt, Ap. 

A flub-Bcid, Hweetiah, and bomewhat nan^c- 
ODiS giitn re^in, produced in Nortli Africa, 
Penia and Arnbta, by eoveml stirubf, llie 
Faoflsa Baroocolln, Pl-uibb muiTonntn and 
other BpeefM. It h yellow, or re^ldieb, like 
gam arable, in oblong globnlen, tlie fiizo of 
a pea or of grains of fand, frinblo, opaque 
or itcnii-tniltsparent, wiflening but not intjlfr- 
hl^ by beat ; »p. gr. 1268. SarcorolIIno ii 
half transparent, cryBtalllne, brillJe, like 
gutn, Boluble in 40 psjrts of cold water and 
2<5 of boiling water, ctdiible alio in alcohol. 
Odour weak and peculiar, insto earcharine 
and sliglilly bitter ; coinpotilion, rarb. 22, 
byd. 19, oxy, 10, ali»tnB. .S4irco<-olla was 
onco deemed a powerful bealer of wounds 
«<V>fflQfll), and foVXt glue), but this idea bat 
btofn long abatidonod. It is mrely iriet with 
in India, and then only tiroiJ^'I't "'o" Persia 
and Ambia. Mcsure iTgarded It as cathar- 
tic.— 0'AAa«yAiw»*y.f. 427: Powelt,pAOBt 
SABCOSTEM.MA, a geno* of pUuu of 

jw a 

Soma or Sora of the Vedas, and it obUlneJ 
thid name from the aneient hindoo? tecititff 
(hey gathered it by moonlight, carrit*d it Iflj 
tlioii borne* in trarla drawn by Uinu>, and 
fiTraented liquor wu« prepnrwl by miting t 
juiee strained lliroiijili n aieve of itoiit's Mi 
with barley and ghee. Tbih wint* was dnul 
at nil their religious fcBttviiU, and wa« w 
M- the Riahi n» an intoxicnnt. Th«^ U 
tjiiuwl it at tlicir roeols with l^ecf. 1 
Vedii, ix, SRVB, the purifying Soma lik^- iti« 
sea rolling its waven, has poured forth M>ug*, 
and hymns and ihougbls. — Bo^. : ff. /«■ 
f'oifft ; /iirilicwfi. 

Syn. of Hola-ilfmma rhf«dii, Spr. 

learotl ijflrcofttenunii, it- a latteec-ent, 
twining, hcrl»B"Tous plant. — Knrp. (.\t!. 


S. l>r«»UUgmiu H'iyAt. I Som, t»PC] 

A Ipiifleas plant, resembling the EupUorbi!] 
tirumlti ; flowert white in tbe rains tbtf] 
nntiTes tie t)ic stems up in a bu" " 
place them In the waterrour*e of th 
for the purpose of preventing Uio aiLock 
while anu.— /firfrfeW. 

known under the name of Poo%-iiQa and 
rengab. Is used largely on the western 




ilnAulii nf lodw, A9 AD cxtornnl ap- f^auli)> melettA ? ia m mnnllfigh ortbehttrrlng 
"' " ' " Iftiiiily lit TuToy and Ucrgui, wliicb is ocai'ly 

rtlutcU to tbo common tanliiie. Sir J. E. 
Teiiiieut tnfiiitionii aa Cejrion ti<ili, Cjbitim 
{Scomber, Linn.) guUnttim ; mackcrol, carp, 
whitings, mullet, botli red uud suiped, percbea 
»iid B(}leii an ahiindaiit, SnrdinellA ueobowii, 
l^ai. frcqaenu the southern and casCera coast 
in Hueb prufuKtuii thiit Ju uiie inataace in 1889, 
fiMir tiundnsl iliousund wcro taken in a faaul of 
the reis in ilie little bay or Goyaponna, ea«t 
of Point tie Galle. Aa this vast shoal ap- 
proarlic'd the t^hore, the brok«Q wat«r became 
an snionth aa ifu shfut of ice had been float- 
ing l>olow ilic surface. S. linootata, Cve. 
anti I'al and the S. leiogaBler.rnr. and Val. 
are found at Trinoomalloe, also off the coast of 
JiKTA. Another Ceylon Ush of the same 
group, a Gtupea, is kiiowa aa llie " puisonoua 
Hprat." Tiie nurdino has the rcpntatioa of 
bcint< poisonous at certain eeasDUH, and acci- 
duiit» jMtriihed to catiiif^ it are rpronled in all 
partd of Ceylon. Whole familioA offtsher- 
nieu who havu parl&kiju of it have died. 
Twelve pcr»ODS iu the jail of Chilau were 
ilius poisoned, about the year 1829 ; and tbe 
deftlh of soldiei-^ have repeotedly been ascribed 
to tJie same cause. An order passed by the 
Govt-nior iu Cuiiiicil iu F«bi-U8ry, IS24, after 
ret'itiug that "Whei'CflH it np^tcars by informa- 
tion conveyed to the goverunieut that at three 
Keverul periokts at Trinromsllee, death lias been 
the consequence to feveral persons from eating 
the fiUi called Sardinia during Uio months of 
January aud December," enacts that it shall 
not be lawful iu that district to catch sardines 
during tliese mniith!4, under pain of fine and 
impriooomcnt. This order is still iu foro^ 
but the liishiit^ contlnucB ootwilJistanding. 
The poistouoog fish of this family which occurs 
in the Asiatic fteas, is however, the Mcletta 
venenosa. — Temianl's Sketches of the Nat. 
Hitf, of C'et/hn, pp. 234-235 ; Mason -, 
Joitrn., Ind, Arch, See Clupeoiiio. 

SAKlJlL'S, in the breast plate of the 
Jewit>h high priest; any precious atone of a 
riid hue was suppuBod by tha Jews to be n 
pveservaiivo against the pitiguc, and amongst 
the Arabs, to bu useful in stopping lioimor- 

SARDONYX, a qaarUose mineral. The 
sanlonyx li rarely seen iu uko in India. 

SAliU-SAJ l{, Pkrs., a term in use 
araongM tho iiomadu ratios of Pui-eiOf to iudi* 
cato tho locality u» which tliey drire their 
herds in summer ; the parm-sairis tiie winier 
qiiai-lers. In Uip Soutli of Pcfsia, a huge 
wall of mountains separate.'* the garm-rair, or 
low region, from tho sard-)*&ir. Ssrd-saJr 
signiKfH the cold region, but it is also termed 
the Sarhada, a word lti«ralty eignifying 

i U7 

rhrumali>-m. — M. B. J. R. 
9ART>. a reOiiish cdDari-il <]UHr(xo)temini>nil 
tti Iw a kind of v<inioiinn or cluilci»- 

kllDA, Hunt. Cucnniis mclo, Ainn., 
if A. A very eafierior kind of uicluii 
')! from Kabul, ^c., to bo mot with iu 

KbA. Hixn. Cold. 
hAKU.AL, I'uts. on anderj^und room 
»!' I -rople of Baglidatl (Hvupy in iht; 

' ut r , I , : except in Itritisli Jndia a\o»i. 
hot countries of the caHt are 
■ubti*n*anpiin chNinU^ni, railed 
lly cold waicr) lo whirh the 
during llie hent of the day. 
They am nftrn furnished with Ibe greatest 
bxory, and (heir refrcshiog coolness le io- 
craa»inl by the play of fountaiiui, and piinkahd 
•r laixe fans himg from the ceiling. This 
ll tho bvouriie place fur tho luilies nltertioun 
li*ta —Sd. FiTrier Journal, p. 292. 

tiABUAI, UixD. In dyeing, u colour of 
rii< '■'-' witli Inn (lowers, yellow, 

iti^: of knssumba. 

il'.\LUS, bnither of Samogcs J 
tfi" 1 of the Ninyads of Babylon, 

tlie d-nth of Surdnnapalus, who 
:<cir nt Niut>veh, in hitt imlnce, 
*. r. titi2, in wltirli year occurred an inroad 
arSrylliiiin-* into the south of Aeih. Sur> 
JaaHfialiiH Iisd held IiIh court at KInevch, ni 

' ' ?1'. two of bis late viceroys, Artuces, 

1 of Media, and Kelesifi, gnvcnior of 
•-M„:.,ii, ptirtiiione«l the empire between 
Arbnces rcviviug Mfdia, with ita de- 
icica, and Nineveh, for iiis portion, 
fmm the seat of his late govcrnmeiil 
gn^l eily of Assyria, «iid hence took 
iitrnfliincnr Ap-iyrin. Mcn»whi!e,Belesi3 
Hnbylon, iu the iiiid-t of the wide 
I'hnldeii, &ir., and liegnn the race 
'B*l)V ;:*. Arbaces. kiugor.^ssyvia 

in-l the- 'j 'v«8 tlie Feridoon of the Per- 

I "liin wfitrt^, and the Tiglnlh-pilcscr of Holy 
Writ, whu. iu his war with Pcltnb, king of 
ImwI, rarrirU away tho firrt capiirea of that 
aaUfn, who wore brought to the east. Tliia 
t fTwl hapj>ciM>d about G39 years before Christ. 

i— P ■ rraveh, Vol. Up 95. See Baby- 

llop, '.isfar, Nineveh. 

i>/it\iJi.>K, Knu., Fk„ It. 
A)4tB<«, Gin. I Siinllniui. 8f. 

Ilw aardinn fli>h uf comtnL<rcu is found in 
ilB MBditerrancim where its fishery employs 
nutiiber of pevple. In tlm A»intit: spa.x 
are fislirs of the H«me or allied genera ; 
la C'Cyloo coasu, Sardinella neohowii, 
oW Cmv. of which great numbers are 
■odlfae&.ltiogaator, Kd/.(i)i(/Cur. En- 


ng I 


"boaDiliir^ or rroolier," butgeoerntljr applit^ 
to uy liigli laud whri-e iha riiamte ia cold 
•sou the liigli Uhle>liiDJori'(:i>ata. Oneof Oie 
mokl eonspluuous at Uii*m>, b nii ubrupl lofty 
hilt, nnmed Ilormoc^, wlicro coni oc^'iir^. 

8AKDULA VAUMA.^f:« Iti«vriuiioas. 

SAUEBAS DYAK, n-o Kyua. 

8AKEDA T1LAKj\. iua niouolof^tfofliilcr 
(liU) tbiu ilio plity ot'MriulicliiiliBiJ, wtiivli wb^ 
of Um Ut oenmry o( lliu Chrislian erm, bui 
still of cmnpaiative aotiquiLy, thiTe ia a 
curious knJ Mtuiiuuo (l(»cri|itiiiii uf llic variiini^ 
woineu of liidiit. distiaguisliiof; ctidt by Iier 
nntlouallty, it' ^ucb ■ (cm) ljt> ftllttwKble t Imt 
Uie Butliur foiU of ex]ircit>iug iiiiytJiing deli- 


1. Tlioro |inei> thp mniil of Guijara 
(Gujicrnt,) bit)(Htiiii(; na Willi |K-i'pf>tuiil youth, 
hnviDg oyc9 likci Uio otiitkuia, of ibci com* 
pitutiud of liw yvlluw Koi:luiiiii, uud ■ voic« 
muvtcvl ns ilint of ttie purot. gbe wrftra 
kukli'ls of ailror, large earitufrs wi with 
P<iu-[h, luid faer bodice ia buitontHi below the 
bipfl will) g«tas. 

S. Tba mad'oii of MaliBrBahtra pro- 
ceeds yoDder, her forelinul alaioed with anifraD. 
nod wtlbxilver cliams apoii her fevi i fhe 
woBm ■ uoloureU veil, aud ■ girdle roDud ber 

3. A Cbola finnale (Sfiitli of Tndiit) 
nppi-uMctic't wb«e rbrcks oro litiled with 
•fttf'i'un. nad wboM: drutt is crabruidcred witb 
tbe bads of the lotus.' 

Tbc bo4iic« wliicb Imthiu below ihe hips, 
is udIciiowq at tlic pr«saut day, t-itber iu 
}ux«r«t or eUowliere ia India: and as no 
Ela clotb, an tr scarf, or ibo preseat sar'hi 
lid be butU)iie>l, wn cna only prwume tbal 
tlio gariDDDt was cut out aud son*n io tho 
fiubioii of a long tigbt^dtting rolnv ai> in uxo 
amotiif i'rrvinii womi^ of tbi? present ttue. — 
Ui: h'nrhrt If'utton, Sc« Taiilra. 

.SAUI.&, IIi.Hp. Sue Sarbi, CoUoa Mtr 

SAUKt, i}\HU. Allies smiLlttsDo. 
RAKKMA, sre Kbu7i**t«n or Aintii^tau, 

CyLnlmpugiiii iwar- 

SAURKA, HiKi>. Ai ■ nnat-tlsiiH. 

SAm;AL. IIiMi. I. ; lue.l'.iau- 

(1.- -. I'tab a.<b. 


woed cov«r8 all Utn gulf streaiu fiuta !«. S'2' 
to 36* N., (in<l I,. :t.V lo K.i' W. 

SARGASSO SKAS.rnjiu Siir(tsi>sf> Si* we«l, 
Midway ia Ibo AUnolii: (•rtwi-rn ibr Azoi'va, 
CaoaricBu and Uie Capo dcr Vordo Jp^lnndii, are 
vnnt mawwa of tbu Furus iiatatw, Uiiodo osU') 
UivUi I'railvtian lUs Y«rva. Kucus luitaiiti or 
Mm Sargaasii Knlf-wuod, is found iti lar^e 

■W bwtwvtu tlio piU'aUtils of Ib'uod 34 

148 8 


of Dorth latitude, and iUatmoatcastrm lii 
pxiends to 36^ E. L. It is of a 
yellow foloitr, is abiioiUnC on tb« F1< 
rt-efs but routiuuM to Tegrtalo as it 
about iu (Jio tMii'uliir rtirrrnts aAvr 
tNiru loru ffom iu aita<-hfneut. Tbe 
G^iTc tib«ll«r to a. K»at immbcr of (lal 
lusks nod rruslacpan animalK. Fucus 
is tlif common Guirweed, whicb travelU 
uiid from India, inecl with in thv Allsatl*, 

SAUiiLUAII. ThcOountcdo., : 
of Uie Goiitl, extend into tJiu b< : 
til* Cbotfl Na^fiui aaviiL-y iii Udipur auU 
sujali. I'hty uve ihe domiuaiil tribu iu 
gujali and lliu ^nr^uiab rajnh is 8oppoa>ii 
l>e ik Guur llM<u;rb clnimiDg to be a 
Tbry nrv muob biuUuis-^iJ. 

SAUHAT) it oLtu|N(.-d br trib<« otKi 
~J\>iHHffer'$ Traveht Btlooekutan 
Sintit, p. 140. 

»AK'UI, iliHD. 

ShWl, Caw. I I'ltdjiwi, 

La^a, _ ^ MAUk. j Chira, 

riic sAi-lii 19 iltc lower gaimeai w< 
llio biodoo and Doti-Aryaii womeu ia 
VinL-uuDlcfH Falkland dwcribcw a 
of women, willi tbeir luavy anLlFt^ * mi 
a tiukling witb tbeir fwtf (haiali iii 
eacb witli Lbeir Mr bi folded or«r tiiulr 
and pci*9on»f aud carrying litUe ct 
cbildren on ibuir sliouldiTs, or astride on i 
tiipt : fuid iiuw UiVHj ai¥ lu«t (u sigbl, 
frcftb group aitpcors, t^iiuiiiiliiii; uf bt 
wonifu of various cAbtcs,clotb«d itijrLckel 
llie satliis of divers coloui-s, aud wcaiiii|^ 
' chuiua and ibu bracvlotti,' ' tliv eiirria^i 
riaK^aiid tLr- nofc j«weK'(l«aPidi iii, 1 9aiul 
One end of ibesarbi forms a vt-ry rulumi 
kiud a{ tsk'nt or prttivoiil, tbo oih<^r 
drB\\ri] over tbo bead ami Hbouliien, 
wliAtiu die style or foiiu ofaMallvsc 
Tbi» Milii is, iu fuel, llic uaiioDal coal 
iitinmt all liindoo wooicn. Tbi*maboii 
in India, ID Ilydeiuliad in tlio DekliaiL 
andRajpooiauu, tbcN.W.riovin 
PuDJub Wear ibe rulumiuous )>(" 
duct'd by tlie malimnrdauit ; it is wvm i-y 
malionK'ditii womcu aud by many bin<)<>'> «<w 
men wbi'lbcr 9ertude<l or otberwi-'c ; 
prut-ttcc ix contiticd Io llioufi [iruvii^ cr 
aud in utmost uu know II iViiiti IUj[ini.t <i,:t hu 
WArdfi to Cap«4 Comorin : aud llfu^at 
Ori»><a also adhere to tbo ancient oil 
coflume and ibis uriide of womaa'a 
ouly vaties wiib local taste as to 
leufjtb and brrawltli, and finciieu or 
of tetture. Thcro is oo female costuma i 
elegant tboo a saj Iii. It ti^ an entire riol 
many cbhas eigbloon yards louf( aad 
a yari broad ; and tli« tuxtutc vaxin 
Quest aud nutst o|>(>u chaiackr ul oii 

^Bd Ibe MuLb or Itidia. lo ihe siill 

■nd Guzmt. Surhte utq of all qnali- 
I ituit the Tery poor«<t as wvll aa Uie 
*aetH-3C flasae» or sociftj the ortiiDfiry 
«r anil the priuccse and iro nUlniimltlc 
lO fliilliof^s rncti up to oue LunUrcd 
» of Taloe. lu llio mmiti'T of rving 
vearioK thin gariii4>at tliere i^ liirlu 
iDoen aoTwIieiv. The riolti, wliiih hnn 
laui Utd, it) p)u>iH^ roiuid tlie l<>ni% aihI 
^MT liorder Itnl in n nttoitg km't ; tlir 
b ih(« pa»«e(i two, Uirce, or cv^n tour 
roiiuJ tliv wiiBl, to form n |if(ti<-ti;il, 
^it thii Bttrlii l>e a |»-o|»rr Itrcmlili, 
^^io tbff gitMinil. A puriiuii is tlivii 
^b||lr inU> folils nnd tucktU iu iMfura, 
^^^Krinwo ill ftnot to tlie iiw-t>'p, or 
MR^ Tlkc iviuniad<er of the clotK is 
I acroM the bosoni over Uie left nhmiMer 
«wl, on wtiiuh it rcstP, the orUfinieiiK-J 
hllibg fmrtly over tin; njilit aim l-elow 
vjac III lira 6aulli of Iihlin, imwever, 
ftil Am^ ni>t pais ovvv tht.* liviiil : it i*t 
■ -i-ei- llie kfl flioulili-r iinil 

■ <] inio tilt! wninl iM'linul, or 
rrt^nt hip. Tlii- aiicietit fiftaalti cuBlumt* 
'Jp^, a &artij oi' Kiiigtu robe, ap|ifiii'd lo 
ba«i ptit on Nud vrttvn iri prei-i'^ly the 
■MtiOfT withoMC a (>o.ldice. Wpll-io- 
mtD of the DcccQD and the f>ouili (ra- 
Iv wr.*ir a go\tl or eilvei- xoqc>, acrttrdiiig 
ir cin-ufn5iaiice9« wliirh, p«s»>iiig over 
nfiuea lU« drajwry to the Wniftt in itrare- 
Mkt Thi« zouf< npix-ui-o iinkiiuwn lo ihe 
■rard, Itui in tunny ciUK'sit ir beaiiliriilly 
{ht aud extrrtiiflv oniitiiieiitul. The 
ar ' '■■■ tnad« ot'nilk, in Benares ; 

ic . ■ have tlii-m of cotlou, jonip 

titij luj.i t'iik, wilii trordiMK of ^otd or 
<i,K<ifh KdRitiD cf a household itsiially 
^biv •iti'lii oi)<:e a yctiT. Tl<e Muln'Miia 
||p»nd woin^D e»c»gcd in Inlinni' ol'tpa 
Uitt >ai-lii take a very uiigiik-efnl foim 
aain;; it tietwoiti tlid legff, in which it 
»^ tb« «pp«'arniive of light trows«r«. — 
mmUss JPaWand, {VivVTAair, p. 7, 
hm 1857 I />r, >'»t&fc M'aAirwf. 
.BHIKD. ao ancivtit ludian vity. 
■ RI. IIiMD. PrunuK amifuiaca, or Ar- 

-. Ihe Apricol. 

I'Ti, SiND, ft nei'ltlane of gold 

Hthvliinilno mendieauts- — Richard 
f SiniiA. p. 99'^. 
an aid city uf Mazandnraii, which 
elmted in tho iegomU of Afi-naiah, In 
ifb(e«lilli r«ijtury, th«ra were still ro Ijo 
at Sari fuur ain'.ieut circnliu* l^mplv!*, 
Mny r««t in diameter and one hiioilrcd 
itr feet high. In Uui tim« of tbe 
Penua, b«ri had bcea the KAt of 



an officer called the Great General of the 
Ktt!«t. — Malcolm, p. 42 ; KW«, Cathatf, Vol. 
i, p. 8H. 

SAKIAliA, HiifD. AmarantoG niinrdnuM. 

SAll-I-AUA, HixD. Si-c Sil wft'd. 

tjAli-UUASHMA, theaoui^:eoftheICaliul 
river iu laL &«• 10 K. and long. 34' I J N. 

SAUIXUA, HiKi.., an Indian fiddle. 

.SAKINDIGA, lli.Ni). CasMa oltovala. 

SAUINCJIII, or lulci eee Jogi or Vogi. 

MA K I N G H I HA. 8ee Jogi or YorL 

SAIUPL'TUA : the new town of Itajagriha 
is Raid to liavo been built by kin|i Sronik, 
oilnrrwitit' talltrd BirobiBara, the failier of 
Ajuluiunin, iJie conti'inporary of Buddha. Ita 
fuundaiiou cannot tberrfoi'e be placed later 
Uuiii o60 B.C. according to biiddhiKt chmno> 
logy. Fa-Iliuti mii)cc« N'alanda the birUi- 
pbipe of Siuipuirti, who was the right hand 
diMriple of Bnddlui { but tbift flaleoipiit is uot 
quite? eorrect, n% vfv Ifnru frun Ibe more de- 
lailed oiTCouiit of Hiveii 'nuran-,' that Sari- 
pulra was boi'ii til Kaliipinakii, nLmut half 
way bi'twci-u Nfdiinda tiud ludra-Sila-Uuho, 
or about 4 inib» lo tht- nuuth-ea»t ul the 
former place. Tlio reinHiii!> at Banitg'aou coq- 
siet oT numerous niasiKs of briuk ruiug, 
amunfc^t whii-li Ihe modt coDt>picuoas i."" a row 
of loCly roiiii-fll Diouiids rumiiug north atni 
eouth. Tbvsu hij^h tnoiiiidN are tbe remains 
of gigantid Icttiples utlachcd to the famous 
moiiADtery of .Nalauda. The great mouaetery 
itself can bo readily traced by the sqiiure 
palchex of cultivation amooget a loD^ ia«M 
of brick ruina, 1,600 feel by 4tK) feet. — 
CitHninpham's Ancient Orography of Jndia, 
pp. 467, 470. See Biiddba. 

.SARIPni. M-e Koli. 

SAKISHr. EIiND. Glue. 

t^AR'JlKA, ulrio SarjikushnrB, HiMD Soda. 

SAltdLr, hue Hindoo. 

SAKKA. Sarknuda, Sarkaro, IIliu. Soc- 
chanmi cjira. 

SAHKANDA, Hind., a graw, a specie* of 
SiKxhurum, growing iu moist pluue^, the 
Hower Filalk of tbo inoonj graas, S. muiija. 

SAltKAlt, UiXD. i A UovernmeDt, the 
ruling (lon-er. 

SARKARA, Hind. Socciinrnm apon- 
laneum, a grass— the leaves or graisa of Sac- 
eliai'um iriiitijn. 

SARKAHA.Saws. Sugar. 

tonirptia fiittutn, Pcrs. 

SAll KAOHL", Btsn^ waior leaved cala- 
dinm, C'riloon.>iLn iijmjibnirfolin, Roxh. 

SAKIj or 8nll», Hiko in tbe Himalaya 
beyoiu) Punjab, Piuua longifuUn, long leaved 

iiiAULAKHTKl, Hind. Spirm Uadleyaua, 
Andrumoila ovulifolin. 

3 149 



Iletcropogon ' iiliimau?ly ^xpellfd Troni th*tr fnonarf«t<H^ 
Rre — y'tttrrtsiifa flind^ Kof.i,p. 2ifS, Ij 

India, Ini*i'H|ittatig. 

SAH-N'AT'Il, a temple at Bfiiam*. 1 
BcnpliODHOii ima^ritnf l!ui]rllia from llu) 
pie At Samith, at Beuaiv*. nud oa an it 
tram Buklirs. in I'iilitit irp in aaapkrit, 
not ptiro The (lat« ii afWr a. d. HtlO, at 
tliut of Snruath, prohsbty of liic < 
pcnlury. ThpijIiaracuT uipil iit thoiii 
in more tno'lera tlitn Kttitouj Nii)*aii 
pron<'hin«> Uie modri ii rlmiHcU'r. Tli 
i;ioit moiiiioned id liiiildl>t»r, and ilir* 

f!\B-XIAL, TuAt<s-lNPU8, 
iTititiH riitt, R. -.y S. 

SAIOIAN oi' Siitman. nn itir-ieiil namo of 
bntlimiiii>. Sf^« SbuQiiiii or Slibm«iii(4n. 

SAKMATIA, tiHiiif at wittti rauge of 
fouuu-y ill N. W. Ai>iii and N. Kuropc, iVom 
Mongolia Uiroii^li SilK^iia and Uic CiimcB to 
Cuurland, Livouia uiid Pru^triia. Soma <if lliit 
Siinnnlin raoi-" niu now kuowii an tlio Sclave. 
In Aiii;i<<tit SiiiTnnliniinil moilcni Puliiiid, tic^s 
uml MjipeiUowviv W'li-sliiiviwilhvllicptasanlfy 
itjitntlm tiiiiiuoriiif! iiiiK'tctfitth i^L'iilury. The 
Wt rcliir uf ijio tO'ft wnr^hip Itm Stock-am- 
Kisuu, tUt!npprt:nrii.-tf tit-?, in «till ^luiidiiig in 'J\l lunula, ^ninani lludilliii. Tliirft* iu' 
tlio lirnrt ol" Keiiua- In N'owe inytliulo^, , linni upon im«f;i'n uf htidillin, nn- in a 
Uitt V|(Kdiu*il a^h tree was i'«<prv»entc«l with ', pariitivetj' tnod^TU form of ibe Dcvb N 
uii« of tta ruoU uver tliti whII uf koowlodge Tliry eontain tlief|uaint rnmpencliam o 
nud Willi t »or|ieiil, Nidliog, piiawiiijc its , dliint dortriuos, cflmmonciiitf with Y« 
■ti-m. Tlif Ire* Iu III*! i-fUlro of Kdmi. willi ma Ueluprnlibnva, Ao. j but tM .Sanskrit 
lliu i<erp«<iit, in iimoiifTi^t tlif oUIiwt incaliuiie*!, \ of the moral maxim ban not been fourhl 
nf Ui« liv« and K-rpt-nl tngtibi-r, and the | Ti>H-tan IVuf^iiA Pai-Miuiu. Tbete bu 
|iii-lrw ol' CeyUiii wa* pliiurcd at b*a*t, b. c, 
200. Alirnbain'n U'tfliiiirii «t Munirc is men. 
tioiied by KuHtfbiiiP, to buvv bc^n worshipped 
down i(> iliu limt* uf C'oiinlAniiue nnd in ^aid tii 
be etill tf rowing at ICnlikot. liM-ipeiiU arq 
Uirowii into Ipmputnnr c-auilcpsy by premure 

llio Iw-k of ilif ir nwkft. Th« R^tim of the 

(nnl Mil llio pole ill NumU-M xxi, 8 and 9. of Gnur, iu tboclvTc-iilb ct-nlury. The 
WH< Ibe C'ihhici'iis of j-l-jii!ulapiuH, and lu Aiid in-'K-iiplion would probtil'ly boof 
KuiRa xviW, 4, ibo refi>rmfr kinij mi down | diile ; and Ibo cbaracter of the ingTl] 
iUa ^'n>vt<n and bioku tho bCfrprnl, whicli i i-onfwponda to that dnU>.— /?rit^nf jtt. 

inniripUonA in San^'kntare mnot retnarfcl 
ebiiwtng at ihtir lafe dnio that Saii'tkril 
8till impi'rfect ! Thu mouudi and 
itrnr Hiikbro lc«tiry to a former buddhiit 
From cop|i«r-plRte iu'<'ripiiu(i» fmind 
Suninth it in conjectnrcil the hmldhiat 
wan *recl*d by the sons of HhupaU, 

llfrckiuli nirntirtih-d, was pic^ervod in the 
it<m)>lu iiBulf. — Frtffnfsoit, 'fttf ond Serpent 
H''o'jiAi/i. Sc« ludia, Karielaitia, Sooskriii 

SAKMOX, HwD. orSptii, a kind of barley. 

SAUMi'*!, Mind. Ki-rtbrlolm lanreolala. 

SARMI'L, 1Ii?«i>. A»ti'U|inlun nnilticepa. 

SAK NAIIANA, I{|M>. Hnlbin;r. 

tlrra lin-'tiiriii. 

SAKNATII, a town in Hindustan: Uie 

Tram. ; Vol. iv, fp. l3o. IB1, '21 1 ^ 7H 

tSARNGAR, IIiMb. Rhododcndruo 

NAHO, BcMQ, Sacxharum Mm, Jtori, 
SAUt) al5o Siirnbij, Uikp. Cuj 
ecfnpervirent>, lyntile. 

SAKON, HtNf>. llranaica niiii 
SARONG, .Iav^ Malat. A, 
wrappt:d round Llie lower pan vS 
luuly as a pelticonl, al!>o a rnlUin (ffl 
(tyr men. Oavuiiese woin«-n draw tiptt 

(.■liniikandi, ol- Luri-kfl'kndiiu i*Po failed from | tlit-ir Barony, to cxpivM their Ibnugbtrj 
the Irap, from iu t4ip, of an Abir, by the name 
of Luri. Il is in ibu town of Sarnnih, and in 
n lofly mouud of Bolid bt-irk^wolk, Minoouut- 

omoltons Tho Rarong ia worn 1^ 
n-otnun, only that of n woman ia 

I'd wiih MO oi'taironnl huili|iii<>, Hweii 


Tliaanu dr«rril>iis lbi(> lower to hav>! I>t.t'ii no 

|t.fwthai> 3(KI t'c4*tin boiKhl. In 1H36, Major 

Cunnint:litua cxt-aTntcd niimcroun hnddhixc i nud Turkey r«d sarougv. — Bthmore ; 

imagen at Snrnath, near Ilrnnrrj, all of wbirb | moMiFa Ihct. 

Tho »nron^ when united iti ralle4 ft 
dairg ; A wo»cn Or printed fabric { 
iiiUi Uin Dutiih porta of ibe I-^ntem 
bigo. Thrro aro imitation Haltlk 


bad oridi-ndy U-fii purposely biddrn under 

ground. He found quiuilitics of asln** a\^, 

■od there eoiild bt< no doubt that the biiildini^s 

luid Ih'ou do»itroyed by lire. Miij'H' Kiltoo. 

who KubM^uuutly maile fuctbrr oaravalionti 

Wa* of tlie same upinlon. The biidd'hi^tt 

ip|i;^ioii )iBdi'vidi-n[l)- assumed ibt' foim of the j an elevation of (j.f)fK> fi-ei and up 

liero*v of a weaker party, who wen* foi-^d to ' Thw. Ennm. PI. Zfyt., i, ^. 41. 

bide their uaag«» umtcr groand, and were NAKO?^ wc Chronology. 

150 S ISO 


Ciryam lulopetola, Wijhl I Kiiiya lanvpalala, | 
/)/. i.p.m. I itfr. 

A moderate tatrd tree, common 

fnn^iia of tho f'eitlml l*rovin«wof (Vvt 

wiL% ot)iicibivi]<l iindiT 
iW^bvUii tJeiL of cre«piii(;. uu idea ex* 
by tko wonl drip. Uiit tliu sprpetiL 
■ viillnl ahi in Suadkril, in Givelt ecbiA 
itui, ill Ljitiu migitis. 'I'liis niune is 

from qaiie ■ ilitfoicnl root iui.l itk-n. iu lluJirnx. Nova Sootin. « -qtinw liaU mlminiit- 

iroot U all 'm f^aiiokrit, or aoli, wlili-h , U'hhI hii ill^ll.•^ilm ut' lUi' ruot Jii iiiinifKiiiti 

lu prera UiK«'tiicr, Ui cliokc^ to iJtnittlf. RiiTtcs, ilii' ivt;iili iit tvi-r_v iiulAnro Iteiup « 

Uw UutioguUltiiig mark from wliivh the p«i-rcct cur". SniiM-qiient tiiaU iu LdikJoii 

one is fWiituI iu GniunK. Tliore is uu 
rvpii-M-'iiUitivu i>r tlie urtlcr in IiHlia. In 
ilio 'Lh'ici'I* it>r DecfnihcT 7tU, Ibbl up- 
(ifdrnl h prip^r liy Assii^riint Surgctm Milca 
plHtin^ iliur diirintc *(• epidrmic of ■•niiill-pox 

MTpcul wb6 run)r>il wu» Lia tlirottliiig, aiiii 
tin DrAf - I , uti ^x firetLiiiiig till* fTwncrni 

iilea of ' It ifi a cui'iouB rool litis 

■lb, > lives in Huvi-rnliuudci'ii irorils. 

Bqi ';rlr if WHS rlioseii with gwnt 

tiuJi ih I lunf of i>in. Evil no 

m\}t i>t> ' : under tiu-ious nspcute 

lb* buOMU utinil, and iln uanies ate inuny ; 
mme so ex|in:tAive na Uiosu ikriviid rnim 
ro*)!. uili, to ibrotilc. Anbfts io Saut»krit 
■' - ■ ■■.1, but it iIot« BO outy becBuao it roimiil 
- throttling, — tlie cMuciouimess of 
11^ tiica the f^rnsp oftlie assiisin oa tlie 
of his victim, — MulUr'i Lectures^ p. 

gARPAKSni CIJETTU, T«L. Opbior- 
oiDDgoe, O'AAt 400. Tiie Sans. nyns. 
luqeatida, ff^ -159, and Nukuli. ff'., 
>— n pUnt — iho ichnniinOQ |iUiiil, a vc^l-- 
•upffMi-d tu furnish the iniin(;us witb 
iote^ wbeu bitiro in a coulliut n-ltb u 

SARl'AM, T*«^ TsL., Serpent. 
KAKPAN, HiM>. CBlopbyllmn caUbn. 
RABPANKA, Ih.Mr>. CalopbyUum ino- 

llBm, /.inn., al»n Topbioftla purpuix-a, 

Ccbnia a<(|^utpa. 

" 'ASHl CHETTU, Teu Opbior- 

i'aT, FIind. Sacchanim ura, atw 
tn prorerum. 
PARPATKA, or Sarphoka, alao Sarphon- 
IllND. Teplirositt |)Uipun-a. 
BAR-PBSn, Hind. A forthnad j»wel. 
SARPCN, ill lloudw, a Chincfeo offlc*r, 
ptuin of pr-lli-e. Tbe ^liUi cliid, is a 
Dbinvsct ofiicinl. ia liundcs, residing in tbe 
riarc of bood» ■ moutira manUi from 

.SAKRA or Sarralh TxL. A iroo>l of the 
uallai, of B rimk gray colour but 
itdbv readily atudted by the n-oiin. 

AND conaiJered tbo first of 

Jt a^:jia liibes, tliey are termed by 

t-Inhhi*ione and ProfeHsor Doru, Betneo, 

' -T Haliui. See Sarribnn. 


tu the oatural order S«rraeeiiiaca>, 

lidi there oru tbree genera, aod elgbl 

of wbicb nix ore unStied to Noitb 











and Kdinburc') Hn-ipiiids bavt; not folnblinhed 
tho ivpuliitiou of rb«) drug us an uQte-vtii iuloid 
r^'medy. In an arliide on tlio Sjirrnrfiiis 
purpurea In ihe JAiiiiary number of tbu 
' Pbnrumi-eutiral .loui'nar Prof6Ht<or Deniley, 
says : — tb«t biilu'rln wben tri<-d in ibis coun- 
try Sai'i-ac-enia bat) Hlt»);etber fjili^l (o cure, 
or in any way mudily, tiiu pi'Of^reaa of eniall- 

SAURAP, Htsu., PsiiTU. Taxua baccnia ; 
common yew. 

SaRRI, HlKoSania, Hikd. UraMica catn- 
pesiria, iiIho Cti-er !-iHinf;arieiim. 

SAIIUIBAX TUUii:Sar«Abda]i, Tmin, 
Rnrfi'h, MHlmnnh, <>liiir>4bin, Siniui, Babar, 
Kan:ti, .Itimani), Kiilniii, Kaliaiii, Tnrknui^ 
KliHlil, Miibrtmiul, l>niid>Zoe und Ynsufzoe. 

SAkRTS, AIaiik., ]>r.Kii. Acuciu oilurniis- 
simii, Roxh., WiUtie. 

SAliRII, Hind. RraKKifaeumpestria. 

Oibl«. MucfcwT, Ah. 

Kii-ku : Clitn-ftti'po, Biru 
Sili^pun^ills, I^Ei. 

SMtu^AriU*, Oer. 

MuHrkbu, IliNli. 

&>!■»{ mriiili*, [t. 

Tbo word Mirsapaiilla is derivdl from the 
Spanish word zm-rii, n binmbV, and pfirilla, 
n viae- Tlie Bai'i-uparUta in use iu medioin;] 
ia compOMsI of ibe rool.'* of various fjircies of 
Smilftx. 8. officinalis, is a native of S'Kilb 
Ainericn. Varieticrpoflhia root are also found 
in the South of Kiirope. East Indian Sar- 
sapai-illa IipIoiiks to (be Hemide'^mn* iiidi- 
CU8, it ia abundant mill cbeap, partake* large- 
ly of lliequalilica of the true uaisapHrilla, and 
'\A extensively employed as a sviUlitule as also 
ia S. Cliiiia. Sarsaparilla is valued as a res- 
torative to dcbilitiiU:d coufilllutious, bul the 
medical qualilii;s which it is oaid to p(wae^s 
are to Ite iiiuiliuted vatlier Io ifs gciicndeom- 
poailioo tbnu to any distinct primiples. S. 
aspera continues lo be employed in medicine, 
S. offictnali.s H. B. and A'., was diseovcred 
by lliiinboldtttuJ lionplantl in New Granado 
on the baiilcH of tbe Magdalenn, in Colum- 
bia and iti MiuHs Gentes. lu roota are taken 
Io Carlogcoa- 

S. Sai'T^uparilla, Linn. Is a native of the 
United Stales of Aineiie* ; but it does Lot 
yield auy of the aaraaparilla of commcree. S. 

S 151 




popynioeR, Foir. (S. vypbilitivn; Mart, ami 
Huiiib.) is A Diilivu o( Broxil i iU> ruuU Hi'i; 
eonix-itf'l Ity llie Itiilmi)^ on the Rio Nr^ro 
uoJolherfilncesiu titc vk-iuK/ ol'tlie Amiixoa 
river nniJ they form tlie SmI^a, Sn)!«ji|>anllii, 
S&rzo. or Zntza. wliich in iiMtii«d ilie Sttrsa 
of Maisriliao, uf Piiru, ami of Litl'Ou ; it 
•botiuil» moro itiHn (lie other in Fitrik,'line. 
S. Sfpliililicft. li'illiL, was fouuJ by H. 
»uil B. cm th« Rio Ctt»»iquinre, in UiveiliMO 
GuiiDL S- Mctlica, Sehieclt', was Jbuud bj 
SchicJa on ibe ciuttern kIoiw itf (lie Mexican 
Audwi. The roots ftro ihied nn'l PXjmrU'J 
from Vi^ru Cruz. l)i'. Ilnucoi k. siMtes tiiat 
them is bot oiiH npei^ikfii wliirh inuiiirtwUt to 
Ilia lai)t« miy of th« Kusible propcrlien of 
ftftmpiirilla ; ami tUts grows ftliiefly on the 
wloviitoil Iniiils oCilio Rio luilqiiem, at Untti- 
rkna BuJ Curabun ; alao that tb« Sui-^a of the 
Itio Negro, whirh roniKs by way uf Ao}{os- 
tora or Para, If (lie Ite-ft. This is prolMtbty 
yivliled by the nhove S. p«|tjTuwa. Si-vcrAl 
orher species are, however, etiiiniei-nk-tj by 
Mariiuft, aa S. dapicauga, brasilii'DHJa aud hIuo 
Herreria HtlMparillia asefnp]oy**d for tbe&iune 
purposes. So S.CumftDenBia the Arncorcioof 
the natives, S. Cardnto-otHlo of Poppig, S. 
Purkumptiy, referred doubtfully lo S. oQici* 
naliii by L)r. Limlley, S. Cliiuu yieldiug the 
ChiuB-root of ilie »hop», long fiimed iu Uie 
Ka>t Iiidiee. S. China iind S. Mgitlaifolia Hre 
luiid to cotnp from the proviuce of Ountii^i iu 
China. Smiinx pseiuto-Chinn, S. S»i'!<Hprintla, 
fl. rub«ti», dill! S. Wal^otii, furuiEh the drug 
of North America. Tho *>Brsniwrilla dia- 
tiogui^he^l iu commerce as Ihe L{i>bmi or 
Brazilinu i? the root of S. i«t»ynicea of Poirel. 
Bciiidea this Bperics S. officiooU!*. grow* ia 
Uie provinee of Mina ; S. ftypbili(ica, pcowft 
in ihe uorfhem regiouB, niid three new 8pe*'ies, 
8. Mpivan^a, S. bnuilieu^is, nod S- MirMi- 
parilla of Todia. The rooU of Ilemideemus 
Jndicui* were MTit to the Madras Exbibiiiou 
of l8o5 from altna^t erory di«tnrl, but they 
vnried considerably ia aroma. a)en n cyrop 
and erti-a>'t from the indigenous plant, grow- 
Inv lit ttie foot of Courtallum hilU. Dr. A. J. 
Stroll forwarded a crystal Hited pviin-tple ralk'd 
" llfraiilpflmiHe," which w/w found on exooii- 
onttoa to be nn entirely new nubirtaiice, cx- 
hibtcing a remarkable indifltTt-nce both to 
•v.- Ida and alkalies crystalliciiig in a pet-ulinr 
Dnuner Iu hexagooa] pbites, which are Huhjuct 
to rapid efflofe?i;crice. The only iwcerlained 
iolventi are alcohol and ether ;it in perfectly 
idsolublo in water, both cold and hoL These 
fhcta Dhow that it U a niilM'tnnce of a very 
peculiar nature. The juiy rerommended that 
this pitparation bo fully teeicd ia lio^pital 
practice, along with the extnct and syrup 
■•*A frooi the s.-inie pleol. TUe Ue* 

midesmus ludicus, and Ichnocorpiii fni*' 
LptKen^, both uxetl ns sarnnparilla, are ciuiniun 
on the Hope of the Ndl^hen ji.-s. >Vhvai 
HnrMr>ari[|a is not ubtaluabltf, thot'^biita ii««. | 
(8. Chiiin,) Difiy be euipjiyoii Au turu>uoQ 
of ihe HemideemuB ludicua, (Uuuolamal,) 
is a r^till bvtt4>r fiubnlilute for BarviparUb>.< 
But as iiiuc}] of Ibe virtues of ilie LlDUDtaaul; 
depend OD a volatile pnuciple, it shouUl DOti 
be used iu deuoetioii, as Uiu long boilia(E 
dissi(iaLcs ttio active iut;redicnl. Syrupa iifj 
llemideBiaufl and nf China root are alterative' 
and diuretic, and are used to *wi<eL>:n tlui de- 
corliuiis and iufusioiid of tbe Muie artii-lcs, 
— Toatlinaaa ; Roytr, Hi—al, Hot. /). 3W ] 
SifitmoMd$ i M. E. J. B I Beng, £har. fja, 
2V», 409. 

SAKAKPARrLLE.GER. Sarwjparilla. 

SAUSrWA, 'Vf.1-, Sluapif *pe<-it)s, 

SARSHAF, Saion Pji, nlm Bai, lliao 
UiiRlard, S. juiR-on, Siunpis ^ineusis. IU 
eujiiiiii-a; B. caini>eFili'i.% Stv., 

SAHiiHAl'A-TBLAM. SaN». Has 
oil. Oil of Siuapir alba. 

SAltSON, iliKD. Bras!>irR rampefttni^^ 
rapeseed ; jangli t^rson, ii sisymhrinra irw,, 
Kalu t^rcou, also Tara-mira ia Uraeaica eru< 

SAlfSi/n-^ p)-op(;rly Sarosvuti, aro bt 
miuH found iu coueiderablA number*, whi| 
aviT that they were mantera of tJie C4 
prior lo the Jit colonist*. They are a 
nbte, iiidunlriouH mi-e, and without n 
ptcjiidito of the Older; they cat ml 
smoke tobacco, cultivate the «uil, and ImWl 
even in the sncred kine. 

SAUT, AuABO*Hi.vui. A gig or ItonXM 
corruption uf Arabic " idiart.'* a irager« a Ur*] 
gain, a horee vace. 

SART, the name applied by tlie TorLi to] 
the Titjik aborigines of Trana-oxiaota. Tbal 
Siirl or Tfljik from time ioimeniorial Iiavt-I 
occupied tbe tract in Central Asia, wtiidi[ 
bns ns boundartcH, Sibuviu, indin, Peitia awl] 
Cbitin. Thu Tajik is liauiao. lie i« BSctj 
with in Inrgeitt uinnlier iu the khaiiat ofj 
Bokhaia and in Uiuliikhsban, but many liavai 
H-tll<-d iu the t/>wiis o[ Kokiiiid, Khiva. Chi- 
nese Tarlary and Atl'irliatiivttui. Tlie Ti^ikJ 
m of H good middte lic-i^bL, hau a broad poMcT^^ 
ful trntne of bone^, iiud e4|iocial1y «id« 
shoulder lioues, but ihey diverge from ihi 
Irauinn, they have Ibo Turaiiiau wider tot^ 
bend, thick clicckK, thick oose aod lai^a.. 
iDOUth. Tho Tajik originally rame ftou tk*1 
sources of the Oxus iu the aleppe ol' Panir^ 
Tha term ia from Taj, a crown, the firo 
Hbipjiers bead dre>>8. But tho Tajik 
not so style himmdf at>d regnrds the tena 
derogatory. Tho Turks style Uie Tajik 
The Tnjik is coretous. uuwariikc, and g>i 
to agtioulture aod trade ; foud of Hi 





nimiilsaiiil pollsdeil nod U is owing to ihplr 

prtf^WMlvreiice iu Bukliin Uiut that city hnn 

nineii In tlio iKisilioa of the licnJ 

[iwrien of Central Asinltc civilwaiioii, for, 

»err, (Voin pri-Ii-ttimic: Imu'is iiiay linvo 

" loed iheir jncvioti? exertions in Dit'nial 

and, uotwilli^titnilin;; ilie np]ii-fs^ioDf 

rli ilit-y IniTu- 8ii»lnitii-i| fiouj a fyrrlgti 

tcr. Ii«vA riviliifii llic-iv contiuerors, Musi 

■niios in iho lleM of ivli|;iou? 

"i iK'llefllelttfi'^, liuvebet^n ThjiUis 

at till' ptfitfut liny llip nic^fl t^onrinii-unu.-' 

1^ iti>< mullah und i^hnn nm Tiijilc!^, nnd tJie 

(lief nieo of tlie Boklinm ind Kliivi crour( 

Tftjik or, »8 ihe Turka clylo the r»co, 

S«rt. Vainbcrry considers the Tajik and 

V . . • I Tiiicnl, ItuC he remgnizt* that in llieir 

"tnic pi:culiarllit'!^ ibe Sort diflers 

ivtiiiv irom the Tiijik, bcinf; more filcnder, 

tixh a larfit^r fncc, mid a liighi-t' foruiicud ; 

leM chan^t^s Vnmbpi-ry uiiribui(.-)t to 

t)t inlormniTtuges bcivrecn Sart men 

'*TFinn slavpis. 

SART^. ir Sarr. HiKD. Cnprossus&entpet'- 

' ii-'irnrioB ('(inisilifolia. 
v'ARA» /i/., tlio lord over ntl, 
for the true God by iho Bomuii 

fiAHUG or Senig. The ohl namp of 

n di'lrict lying aorncwlmt to llie wckl 

Eebi. It Wtt» tlid uncient 0!>rocne. It 

TTiied by the i-nro of Arphaxiiil, M-hen 

no longer psaloral, after the Peleg. 
L*)"* i ■ i-iii. 

SARUNG. Mai.4T. The onder gonaicut 
"!>!■ *' ■ 1' n J wiitlen fHiong. 

:. CA.f. Uuubiiiia purpurea, 

SAHrNGA, Hind. Phytnljwca deeaudra. 
8ARUBA, lliKP. Bntt-u ft-uiidoi^n. 
SAitUT, IIiND. Sncvhorum »m-&. 
SARV. I*Ra«. Copreasua ecmporvireni*, 
Vitldr. S««Siira. 

SARV KA JUAR, Dekuatii. Casnarinn 
I iitinvttfolin. 
fiARVVALI, IIiKD. CeloBin ai-gent«i. 
SARVTAX. Hiiso, Camel driver. 
8AKWAKI. Hind. Celosia argeotfo, 
[Itm BAffdf, Roxb., n'., le. 

SARWYA or Ssrtnepai. Of this Rajput 
i*ft trndiiion has U-fi ns oidy tb« knowledf'e | 
. it ouc« wfifl famous ; for ultbongb, in the ^ 
Jagao of the bard, it ii introduced as the 
["tSMDce of itie IChetvi race," we have only 
[l few leifcodf rtgardiUR \\a present drgradA- | 
titro. \i^ nune, ai fvell aa \\\\* epilbet of the 
hard, inrlncca a l>oliof Ibal it is n bi-nntih of . 
[*e Aiwa, wilb the prefix of aar, denoting | 
iDoe,' or prjoi'ify, «Im> perbap?, nortbcrn. j 
or Sular in all probabilityt origi- 
tbe t^pitbot Larike, by which the Sau- ! 

153 a 


rnElitra poniosuln waB known to Ptolemy nnd 
the gfu^rapliers of early Kuropo. The lril>e 
of Lar was onee funioiia in Sinira^htrn, and in 
Ihe nnnnln of AidiiilivurrB nieuliou \% made of 
Sid Hhi; Joy Siii<*, having extirjnited tlteni 
ihl-ou^liout his doinitiionti. .Sular or Siliir, 
would lhen?fore 1* dii'tinrtively tlio Lwr. 
Indeed, the tiulhoi* <d ilie Koninrpid Chnrilra 
ftiyles ii Unj-iila'', or 'regal prince ;' but tlie 
nuroo only now exihls nmongi't tbe loerciinrilo 
cIutifcj) proft;i<?iiig ihe f:iitb of Bndha : it ia 
inserted us one of ilic ei;:hty-foiir i-lttnfl. The 
greater poilion of llie^e are of liojiioot origin. 

SAUZA, I. AT. 8ur#»partlla. 

SASAFKAS, AiMi*. A me«licinal «ub- 
ntanee, (lie root of S olRciiiale, a abmb or tree 
of N. America, in its Sojtlivr» parte. Soo 

SASALADALA. Sisgu. Literally rlie 
shnkini; leaf : one of ttit; iinmeH of Ilie bo- 
Irne, fbeFiens religioE«. It* leaveaarealino-tt 
constaiifly iremnloin*. — Forbes* elrcen years 
in Cri/loH, rd. ii, p. 161. 

SASAXAM, IIi\t>., Sax8. A royal grant, 
nfloally ou copper, aotncti'iiiis ou pajwr or ou 

SASARKUNU, is n pool in the Miihur 
jungle where the Puiu-pnni;& is »atd to ba 
i-ngulffd. The Nnikndo Good rcpiur, there, in 
pilgrimage, at tbe month Chaiiin, to u huge 
stone llint ri^cs in a gorge, And goes by tho 
name of IJbimccn, bt-fore whiob lito Knikudu 
Oond ininj^le wilh Hiij (!oDd oud Kolum iu 
worship. Towoids evening, the worshippers 
eook & little rice, and place it before tho god, 
adding sngar. Then they smear Iho fttoae 
with vermiliDn and burn veciii ns invcufM?, 
after which all offtr their viclirae, nheep, hogs 
and fomlti with the iisunl libntions of arrnrk, 
the pnjari appenrs to be inspired, rolls his 
hvnd, leaps wildly about and finully falls 
down in n ti-ance, wlitu he declares whether 
tilts god ba^ aecepted the services or not. Ac 
nigbr. drinlciug, dancing and beating tomloina 
goes on, and tn the momtng they reiui-o home 
afrer an early meiil. Those nuuble to leave 
home perform similar ritea beneath a Mahwu 

SASASV'ATI, R goddees of tho hindoos in 
the S. of India. 

SASAVI, Malay. Sinapis chiuensic ; 
Mnfitard iieed. 

SASIN. se«> Siva. 

SASSAFRAS, Ksa , Fb., Ger , Lat., Sp. 

fiunfma. An. I Skaufnuo, It> 

C»>r«Dg-'n. Coca. I 

This medicinal snli«tanvc, ti'uo Sasi^afras 
woml, i» the root of Saissalras oflipinalis, tho 
Sa^tafrn-H laurt?! of North AraeHcfl. But, 
at the Madi-AA Exhibition of 18.3,5, the Jnry 
remarked two specimens of wodd, Vikb tiuar 





eafraa, botli fvum Mergui, very frngrant, 
nud conLaiiiiii^ an ei'seiiliitl oil of vulim in 
medkine. Dr. Mason, indeed, says that h 
Bpeuiue of Bast<afi-a!5 al)uuiid.i iu lliu Tenussc- 
viin jungles, wliicli seeiiiii- to post^ess uU (he 
pvopeitiea of the easnafias of America. Uul 
he had never met with Uio trc-c iu fruit or 
flower, and the leaf, lie ndd>«, nhows that it i^ 
not the Stmaufrua offi<:inurum ; in niiollier 
place, he meuiioca that a flpecieB of laurus 
with the odour of sassafras, is, iu Tenasserini, 
often used iu house carpentry. It is pro- 
bahly the Cumphora glmidulifera, and Dr. 
O'Shaughneiisy tells us that the SHacafras of 
Assam, is perhaps the bark of the Camphom 
glaudulifurn, 9. r. It is fully equal to the 
Ameriuaa kind, and may be introduced ac- 
cordingly, although its source is as yet not 
perfectly ascertained ; the root of Sassafras 
officinalis is used in medii^ine. The small woo<1 
is of a light brown, the lar-,'C is darker ; both 
are ptaio, soft, and close. Sassafras- wood 
measures from 4 to 12 in. diameter ; it is 
sometimes chosen for cabinet work and turn- 
ing, on account of its scent. — Bemj. P/iar., 
p. 279 ; Iff. Mason, Teiiasserim ; M. E. J. 
Hep., 1855 ; Tredgold. 

SASDELLKN, Geu. Sardines. 


LauruB sawafras, Linn. \ Persca saf<8.-ifr38, Spreng. 
A tree of N. America which has been intro- 
duced into India : it protluces the sas&afias 
bark and root used in medicine — Voigt, p. 309. 

SASSAIS, Hind, .^ua bovii. 

SASSANAM, Karu., titie d<-ed. 

SA.SSANIAN KINGS of Tersi.-i. Tim 
following are the dates given iu Dr. Smith's 
Dictionary, with Dr. Mordtmau's late.'jt deter- 
minations of the genealogical history of this 

Smith. *^*'^**'- 

A. D. 

A. D. 


240 233 









294 291 











(1) Ardeshir Babcgan bin Su- 

san, or Artaxerxes. 

(2) Shappahr, Shalipur or Sa- 

por, captnn-d Valerian. 

(3) Hormuzd or Hormisdas. 

(4) Buharum or Vnranes I. 

(5) „ „ II. 

(«) „ „ ni,se. 

gun Shnh. 

(7) Narse or Narses, conquer- 

ed Armenia anil Galeriiis. 

(8) Ilormiiztlor Ilorini.-'iIasII. 

(9) Shopnhr or Sapor II. 
(iO) Ardeshir or Artaxerxes II. 

(11) Shapuhr or Supoi' HI. 

(12) Bahanim or Varauus IV. 

Kermau Shah. 



404 399 (13) Yezdegirdor Isdep 

420 420 (14) Bahrara Gaur, or ' 
V. visited India 

448 440 (15) Yezdegirdor Ud.>y 

4.j8 4o7 (16) Hormuzdurllormi 

458 45S (17) FiruzorPerose,alli 
Khakau of Hun 

484 4S5 (18) BalH!<, Palash or Ba 

488 491 (19) Kobad or Caotles. 

498 498 (20) Jamasp (Kobad i 
Kingdom 50:^). 

531 531 (21) Khosru,K»sri(NuH 
or Chosroes. 

579 571 (22) Hormuzd or Ho 
IV. deposed I 
geueral Varan ut 
D. 590 : M. ; A 

591 591 (23) Khosru Parvez, K 
ChosroesII. put 

62S 623 (24) Kobiul Shiruyieh or 
629 {25) Ardeshir III Anai 
629 (26) Shariar or Sarbazai 
629 (27) Purau Dukht. 
631 (28/ Azermi Dukht. 

631 (29) Forokhzad Buklity 

632 (30) Yezdegirdorlzdeg 

overthrown by II 
dans 641. 

This moparchy commenced in Pe 
the year 226 a.d. when Artaxerxe 
threw the Parthian dynasty, and it co 
until itself overturned by tlie mah 
khaliCs ill the ye:ir a.d. 632. The 
of tiie Sabsanitiu dynasty died in 2 
hi!^ latter days a certain Ar{)og was 
China, Olio of whose sous, Mamkon b; 
tied from home on account of u 
brought against him, and took refiifje 
sia. The last race of the fire-woi':< 
monarchs of Pei-sia was the Se 
dynasty, commencing with Ardeshir 
gan, the descendant of Sussnn, who e 
the Ashkawi, about A. D. 226. His e 
poor obt.-iined several important t 
aver the Romans, and at length captu 
emperor Valerian. — Prin. Ind. Ant. 
Thuntaa' Piinsep, Vol. i, p. 302 
Cathnt/, Vol. i, p. 84. See Kliiraj, I 
Greeks of Asia, India, Kara-oghtan, 
roo Parwez. 

SASTRA, HiVD. An order, acomi 
scripture, a religious work, Dharraa 
the Code of Manu or any book on 
science, religious books of the him 
^enernl, and more especially certain ] 
phii-al syKtems, six in number. 

SAT, Set, n grain measure of Siam, 
ing 3*|Ibs. and holding about 3^ ] 
Siinmond' t Dictionart/. 

SAT. See Gayatri. 




A. Minnagar or Miii)ha1>ari, i^ tlie city 
lia sitaated id a low ewampy valley, ! 
I from the western bntik of the Iii<]u», 
miles above tlie separation of the 
or westera hraucli, from the Sala or 
ream of the river. The Bile of Tlmthn 
i admitted to be modern, but those of 
ignr and Kalyan-kot are said to be of 
intiqaitT. Lieutenant Wood remarks 
e Pite of Thatha is ?o advantageous for 
rcial purposes that it is proliable that a 
las existed in ita neighbourhood from 
rlie!>t times. — Cunnin if ham's Ancient 
of India, pp. 2S8.289. 

PADEVA, the youngest Pandavn. 
CADHU, in position, corrfHpoiidd almost 
T with the large city of Sarliiiid. The 
t ruioH of Sarhiud consists almost en- 

of maliomedan buildings of a lute 
; but it must have been u place of some 
uence in the time of the hindoos, as it I 
esieged and captured by Muhammad 
be first miihomedan king of Di'lhi. The 
>fSarbriid, or " frontier of Hind," or 
8 northern Hind, is popularly said to 
>een given to the city at an earlier 
when it was tfao boundaiy town 
in the hindoos and the later maliomednn 
.m of Gliazni and Lahore. But the 
is probably much older, and seems to 
Northern India, aa the astronomer 
a Miliirn mentions the Sairindlia hnnie- 
' after the Kuluta, or people of Kullu, 
bt before Brnhmapura, which according 

Chinese pilgrim Hwen Thsaug, whs 
piul of the hill country to the north of 
rar. Bat the geoj^raphical list of Vam- 
bim is copied almost verbatim from that 

ttili earlier astronomer Pni-nsara, who 
;veil to have flourished not later than the 
eutury afli-r Christ. The town called 
or Bniulo, was proltalily the contrncled 
fHliataathala, and General Cunninglinm 
iuet] to think that Sarhind must bu the 
indicated by the pilgrim as the capital of 
ncient district of Satiidru. — C«««tn*7- 

Aneient Geog. of India, pp. 145-147. 

TAN, an evil spirit, of llie jews, oliris- 
ind mahomedHiis. Shail4in, the Satha- 
' Sntan of Europe, was recognised by 

TANI. A class of religious mendicants 
itbem India, who worship Pcrinalii, an 
latioD of Vishnu. They pcrombulate 
reet morning and evening, and accept 
from all but the lowest caster, often ex- 
; the same by threats of burning them- 
with a lamp. They are a mendicant 
of Sudras, worshippers of Vishnu, prac- 


SATAPASPA, Sans. Aniseed, Plmpinella 

SATARUPA is the wife of Brahma, (or 
the first Menu, or Swnyambhuva,) and is de- 
clared to be the same with Prakriti, or Na- 
ture ; a title generally given, not to Saras- 
wati, the consort or sacti of Brahma, but to 
Devi, oacti of Mnhiideva. — Moor, p. 127. 

SATAS, see India. 

SATASANDA, Sikgh. Aristolochia in- 
dicB, Linn., fioxb. 

SATAVARI, or Pillipiohara, Tel. Aspa- 
raj:u8 racpmosus, Willd., E. ii, p. 151. 

SATA VIRYA, Tki,. White dub-grass. 

S ATA WAR, Hind. Asparagus racemosus. 

SATA WAR, Hind. Asparagus racemo- 
Rus. — Linn., Hoxb. 

SAT BALON, Hind. Polygonum ne- 

SAT BARGE, Hind. Cavngaoa traga- 

SAT BIROZA, Hind. Pious longifolia. 

SAT-DHARA, said to mean, literally *' the 
hundred streams" is a group of buddhist 
topes on ilie left bank of the Besali river, 
just below the junction of the Ghora-pachar 
river. The topes are two miles W. S. W, 
of the emnll village of Ferozpur. See Bud- 
d'bn. Topee. 

SATGARHA, an ancient city in the Panjab. 

SATGHAR GROUP, seo Karli. 

SAT GILO, IIiND. Tinosporacordifolia. 

SATGURBA, j=ee Bnrabur coves. 

SATHAGATA, an appellation of Sakya. 
See Lama, Sakvii muni. 

SATHA-KUPPA1,Ta3I. Anethum sowa, 

SATHAM, Taw. Food. 

SATHI, Sans. Curcuma zedoaria, lioxb. 

SATIIl, Hind., a variety of coarse rice 
having n red pkiii, 

SATIH, (IiND. Salvia plebcia. 

SAT'HNAMI, a saiva sect who profess to 
adore the tiiie name, the one God, but they 
nevertheless recognize the whole hindoo pan- 
theon, and pay reverence to what they con- 
sider miinifestutions of his nature visible iu 
the nvatnrs, particularly Rama and Krishna. 
The Sad or Sadh, on the other band, utterly 
reject all kinds of idolatiy, are pure deists 
with a simple worsliip. Between these uni- 
tarian seels and such aa adore every deity, 
there is the ulmOHt diversity of theory and 
practice. The Satlmami of Racpore and Bela- 
irpnr have been inclined to accept Christianity. 

SATTIPURA, a range of mountains in 
Centriil India. Nothing can be a greater 
contrast than the desolate wilds and jungles 
of the western Sathpoora hills and parts of 
the country exfoiiding from Ihem to the 
Vindliya with their savage inhabitauls, the 

S 155 


Bhf el tribee. who abbot' field, or, iudeed, any 
other msnual labour, niid tho adjoining richly 
cultivated pliiiiis of MalwH, cxlcndiiig, with 
occasional intervening iructs of hill and jun- 
gle, from the Mhye on tlic west, to Bhilsn 
on the east, a stretch of close on 200 miles, 
and from the crest of the line of the Vindhya 
to Mundiasore and Oomutwarra, a distunce 
of from 100 to 120 miles, and populnttd by a 
thrifty, agricultural people. Thi:j is succeed- 
ed by the more liiliy and jun<£ly laud of 
Oomutwiirra, Seronje and Keechiwarra, with 
their scanty populiition. North wards, to- 
wards Gwulior, the country becomes more 
open, except on the wild border tracts of 
Kotah of Uuiidlccuud till we come to the 
curofully cultivated plain of Gwalior, stretch- 
ing for a distance of 140 miles between the 
Chumbul, Paliooj and Siud rivers. A vast 
portion of Bundlccund is hilly and unpro- 
ductive, forming the northern slope of the 
table-laod of the Viudbya ; but the scenery 

is strikingly grand. — .-<n». lad. Adm., Vol. William Bentinck, and though it is Btitloeoip 

zi, p. 341. See Satpura. 

SATIIONG of the Lcpcba. Ilystrix 
lougieanda, Marsden. 

SATI, Sass. Good, pure, hence Svittee, a 
good woman who immohites herself with the 
boilyofher deceased liu.sbaiid. The term is 
applied to a true and cbatite wile. The ancient 
Aryan custom was to transfer a widow to the 
brother of the deceased. The Si-ythians killed 
the favourite wife in order that she might ac- 
com[>ai)y her husband to tho land of spirits. 
The Tbracians blaugbtered the widow — the 
next of kin de.-'Iroying licr at the grave of 
lier dead hnxi'and. The burning or self- 
immolation ol'bindoo widows, with the bodies 
of their deceased husbands was generally 
done at the sangam or confluence of rivers. 
The Sankiilpa, or dechinition of tho Suti, is as 
follows : Having first bathed, the widow dress- 
ed in new and clean gannenre, and holding 
some kusa grass, f-ips water from the palm of 
her hand : holding in her bandit ku^^aaud tila, 
she looks towards tho ea^it or uorib, whilst 
the brahmin utters the mystic word O'm. 


his friend : — I ascend my batbamCa faoml 
pile. I call on you, ye guardians of tb« eigbt 
regions of the world, sun and moon, air, fin 
aither, earth, aud water, my own soul I Y■B|^ 
day, night, and twilight, I call you to witn«i% 
I follow my husband's corpse to the fuuenl 

The Danish north-men of Europe reUie- 
ed the recollection of llie Sati, in the story ol 
Balder, one of the Bons of Odin, who waa »kia 
by a brane-h of mistletoe, aud Odin kinuelf 
descended and obtained a promise from Urn 
guariiiaiis of the dead, that Balder should bt 
restored if all created nature would weep for 
him. All wept but one old crone whom Loki 
liad possessed, so Balder could uot be mads 
to live again, and his faithful Nanus, refuting 
to survive her beautiful lord, perished on his 
Tuneral pile. After much discusaioo, durii^ 
which riijaRam>mohunKaimade gi-eat efforts 
in tho cause of prevention, Sati was at last 
legally abolished iu British India, by Loi4 

sioiially performed, all who engage iuitars 
severely punished. It is rare in Kashmir bit 
still current in Bali. The Bret recorded Sat^ 
ill the Mahabharatti, was performed by Ma^ 
the second wife of Fandu, Kunti the elder wifc 
contested tho point, but the bmhmaDS «b* 
were present gave it in favour of Madrid wbt 
a(!Cording1y perished on her husband's fnaenl 
pile. The idea of Sati, was connected wiA 
a I'utnt-o state ; when the ancient Scytfaissi 
buried a king, they strangled oue of Ul 
concubines and buried her with him, logelte 
with his cup bearer, cook, groom, waitiug ms^ 
messenger and favourite horses, (Herod, i»i 
71,) to serve their master in tha uext worli 
Amongfst the Thracians with whom poligasij 
prevailed tho wife decided to be the bei 
iu'loved was slain, by her npxt of kin, oWf 
the grave of her luisliand (Herod, v, 5) uai 
buried with him. On the occasion of bonuif 
the body of Kiehaka, whom Bhtma had aliia 
to avrTige an insult to Dmupndi, the deretswHl 
relations wished to burn her with the bo^i 
lint the wiiK^nved by Bhimn. JustbeforeBS 

Bowing toNarnyau, slie next declare^', nn tins I town of Dwarka i\aa overpowered by a BtoM 

month, (naming llio lime) I (uaniing bersL-lf 

and family), tlnil I may meet Arutiilhatp, the 

wife of the Rishi Vasit^tiiaand reside iu Swerga 

— that the years of my stay may be numerous 

as tliK hairs on the luimnn body : that I may 

enjoy with my husbaiul (he fi-licity of heaven, ' Kri.^hnaV widows burned IhemseWes, and ihl 

wave, king Vasudeva died, and four of hil i 
wivrs burned themselves on his funeral pilfc \ 
Krit<hna also was slaiu by a Bhil hunter, ia tbt ' 
lbre.''t. Ayuna then conducted the AjiK 
niullilude to Knrukshelra where four « ' 

and sanctiiy my and paternal pro- 
gcuitoiii, and the ancestors of my husliaiiJV 
family : that, lamled by the np^a^lK:l, 1 may 
lie happy tliroiigb the regions of fourteen In- 
dra : that expiation may be made for my bus- 
laind'sofTi-nces, whi-lber he have killed a brab- 
luiu, bi'okeu thu lies of gratitude or murdered a daughter of Uaksha. 

15U S 156 

re>t of the widows assumed the devotee drcii ! 
and retired to the jungle. — CoUbrookin AM,\ 
Rei., on the duties ofafaithJnl wifPt Vipwtt 
p. B7 ; i r. Vauyfmiup. 192 ; //er»rf !», 7I| 
V, Ci. .See Sat'Jii, Suttee. 
SATI, a hiiidoo goddess, Siva's first wiAb 
Tho gods wboa 



S«ti contwned in her vomb, barat out ; ber 
limb* were scatLered all over tbe world, nod 
the pUeeB where they fell are become sacrad. 
Her breasts fell near Jalandar id the Punjab ; 
Ibe 70111 into Assam ; aud the gubya (podex) 
into Nepal, where ihty are mwt devoutly 
vocshipped to this day : the last is a smuU 
eleft in a rock, with ao iDtermittiug spring ; 
it is called Guhyast'han." The servants of 
Cuvera, the deformed deity of ri<:hc!<, nre called 
GahyacB ; and into such beiiige the dark 
bqIs oT men, addieted in this world to selfii^h 
l^niiGratioDB, Iransraigrate. Wiiford oh 

Mount Caueatut, Aa. Rea., yol. vi. p. 477 ; 

Moor,p. 108. See lu^criptioos Uiinloo Sati. 
SATILLER, the half of a »ooco in Ben- 

cooleu and pome parDi of the Eastern Arvhi- 

prIagD. — SimaioiuTt Dictionary. 

SATIN, Esq., Fa. 

Atlsu, Geb. I Atftlna, Tntalai, Malat. 

lluo, It. I Setim, Port. 

A silken fabric manufactured in Europe. 

SATIN SPAR, see Calcareous spar. 

SATIN WOOD ; the Swieteuiacliloroxy- 
kafimiishes tliis cabinet wood, wcll-known 
(or its glosjiy yellow ebades. It is hard and 
vlken polished, is very beautiful with a smtiny 
tntre, it is much used for picture frames, 
rinlliug the birds eye maple of America. It 
is occasionally utied by cabinet raiikero for 
Itnieral furniture, but it is liable to split. 
Sstio wood grows chiefly in. tnouutainous 
districts of southern India and Ceylon. Ilia 
abaodant in the hills of tbo Vizagupatam and 
GsDJam circars, though logs aeldoai exceed 
eight inchfn diameter, it ia well adapted lor 
wm of wheels, for malleCa, &c., a superior 
description for furniture- is occasionally im- 
ported from Ceylon. Very fine butiu wood 
occurs at Kutapatti, in the Tengrikotttdt 
tilook of Snlem. It is nseu fur the naves 
of gun carriage wheels and is tlie best suited 
of all the Indiun woods for fuses. The price 
ii uearly tbe same as that of teak nnd bluck- 
■ood. C-olonel Frith mentions a Batiu wood 
of Peiiang, of a straw colour and a bcuutiful 
wood for oroamental furniture, &u. : but, it is 
ikot known what satin wood tree grows 
there. Tbe best variety is llie West Indian, 
imported from St- Domingo, in E<qunre loga 
ind plauka from 9 to 20 inches wide ; the 
Kxt in quality is the East Indian, shipped 
from Singapore and Bombay ia round logs 
from to 30 in. diameter ; and tbe moi^t 
iofcrior ia from New Providence, in sticks 
from U^ to 10 in. square ; the wood is cloae, 
not Eo hard aa box-wood, but somewhat like 
it in colour or ratlier more orange ; sonio 
pieces are very beautifully mottled and curled. 
it was much in fashion a few years back for 
ialemal ilecoraUon and furniture, it is now 


principally used for brushe.s and somewbat 
for turning, tbe finest kinds are cut into 
veneers, which are then expensive ; the Nas- 
sau wood is generally used for brushes. Satin 
wood of handsome figure was formerly im- 
ported in large quantities from the Island of 
Dominica. The wood has an agreeable scent, 
and is sometimes called Yellow Saunders 
wood.—;*/. E. J. li. ; Mr. Bohde MSS. ; Dr. 
C leghorn' a Conserrator'a Report 1859-60, 
p. 15 ; Col. Frith ; Tredgold. See Swieteuia 

SATISARAS, see Kashmir. 
SATKARINI, see Inscriptions, Junagurh. 
SATNAMI, literally, true name, a hiridoo 
unitarian sect who profess to adore the true 
name ulone, the one God, the cause and crea- 
tion of all things, Nirgun, or void of sensi- 
ble qualities, without beginning or eud. 
Their notions iire borrowed from the Vednnta 
philosophy. With them, worldly exi8t«?nce is 
illusion, or the work of Maya, the primitive 
character of Bliavaoi, the wife of Siva. See 

SA-TOO, DuK. Ilordeum hexasticbon, 
Linn, Boxb. 

SATPURA. This nnmo is now generally 
applied to the great range or table-land which, 
commencing eot^iward at Amarkantak, runs 
ni-arly up to the western coast, thongli the 
nppelliition ncems to have been formerly re- 
stricted tu that portion of the range which 
divides the Narbnda aud Tapti volleys. The 
Sntpuru monntainsai'e thus described by Mr. 
Blandford of the Geological Survey. " This 
range is well defined to the westward, and 
from Rajpipla to A'sirgarh consists of a belt 
of mounrHinous country, forty or fifty miles 
in bieadtb, and of an average height, at the 
crcPt of the chain, but little under 2,000 feet 
above the sea, while many peaks rise above 
3,000, and some (uud even Fome Inhie-lands, 
n» Turan Mai) are os high as 4,000 feet. 
Nearly the whole of this range, both hills 
and valleys, cousist of trap ; but towards tbo 
west, along the nonlieru boundai-y of Klian- 
desli, a series of craggy peaks are met with, 
such as are but rarely seen in the trap region. 
Elfcwhcrethe summit of the range is more or 
less a table-land. tTust east of A'sirgarh tliero 
is a break, through which the railway from 
Bombiiy and Khandesh to Jabalpur passes, 
the highest part of whii^b is only 1,240 feet. 
It is worthy of notice tliat tl)i.s break leads 
from clofe to the junction of tbe two alluvial 
plains in the Tnpli and Puriia to a flat tract 
lying between the two Narb.iila pliiiiis. Eaft 
of this break the trap hills continue till 
south of Hoshangabad, where saudistone and 
metumorphic rocks emerge and form a great 
portion of the hills of the Pachmarhi and 

S 157 

Bfliil country, 'i'liprt- in a (ntilr^liittil of con- 
KiiIctuMc i-xti-tit nniiKl Bcliil, wliirh t^xCvudM 
fill to Uie ranLword Ih'}-(iiiiI Cliirnlwai-n iiiptl 
Ht-iiui, mill jiiiii.-< tilt* lii^ii (iliKciiu of ■Amttilimi- 
twk, L'lioil tliin pkieau trup slill priKtmiiiiiatif? 
nttil ■ ffCfnl »{)ui- liiitii it cxtfinU Iti-lwur-ii (li|i 
'i'ii|i(i jitKl ilrx i'lii'im, I'uiTciug llie norllii'iu 
WuiiJiirj (>(' Ui-inr an I'm- us the ninHiifiii-t' of 
lliiiflti rivere, TIum runge i* mIko of coii^iiivtiiljle 
lici}Clil, til pluree iifui-ly -1,000 fi^'L Uko 
nnwt olhi'V rnn^vf, it |ib4 do dc-Hiiitc imim', 
Dtid if ({c-Ui'rallv liKikcil upou iia n jMilinii of 
till] S»t|>ur», Acw|iiiiiff Amni'ltaiifak us tlie 
wi«tt*rii iKminiui-y. tlie S«l(»uni »r(>ulJ Imvc n 
nmicu fruin vti-t la went nfahnut cix huiidrt^iii 
mlU'8, nifl ill lliifir jri-cntcst ilcpth n'oiiltj ex- 
vet-d uim liiiti'irtNl miles fitim iiorUi to »outb. 
TlicKliHpi^nf ilii-i-nii^rwouliIiK'iiltiXHt triiiltgu- 
liir. Sflt[>iir)t liill:* jiviile tli4< vnlK-vs of, uuil 
form ihi- wat*-)'-(Jii,'«| lii-twuifn, tliu Tapti nnil 
Norbuil>l(L Tliv Sntp«ii-a plitrmu h llic (niv 
Ijat'tivr bul\wt.'ii NuiIIktu and S<>u(ht;-ni ftiilia 
and IS lliu tiiii! (ui whteli the svtlli'rif fmm 
HinJiitlitii mtrt llieL-mif^inttt fruni llip Deklinn 
■ml Muliiini^-hltn, eat-U of tlicm {iie-'«iii^ tliL* 
^H-ior nifCA iitto the ^rcnt nauirnl fiistucitteti 
ofCvutinl Imlin ; tlitf Suipumiauuiitjiiii iiiii^i*, 
vxtcmliii^ from Rajpipliili to Asii'ijurli. and 
foitnintf » f^rfiit bc'lt ul' uioiiuiiiiuuiis cjuiintry, 
40iir.7thiiili-Hiiilirr-aj|ili wiiliniiaveingt' height 
wU.tK-K) foci, ill <«oiidtviiiia tlicrvfli'eiioiTuuly 
tn-u uiil[ii>ii8 of abon^iiirs nut of n tmnl popii- 
lalioii of nine mtiliims. Tliu rt'iimiiiing sfVen 
milliotif) nliiin^t aniuiiul to a miL-i'««-i>Mn ufltie 
|M*uplo ill luilin, ami ju.«<ti('e i* iittnijiiiii't<-r»<i 
in iUh C-entral PruviocfA in five dUrt*veDl 
tKii|;iini;f&, \iz„ Ui-du, Hindi. Manillii, Uriya 
Hii'l I'l'liigu. Ill round iiambctif ihe seven 
niillit>ii-> mav be ibnit nlnsniHi'd :^l^ miUionn 
»\teuk Muratlti, 1^ millions ttprak lU-ijrn, and 
5 niilliciiia ^penk lliiitli. Or. W. \V. lliuittir 
(fin's tli(> fniloiviiig ti» Uic btitguM^Dtt peculiar 
|o C'.-ninil India : — 

111. (K<.1). ■■ , • ■ V 'r^ V. Khoml, 
Kul tSingh SllTft^I^ 

liiinif, (>«<UImL 

HuiUli, |><>yoU, I Um^I^i, Ycrnkiua, 

ftUuDiij, Uutluk, Kiir'i, L'LeutKii. 

Hr< iitTaujictt tJio rii-iw and liibcs Sjieiilviiig 
tliew iiiro Kolariaa i»ud Uravidiiui, viz.: — 

1. Tlio KoUtiu, 

'i. Tbcl)nviilUiior|Mgt>l« 
t>t tli« TmhII ItMKUu. 


Kboixl «n<1 R< rmln- 
»itlft K)Kirii{lii«i. 

lliin e»minil(4^ inrta<l«> mm ICotarian, 
tMkii. I;>E.iwaf. I Bbil, i Kavmi:; 

li;c*l>i I I'l'XniUb, l>I<«ns», N»li>ir. 

L|iiik KnTLa, lOuillja, iMaiilL 

.1 I ' 


Kolnrinn Iribes occupy lli9 lirtwd Ih.1i 
hilly (!ouii{ry tlial niiis idmo-t ci>ntinuo«>lj 
Di'i-oK^ India from the Sfiital tftu'tn lu ili« 
ICtirku sfltleuifnta. Tho Sniilal in tlw* 
mid tlio Kinkn in llie west, speak a 
!<iil>!<uiiili<i]ly the same. 

Tho Kolnriuu Iribes of Uie CautnU 
viui-es u\v ; — 







N"™ pit 11, 







Tim Draridtaii tribiw of the t'vuual pR>> 

viiiree are :— 

OjiiiI. I [hirwali Quad, KhanJ. 

M>trc«-(jvnil. 1 Agiiriith „ N&lior. 
MftrlAarGutH- 1 llulbidi, rirakahi 

war. \ &oy. 

The occupantB of the Ceoti-at Pix>*i 

arr : — 





null a 

I Brit*. 


KnnU, I ■ 
ll«I««, I 
Ourynh, .......... 

' Kond, I JhiiriA. 

of nijpiita, hi-altiaui» 
malioinedauK, in almost (rverj dUlHct. 

lu tJi« extrema we«t, iu Kimar i mn 

FiYim thenco, going to Uie North KmI* 
find aloQfr the Sntpura rnaK« iho Kurka m*!] 
Good, — the Kiirku l>olooi;it)g lo the Kola- 
riiui I'nmily. and thu Good Ui the Dmviilfam.J 
The Kiii'ku aro not niiniciouo, and 
rhiffly to be found la the hilly part of tiitl 
Hit^hntigidind, ntid llio mljoiuing unrthmf 
|mrt of llic Chindwam di»li-iet8. lu iImmI 
|.H'n1itie», ihpy meet wilb the Gfiiid, Mrfi 
few Kurkn arc nUo found in Kuitool. 

The Good aru uuroeruuA in rho pIstrtB 
diBti-ict of S«i>ne, oiid in tJu- soutli of Jsto* 
Imlpur, and they are fuuod also ju tli« tiiil| 
[>ai'l« of dubhiilpur. 

Tlu! Uond. Uyga and Knl fomi a Umj 
«ottinn of iJiL' population of Alandla. m4\ 
llie Lion<l and tty^ali art' nlco iu the hiBfj 
puttn of llnliigbul, louth of Muudls. 

Tho Ooi-iya ocrnp/ ODtirvly the Sumbak , 
pur diflrfct. 

The Ktiond dwell In the rnarury snrrattB^I 
in(; the Oonya iu Sutnbulpur mad Co ilnj 

Gftoli or Goli people have he*n •«ttleil 
time immemorial along tbtj Sntpumb 
Olid nnco i-uleil the hill eounlry round 
TUu Gaoli of Seoul bnYC* many Kiib-dii 
They lire generally robnnt fair men. 
ypur of (hiH range near the NcrhudiUk-j 
coloiwial Jota figure cut in relief nearl 
fert high. — (Jftiuphelt, f. 7 ; Hu»ter. 

S.VTKAP &l»n Kshatrapa, Sank. Ah 
wholly unknown n^ a sovereign till 
inuduru liiudoos uiid Dot lo to fnuiid 
books, iLis terra U familiar lo Ibe 

\ 158 



the Grecian history of aacient Persia, with ' nrci faid to I>e communists as to their wives 
merrlj a KofteniDi; of the iuitial letter, as uoil to have no ca.«le tli!<tiiictioiis. 

Sattapa SATPA1IH2, the prefect of a pro- 
Tinee under the Persian system of Gyrern- 
m«uC. It ifl an obsolete PersiaQ title for the 
gOTeroor of a province. In Sanscrit it 
signifies Uie ruler, feeder, or patron of th« 
Eshatra or mtlitaiy class, and now that we 
kaovr ihe ancient language of Persia east of 
the Euphrates to have been a new diale^-t of; 

SATTEE, a liiiuloo woman who immolates 
herttttif ulut)>; wilii Ui-r hushiinil's remains ou 
hid funeral pile. See Suti, Suttee. 

SATTEL, fJKK. Snddlert. 

SATTRA^MJ, Hind. A fibrous Ktiipcd 
eotton cni-pet ni.i(iu in India. 

SATTU, Tki.. Ziii.-. 


the Sanscrit, we may coaelude Ihnt satrapa ; Summer savory. 

bad the same signification in Arabia. The I SATUREJA MONTANA, Jri>/(/. Winter 

offemioate Persians, at a vety early period I savoiy. 

were in ttie habit of governing their numerous S ATURF, ITikd. Rue. 

tributary provinces by mercenary troops. The 
Btme system and the same denomiuatiou of 
■strap, was adopted and retained by the 
Macedonian conquerors, alike when Greek or 
Mtive officers were employed. And instances 
are frequent enough of the sntraps assuming 
to tbenuelves independence and a regul title. 

SATURN, in the sidereal theology, was 
represented by Bel. See IlrHlima, or liiratiyii- 
ghai'Uha, Lead, Suni, Suru:iwati, Singiilei<e, 

SATURNIA, Sc/irank. A genus of 
insects belonging to the order Lepldoptem 
and the family UomhycldeB. The antennae 

Tkesatrapies ofthe ancientPersianmonarchy are fringed in the male ; the head is small ^ 

' ire not supposed to have extended across the | the wings are vevy hroixl and cntiic ; the palpi 

ladus. It was in Alexander's time this limit j and trunk are wanting. The genus Satur- 

*1B first transgressed, it was not loDg prior I nia includes now llie Puvoniu of Hubiier, iho 

loifae time when the Bactrian Greeks or the { Phalscnn attacuR Linnteu»>, and part of the 

Pirtkians made themselves masters of Sindh, i genus Bombyx of Fubrlcius. To this genut>, 

Kilch and Gujarat. — Prtn. Ind. Ant., Vol, • ulf^o, »iome of the Urgc^'t of the Lepidou- 
M _ HA c n. I.- v_i...i > 1, i._i 1...1 u t .1.... •!._ /~i : . t .1.'.- 

ii, p. 64. See Greeks Kabul 

SATRAWALA, Hind. Cuscuta reflexo. 

SATUIN6A. Palit'bana, see Kashbin. 

SATROGHAKA, see Rama. 

6ATR-'S0WA. Myrtus communis the 
■jrtle ; its leaves are eaten with black pepper 
to cure emissions that occnr from debility. — 
Cm/. A/ed. Top., p. 152. 

SATEUN, Hind. Quereua dilatata. 

SATRUGHNA. Viswamitra, a ksha- 
trym warrior, in the time of the maharaja 
Dtaaratha, retired to a oave, and by the 
pacttce of austerities, became a brahmin 
nge : at his request, Dnsaratha sent his sons 
Baios and Lakshmaua, Bharata and Satrughua 
to conquer the South of India. 

SAT'SUKI, see Japan. 

SATTA-KUPPA, Singh. Anethumsowa, 
Boxb. Dill seed. 

SATTAGUDAI of Herodotus, the same 
asThatagush of Darius 

SATTAHANSI, Sans. Spikenard. 

SATTAN. a name of the hiudoo god Aye- 
Mr, and not identical with Satan of the Bible. 

SATTAPANNI. or Srotaparni, a cave at 

SATTABAH, a town south of Poonah, in 
the sootbem mahi-atta districts. It was, 
Ittterly the town in which the rajah of 
Sattarah dwelt. See India, Maliratta Goveru- 
nents in India, Peshwa, Sevaji. 

SATTATHAVAN, a Taishnava sect of 
Ute south of India, who, accoixliug to Wilson, 

li}9 S 

torn belong, but S. Atliiii, the Giant Allax 
Moth, which has wings measuring 7 or 8 
iouhes acme's is now iismed the Attacus atlas. 
This species also, with S. Cercropia and 
A. Lunnia, have their wings prodnced into a 
tail. The cocoons of A. Cynthia and S. 
Mylitta are ii^eii in India for rhe production 
of filk. Lntreille stales tlitit tlicse ttre the 
wild species of silk-worm of China. A. 
Cynthia is tlio Airindi Silk-Worm of India. 
S. Promethea, a North American ppci'ics<, 
forms its cocoon within the leaf of n sap- 
safras-troe, having previously fastened the 
stalk of the leaf to the Ptem by a strong 
silken web, whereby it is prevented fron» 
falling with the other leaves, Weetwood.— 
Roxburgh, Linn. Trans., Vol. vii ; Eng. 

SATURNIA GROTEI, ^eore. A moth 
of Darjf'liug, nearly three im-lies in expani>e. 

A moth of Ciiina. 

SATURYUN, Ydnani. Eulophia vireus, 
R. Br., V. Ic. 

SATWARI, gardeners of Guzerat. 

SATWIN, Hind. Mar. Alstouia scholaris, 
R.Bt., Don. 

SATYA, see Vamann, Yug or yuga. 

SATY'AUHAMA, or Sutyavaroa, one of 
Krishna's mistresses. 

SATYANASA, IIikd. Argemoae mexi- 

SATYAVAMA, and Lakshmi, wives of 




Bnlaji, nil iiicftriinHon of Vishnu. These two 
an Wis suctl are geiientlly feon with liim qb 
well an iu iiis Kvnram of Kritihua. See Bal- 
iBJee, Tripnti, Visiinu. 

SATYAVRATA, see Bruhmadica, Yama, 

SATYOMBA, n perguiianh on the edge of 
the ]>Inteau of Cliota Nn^pore overlookiiii; tlie 
valley of tile DumiHlah river.— Dalfoti, p. 153. 

SATYie, of Istiinli, xiii, 21 ; xxxiv, 14 iu 
a goaf, see Riima. 

SATYRA CORNUTA, see Tmgopnn. 

S, bicurne, Tkitnh. | Orchis bicurniB, Linn. 

A plHiit of the Cape of Good Hope iiitro- 
diitii-d into lieii^nl. 

SAT ZARKA, Hind. Asphodelus fietu- 

SAUBATA GUDDA, cce .Semetu; mces. 

SAUItATA KKNNA, see Senietic race. 

SAUBWA, Bee Kiin-ii. 

SAUCE. Out of eighteen red sauces suh- 
niitted by Dr. HiuiKell to exiiinii)atiou in 1S>^2, 
DO less tiian vixteeu contained Bole Armeniui), 
and this usually iu imnieuse qnaiititiua. — 

SAUDHODANI, see Buddha. 

SAUD, or Sad'h, a hindoo Be(;t whose chief 
iwats are Delhi, Afrrr>, Jayapur, and Furi-nkha- 
had, but there are several of the sect Bcattered 
over other parts of the country. The Sauds 
utterly reject and abhor all kinds of idolati-y, 
and the Gauges is considered by tliem not to 
be a sacred object, although the converts are 
ruade chiefly, if not entirely, from among the 


kaukrk-leesaube; Gkr. Oi^ 


SAUGOR, a town, and proviuee in Centnl 

India. The Central Pi-oviuces is a tern bg 

which, uniler a Resolution of th« Goreift 

ment of India, during Lord Canuing's rak| 

the provinces of Nagpore and the terrt 

tories of Saugor and Nerbuddab were united 

un<ler a Commissioner. The Central Pr» 

vincrex consist of perhaps the grandest phittH 

on the face of the globe, more than half «l 

which ifl covered by the densest juugle,wbai 

I the wild benst finds its luir and the tioiidsavigri 

la precarious subsixteiice. The plateau uii 

the very centre of the peninsula. From it^ll 

I a focus, radiate the great rivers of the DeerHi 

I To the north flow the Sone into the Gang«^ 

' the Cane,^ the Betwa, the Siud and tiM 

I Chumbul into the Jumna. To the west at 

i the Tapteonnd Nerbudda, and to the easttfcl 

I VYeiu Ounga, Wurdn and Pein Gunga, wfanl 

form the Godavery. What the Kueo'Lii 

mountains are to the river system of Ceotnl 

Asia, and tlie Himalaya to Northern Iodi% 

that is the Mahadeo i-nuge to the Deecaa. It 

is true that the Godaveiy and Nerbndll 

series of rivers are little more than moaoliii 

torrents, butengineeriog science could doBlMfc 

for their navigation, and railways with tbdr 

feeders will supplement them. On this nA 

tableland there is soil of surpassing ferfiRft 

wood, whether useful like teak or omanciM 

like ebony, which, witti proper conserralio^ 

is inexhaustible, and such mineral resoanil 

liiudoos, whom they resemble in outward ; as coal, iron, precious stones and gold. Hci% 

appearance. Saud, the appellation of the sect, 
mean<>, tliey say, "servant of God ;" its real 
meaning is pure, from sad'ha pure. They 
are pure deists, and their form of worship is 
most simple. The Sauds resemble the Qua- 
kers, or Society of Friends in Eoglund, in their 
customs in a remarkable degree. Ornaments 
and gay apparel of every kiud are strictly 
prohibited. Their dress is always white. 
They never make any obeisance or salutation. 
They will not uke an oath, and they are 
exempted in the courts of jusdce, their asseve- 
ration, like that of the Quakers, being con- 
sidered equivalent. The Sauds profess to 
abstain from all luxuries, fuch as tobacco, 
betle, opium, and wine. They never have 
exhibitions of dancing. All violence to man 
or beast is forbidden ; but, in aelf-defenoe 
resistence is allowable. Industry is stronf>ly 
enjoined. Their nuptial rite is simple, all 
unnecessary expenses being scrupulously 
avoided. Polygamy is never allowed, and 
even widows arc forbiddeu to unite with a 
Mcond husband. — Cole. Mytk.t Bind. 

leo S 

but for the want of population, all tlie emigmh 
of England for the next decade might Midi 
and grow rich. The area is 1 1 1,238 sq. BilH| 
of which 47,299 are uuculturable, and in 18616 
about half of the remainder was under enlliw 
tion ; in 1862, they yielded 80 lakbt a jm^ 
but, in Itf67, tho revenue bad increaaei M 
120 luklis. The Satpura range runt 601 
miles, with an average breadth of 45 ia3l% 
ThcChourndudur plateau is lOOsq. miletaai 
the Nowagaon lake is second onlj to Al 
Deybur Uke in Oodeypoor. 

The Nagpore proviuce and the 9angar Ml 
Nerbudda ten-itorieM occupy almost Uw«U 
territorial division of Oondwana and wOT 
re-united under the designation of the Ceatid 
Provinces containing nineteen dtstrieta : — 

Saugur and Dumoh are on the ViDdhjH 
table land. 

Mandia, Jabulpur, Narsinghpur* BoahtngI 
bad and part of Newar are in the Nerfaaii 

Baitool, Chindwarah, Seoni and Balag^ 
are on the Satpura table land. 


, WnrOa. BbRudan aD<I Cliftitdfl. 
S'a-- -'-li:,m Uw valleys of the 

W _ ;.. 

lU iiiiA^iKiif arti on tUfr Cbattfl^arh 
Kiiiuli(il[Nir lA in Uie valley of the 

iwUrGiy, on tlio Itfl iuink of that 


tlp«l ran^'ps in tlie Sauj^r ind 
rrriiftrif- i»rp ilif> M«lm<lp« hilU, 
or«atiJ Bundair lin^ifx ; hetwHm 
a anil Kvoiiirr mti^'in art* lliu plu- 
cfTTiBlIiuf TOi-Vn lo M'liii-Ii Mr. 
.•>p|j&d tlip itniuv of Sul'-Ivyniore, 
tlie itorlherii bftM- of llie Nh(;- 
vi^*, »n«J far ht'Von'l ihfl iirwciit 
JfajZfiora tenilory Htrctcb Ihi- 
Meililp vminiry between Bai- 
to Uie NcrbudJa river, 
The^ extend in a diret'lion 
«Oiitli Wtwecn the [MrnlleU of 
Lb talilinlc, inoeuliu^ a bold 
ouilinc. Ilciwepii (thind. 
_ tliey Dtlairi a height of 
'lbou>iinil iWl. Ainoiif^^t ihoir 
and (l»i-p ^'Icna, their |ii-i_'<;iiii- 
aud abrupt niJw. ihelr steep 
iiutneronh fii^f'tire!', miii'h wild 
•ocuery in to be fuuiid. Tbe 
atralji uf lIiik range are com- 
ii«l«IOi>c ahnles. 'Hie Mndsloiie iH 
KtrifH-d with dark fvn-u^iiiOU» 
It give it Rii appmntnce not unlike 
ICyniore MDthtoiic in tlie vicinity 
nr tlie sAodAtone in tbe Nagpore 
Vrora tlie very lew foniiil ifmainK 
htMo discovered, it Hrs. as ypt, 
ible to flx the a^t- af Ibese iiilU. 
r Tef!et»ble fotscil *tcm)« have a* yet 
rervd Tbcroai-e few or no traces of 
rtor rrirtlarca". Likrtlie KymiHf, 
owial in ttwribo iheio rockn to 
Iho fnrmation of tlie iip\r ml t^nad- 
¥>Tn lltA fncKit inilicnlinn» tbat we 
lleraappi-a'tlttbe tooHccient ; the 
btooe wbirh Utrmt< the mnM of the 
illn, uid of M tuAny other* of \t*t 
ppean U* b« more recent While 
betli underlying are deeidedly not 
i tknn juni»ic, and are probably a 
the lias nnd jnrn irnoM- 
Wconcvous bedK thcnieelTei 
fty rhamr-tf riEed by tbe ferru- 
alrcady naoDtiooed, are to be 
If; tbe uppi-r metuberfl of the 
aarics. Tbero io «otnedotibta» to 
■on of ^onie of (he »faales ibat 
ni!er the plant bedB. BetwHpn 
afuiil-stonf rnuges and the Ky- 
inndair hilU nro to be aueu the gi-a- 
;hiito»cliil>8of tbeNerbuddfl basin. 

Still, it is uot aloaa in the Kerbudda Ita^io 
lIiAt the granitic, cryttalUoe and Bcfaistose 
rocks ore found beiwean outlying ranges of 
Baodstone aod tiraeBtooa. Tiii« peculiarity i> 
atxo i<een in tho Nagpore districts. It adds 
another illustration to M. Vallas* theory. 
While examininf^ tbe tnountnin rltainn of 
Sitieria bo laid it down as a general ruK\ ihol 
in the formation of tnouotain cbaiiig, gmnitic 
n<isoi;inled with nchiHtose roekn will be found 
io the cenlre, while oudyiog tbero will 
bo aeon the great i>ai}d9tane or Uine»tona 
r/ing(«- It itf thus in tho Sntigor and 
Nerbudda country. To the?e ranges Mr. 
Medlicott gives tbe name of Kub-Kymore, 
and supposes that tbej niny be a conliiiiiutiou, 
dfiWDward, of tbe Tlndhynn grou{i itubse- 
quentty altered. Still, until I'urther dis- 
coveries li&ve been maile ; until fresh linka 
hnve liepn added ; nnd until nturo certain 
fojisil indiRatioQj have b^'cn Hiund. no r«won> 
iag from mere analogy will enable U6 dvfiiji- 
tivety to fix their em. Wbrii their age baa 
once been definitively fixed, ibcre will be a 
Cmiler htiiiplicity in Uie cla»r<ilicalJon of the 
Indian i-oekd, a class] ficaiion which a.<< lias 
been i-uggeated would appear lU the following 
onler ; 

1. Mahadeot villi sub*group of Lomala 

2. Rftjoiehalii. 

3. Upper DatDudas of Jubbulpore and Cen- 

tral India. 

4. Lower DaiDadas. 
.'i. Talcbirs. 

The Suugur and Nerbudda territories at 
present embrace the dietrii^lA of ,Tubbulpon), 
Saugor, Dumob, Mundla, Soonce, llaitonl, 
Nur^iugpore and Hw^bungaUud. Mr. BUud- 
ford's syuopaiB of tbe I>oinuda, Tiilchir and 
Puichel, givca tbe following reBult: — 


.. I Deaerliitioii of 


II. rini^hat 

Cmne SbdiI- 
alannt aad iluD- 

CotuM Snnil- 

ttMie*. nty 


lab and nrvj 

ITT- Pikniii'Ik 


CouM&nd &DC 
iM)(litou»> mot Il- 
ly falH bwtdod 
uid (•bpathic 

■IiaIw, omI 
ii*ft«t. Th« lat- 
Wr caniiannB* 
ovor oOAri<l»M 
blfl areiu. I 






Fcini iliiLiDct 
frnm l>«tn>id«. 
ronni. Ta-nio|ilc 

ptiliati RTifl fiah 
r«maini •• 

Trlaygla, jl«»- 
■opl«rU, pMop 
terii, ilchiROOMt 
ts. FbjlntliMa, 
all jilnnla.^.... 


6. Lower 

IV. Talchir 

DoMcriptian of 
, bedij. 

Coarse Cdnglo- 



uicratc* ; wiiiteiVertcbrarui, &c. 
San lift tonoB : mi- 
neral L'oal HifiTna 
of very irrefpiUr 

(loiitso Snnil- 
atonc, fine Sainl- ffw stems 
Htono CO nipueingi seeds. 


folMjiui- I 

Very rare, a 




commctinemaiifiroveswRinpft ; a little ft 
inluittl treeH a|>)M'tir, nnd liuilly ciiliivi 
(lie nPHresc cullivaiimi iu the central p 
of" the Delta btMng Ibrly-peven milfs IVo 
bea. Ii> the sea froDt of the Delta thei 

, nine priiicipnl opp.nings having h bead si 

; that la having water flowinf? direct frtv 
CrRiigef, or Croin the Megiia or Iti-alimaf 

; they are 1, the Ganges ; 2, the Meg 
800 Brahmapootra ; 3, lloriughatta j 4, Pt 

; 5, Murjntta or Kagga ; 6, Barapun<i 

n, D \' -i <s , iftci ..r, 1-19 ,^o i Moliiiieliew ; 8, Roymuiigul or Juhooii 
-Cal. Bev. Ao. iZ, Sept. 1861, pp. 132, 133 ■ |i^^„i,|y, ^^^^^^^^ ^j.^^ ,^,,gy ^-^^^^ 

SAUGOR ISLAND, is in the entrance of . nro numerous openings having no head ei 
tho Hoogly river, the western month of the | being mere salt water tidal ectuaries ; 
Gauges, and is one of the islands of the Sun- - openings or headless rivers are the dee[ 
derbuHS. It extends north and south, from ! ^o silt or deposit is poured into t hem 
lat. 21' 35' N., to 21* 5(>' N., and bounds the j ti,e higher lauds. The tides in tho Ht 
great entrance of the Iloogly on its eastern , pun with a rapidity in the springs of 
hide. Itis 21 miles in length and 6 in biTudtli, j miles an hour, Iwtweea Sangor and Cal 
and is low, but as it lies upon the extreme edge | jVt Calcutta it is high water about 2h. 
of the Deltaic basin, it is consequently higlier on full and change of the moon. Tht 
than the centre of the Delta. The remains of i jg of not unfrequcnt occurreuee in this \ 
tanks, temples aud roads are rttill to bo seen, i of (i,e river.— C«/. Rev. See Karthqoa! 
showing that it was once move densely populut- 1 SAUL, or Sal, Hind. Shorea ro 
ed than it is now, ftud native historyinfonnsus ' SanI tree dammer, is obtained from S 
that Saugor Island had been inhabited for ceu- | robusta and other species. The Vatici 
turies. During the operation of clearing Sau- ( buggaia grows to a limited extent o 

west coast, but yields little if any < 

got Island iu 1822 to 1833, and later when 
clearing away the jungle for tho Klectric Tele- 
graph in lS55-o6, rcmnins of buildings, tanks, 
roads and other signs of man's former presence 
were brought to light. Again, upon the oastem 
portions of tho Sunderbuns, where the country 
has been cleared of forest, mud forts are found 

in good numbers, ei-ectcd most probably l)y i brown. The two colours being very frei 
the then occupiers of the soil, to ward off the I \y found iu tho same lump and giving 

dammer collected there. The dammers 
northern aud eastcru districts of llie 1 
sula of India occur in sticks much i 
hling in shape tlie black dammer but 
ing widely in colour and coneisteuc^ 
colour it varies from light yellow to i 

attacks of the Mug, Malay, Arab, Portuguese, 
and other pirates who, in times gone by, that is, 
about A. D. I. ')8 1, depopulated this part of the 
country. The Mug pirates even advanced so 
far to the westward as to depopulate the whole 
country lying between the river Iloringhatta 
and tho Rabuabad Channel, but we know of no 
trace of tho land having been ot^cupied further 
to the westward of the Iloringhatta. Saugor 
Island, is still largely resorted to by pilgrims. 
The Delta is intersected from north to south I)y 

many broad rivers, and by endless creeks run- 

niug one into tho otlicr filled for tho most part 

with salt water when near the sea. This tract j The Khond and Urya make the leave 

of land, occupies approximately 28,080 square I the plates from which they eat thei 

appearance of having a regular " gram, 
friable and differs from the white ilamr 
the western coast iu its inferior hai 
opacity and its peculiar form, and fro 
black dammer in its colour. There are ' 
sive tracts of Saul jungles in the Gooms 
Cuttack provinces. The Khond and V 
living in aud near these jungles, wonm 
iu several places. Tho rcsiu issues : 
collected when sufficiently solid. The 
mor collected from the decayed parts i 
tree is of a dark colour : the tree is 
Guggilam in Telugu and tala gotso in 

and also roll up tobacco in them to 
like a cheroot. In time of famine the 
tribes live on broth made fi'om the t 

miles of superficial area, or double tho area of 

tho Delta of the Nile ; mea.suring from 

west to ea*'U oi" ffom tho right bank of the 

llooghly river opposite to the Saugor tripod this tree. See Damiuer, Sal, Shorea r« 

on the Suuth-we»t point of Saugor Island, to , 8yn. of Vatica robusta. 

Chiltagong, it is 270 miles in width ; present- j SAULAVANGAPATTA,TEL.Cim 

ing to the Itoy of Bengal a series of low, flat, [ SAUL FORI-^T STAG. Cervus 

mud banks, covered at high water aud dry at I SAUL TALI^AUKA; Roxb. bj 

low water ; a few milus from hiw water mark i Vatica lacciforu, fV. ijr A. 

\m s 162 



MAY, Tiw. 


PstiifTfim miliacpiiiij ? 
of India. 
I -uii-B^uro, 

itiD Ttli |inrt of tli« biunljoo. 

Auk I Sati«IU-hoI<, okr. 

I r.Mtttiiilic. Gas., Ilixn. 

1' It. 

bAl. J l.UI.K.Itlll, ,, 

Sqk. I ilg«t-«lMuii»[i. St^utr. 
S)ia. j naAt.i'i.tiMuUam, SAKrt. 

ir lu > nil ' Lrtu<in(ini||, TUU 

vood or Red Sdiitleri wond 

'i'_' pcoiluL't uf » large tiiicriit 

tf itTocarpu* eniir^IiiiU'S fount] 

Ut dye inf^tioa tvddi^.\iriiwxi 
conrootric rirclff Uuiiig divided 
let. U commuoivaivB » ilee|>-rt;d 
but gives 110 Uugt! la culU n-Kter, 
5ij„ii.. -1, :r,pi.j to EuglauJ from 
2 to JU iaches ilin- 

viiuullt Mp, Htid (lOBlCtill)L'S 

pieces, it is vcrj lioid aiJil 

lit sL-ij- niticli used IU4 n rud dyu 

ofipu for tuTtiing. The io;{3 we 

ibt-d at botli ondh, or cut with u 

)r ft mpf, find much worn exter- 

'<>og tlie gruuud : 

1 ivoi-y tu-skn, are 

tcdt'tirttio lil(cpur|)OBO. 

l< 'ii>t>, it yiuldn viinous 

llie«o ai-u )iuid to be litilc per* 

rXiiLH V. o..,I Ih Ijirpely exported ftoin, 

^. Tliu MttdrnK (txporU 

^ i,* 47,4;H cwl8. Talu« 

ft.— Jf. E. J. it. i Tral^old, 

MARA, Can. Cedrelu tooui, 

'■A<iAIA, Roxit. Sjni. of Hiitiahij-is mi niie hand, audi-nll it " Kaiigri," 

^„:ii», /(■. rt' J^- which eirnply means Suowy region, ftnd tJii-y 

Th<* bot wind knnwn tu kunw UiaL the country ot Ihe Atcm^ole., or 

' ; it pruvuils orcr a Inrgti* porlioa Mongolia, Wix pamllu! to l^ ou itie other hntid, 

of itA fatal ctlt.'C(5 tlivre atv A groat diittiDgui&Liug i'tfAtum iu tliu physical 

>Uttlf. It watt Mr. Rich'e opinion, ' gengiapliy nf F.a^t«ni Tiliet i» the Yaroo 

of a loug course of iuquirtu«, I river ur Saapoo ef Koglisb mupe. Thus^ 

lot wind kills hy uxliauslion, nnd uharactorizod, in pupular unttmntiun — which 

poiyjijDud quulity iD itself. — /•"(/. , is not founded on the physical features 

iiietter in KutdttUtM^ Vol, u,p. 1^6. of the country, oa its iiRtui-al productious, or 

Mi, • narao of the Aliom rnco iu on politiral tlivisimis ol' r«rrilnry, epparately 

or jointly, — Kat^tfrn Tibet is hoaoded on Uiv 

uorih-wcift by Uia Kanplisce range of innuu- 

toinH. The hi^hc.-^t portion of the KnugUsco 


uud a grcnlly L-invfitL'd lrm;t of country extend' 

ing from the ba^ of thi^ range : oq tJi« north 

by Mongolia ; ou tlie eact by tba Sifau aud 

•Sechuen provinces ofOiina, und on the south 

by the Himalaya, fioiu the point at whit;h it 

18 pierced by the Uurhainpootur on Uio east, 

Ui the (DcridiaD oriiioMaiiHirowar otid itawaa 

liud Lakffl on ilie weftt. The geucnil diriK:- 

tioii oC thti KtiugtiKec range is norlJi and 

south, nud it is said to conae<:t the iiimalaya 

and IkIDugoliI^ as by a cioiitf-bar. It runs to 

(he cnst of the Afnnsnrownr and Itawnu Kud 

Lakes, its bigUe.'<t poiut u Baid to ex>.-e(Hl in 

I y sole. Ceylon, near Madras in I uluvation any portiuo of the IliiniilHya, aud 

■ij Tri[Mity hilU Timor and M«- ' four large riyers havo their *ource.H tu dif- 

The wood is exIreuKdy bard, fereul porta of the range, \n^ thu Siagh- 

11, and u bright gamut red colour, kn^lmb or ludns the Laugelioo ka-bsb, &c, 

OD exposure en tho air. It : SAl'^'F, ilwu. Fosuiculum vulgaiw. 

SAUB, Dlk. Botubax iiuUtljaricutii. 
tiAURA, j» Hitppo^ to be derived fivm 
Surya, ideoticul with So), Uio eun. 
SAIJBA. Sou CluUDoleoas, Hauria. 
8AURA. A drink in use in tlie Nioobars, 
ubtnined froiu one of Uio palms. 
SAL'KA, eu>e Saoralt. 

SAL' RAP ATA or baura ; Hindu worbbip* 
pers of l^uryapAti, tho eun gud. A sect 
of limited extent and totoJ in.>iigoi6c«Dce. 

SAURASHTRA, an ancient name at Die 
Iieoinsola of Guzerat. The nuinc of Gurjjara 
ia the time of ilwcn Thsang, waa ooolined 
to wetiteru RujpuUnu aud it wiut slill a dia- 
tioct country from Saurnshtra in a. d. K12, 
when Karka raja of Late^wara recorded a 
grant of land. Between Ibis dat« aud a. b. 
1^10, thtrc IB A gap of fire centuries, during 
which )>eriod we bave uomeotiou of Gurjtjara 
iu any cootci&porury records, (((■nt^ral ('uo* 
oinglitan has a strong eu-ipiciou, howcvorf. 
that the movcmool of lliu Gujnr rnco towards 
tlio peninsula mn^t luirc bcun rouuertcd with 
The Tibetan-' do not recognise ' the pernmucni voufjuest of Delhi, Kaaoj aod 
cbnin of niouniHius running { Ajmer by tho maliomedans, which rejected 
IT nor are they ac> the GhobaD and Rathor tribes from Dorthern 

th " K' iin the name of any | liajputana ntid tho Up(>i.n' Gaugr-*, and tliru^t 

no^e. i luy ••o CMuiliat with the ibem toiratdit Uio toutb. Tho iUthoi- uvcu- 

m S 16S 




picd Pali lo llio eaai uf bnlmvr in (lie Snuivat belwcra tlie peniiinuta, wliicli liCmlU 8ai 

1283, or A. It. 12^. TliM ri'ltlemviit ol' (Sutnniitlt) nt)il lla* kiit^ilimi rfrGnjnnii, whh 
iBniltor iiiiiiil liuve diiveu the izrent \Kft\y of | lit> plnces uii llic i-timtl lu llii* tiui Ui (rf Ta 
Gcijar fi'om their udl-u^iiL Resitfi nnil t'orrrd I Ihnl i», nbout Hiirnrh arn\ SiimL Kvnni 
'Umui lo tlie Aoittti towtirilH Auluilwaru t'nttau ' |irvKi>>it tiny ilii- iiiunc of GiijnrnI \m iiol 

iixl Ktli'i'. Tli)!v tvif vclUMlir LliL- ruBv (if llie ; \iy Uro rwlivtii of the |K>u>nKiila ii-i r. 

Guliii, who bciiiz' GXp<^llr(i from Marirnr by . rootiniie to lull ihfir couolrj SiirHiti 

Ibci RHtkur, M-lUM io tW t-w^tcrn sidi* of tlio Kathikwnr, tin* ktlcr iianiv havinf; lnt» a 

peiilQ«ula, whirh wMiuiini^ii aftor ttipin <Jn|ii|. I ix-ut adoptioo of Ilia Ufllir*liaft. A« 

wata. lu Uie tloie of Akimr the Uujar haJ ! lUja, watt rcipiiut; 'in a. r>. 812, Uu 

certainly not p«tit>lnit<.-tl into tli« pc-uiiiBula, aa 
lAbul Fuel (IneK not niuui? llir-m in bin nolica 

of the ilifleKul tribes wbu-b llieii 4»c»mi{]!ih1 tlio 

Sirkar of SamL But uvt-n al tlic prc>'i*nt Any 

thcrs IB no liirge coinniuiiity of the Gujm- io 

tlia pvniiirobi, 90 that wo inu^t look for soniu 
■ Other CKUKC for the impn.«itiou of rhdr name 
Iab a lafRd proviDt:e which tltuy liitve Ut-ver 
fAonipl«l«ly oc<.*upi<'<l. From nn iM inxtriip- 

iiau of tUo kiiigM of the Gurjjfti'ji Iribe, we 

tblhL'r'ii act'u»>iiMi inuHL have iHkeu (ilai!!! ik^ 
lltinl qiiitrti-r of iho hcvi'iiiIi rcnltity, 
if, between x D. 650 uinl ti7tj. whttJi : 
with thv actnul date of a. a. tioH. 
by llie native bii^lofiiina hir Iht* ileal 
uf Ralahhi, anil the rxtiiirtioii of 
hilihi Movert'igiity in the pt^nitifiuln of'-iiiji 
All ancient vapitiil of Suui'>L*-htrn, tSiLkt 
Uusu-fat) Wae I{jilnli|ii|iiiMi, ihc ilyi'' 
niuue-i Uic Kiilstthi, llulhiii-s, or 

team tliut in S. 3H0, or a. d. 45H th« iriijar ' ilynn^iy. I'tio Jain i-hrunirlL-M of Ji 

bad punhtMi their c-otKjuDKtx nit (kr nouih an ltit> 
rkakka uf the N'orbaUa. In that yrar. auJ 
l*ob«e(]nen(ly in a h. 463, tbi-ir kin;^ Hri 
Datt* Kosalt miido iw-vonil f^ranu of Innil to 
certain brahinnux In (he di^triet uf Akmrett- 
-wara, near JambuMira which General (.'ao- 
■iio|;liani bcliurea to be AkIoMr, ou tJiH nouth 
'baak of th« Mu-butla, oppoeita Haro<-b. 
But beforft s. 3!)4, or a. v. 472. the tlujir 
tacc must hava Ih-cii driven back to the north, 
m* far al least aa Karobay* becaoM the 
Chaltikya priDc« Tljaya made Wftnl (^raatM 
of Uiiii to the 'Ame bnUimans id tha town of 
Jambusara which Ii«a between Barocb and 
Kambay. It U cc'rlaio, iber«ruiv, tliat the 
GtOnr race had ocPU|>ied the i-ountry to tlie 
ttorth of tho pt-oiuftuUi a* early aji tbo flfth 

vontrtilivd by Colonel Tod, lni<-e tb« 
fry of Keut-ksen, the founder of iU« 
family, up lu Sumilra, tho o6lh tlf 
nnt from Kj>nia H. C^ 2029, Junrn 
Bu<-buuait, and 1 100 Tod. Sulnr 
til-Tl prcTailrd, nflcrwardft thr Jain 231 
A. D. 223, SiUilitya was .-lain, and III 
waa d«»tr«jypd by tin- P»rlhiniiD in ■''■-1. 
A. D. 727 Biipb or llrtppa, wiznl Ct.iiur fr 
tito Mori tiibi:', and ti>unitL>d tho C,,.),ili 
Geblola dynuaty of Newari Rii> 'he I'^n 
bietoi'taiiA name N<)«<hiMK son of N'onlurri 
or Mtthu liimii, iJaUKhler of Vvidejird, fori 
origin of the Secodia rue of Mewar, in 
.Ul. Sounudilrn mcaii»lhe rf^ioaof ihr! 
Ml ancient tribe of ]iun>worvhippiM-> w^r 
origin h lost in the darkness of n 

century of tlio Ciirbliae rra. Hut two cm* , what epoch thin pcniudubt was buhj.-....^- 

turifl* later Ihcy had already IfMt their power 
■a Mwon TbMLOf; found a Kihatriya prinee 
«• the tUrono of Onrijara. Tliey muNt mill, 
kowe*cr, havo coaiinooil lo forro the bulk of 
tka pepnlaUoa of llie c«uiitri4^>s to the west 
nnd iouth of Mount Abu ; and kd Aluf 
Khan, tlie flr-t mahomedan coo<|ueror, under 
Ala-ud-dm, Kliiiji, fixed his h<-ad ^^iiarterfl 
al Nahrwai^ or Anhalwara, in the very 
hmrl iif the GutKr couuiry, (iciwral Con- 
nio^haiQ thtokii it prohahk that the name 
of Gujarat wan tliMU fim Applied lo tliiv 
a«w prnviiire of the l>clbi empire i and 
aa the pt-nimuln of Sauranhtra formed a part 
of the provino) it Wfif> aUo iru'luded uuder the 
aama|teDeral apprllation. He iherefori! looka 
«pen iho exieosion of the name of Gujmt lo 
ib« pBttlnsuta a« a political eooveoieur_-v mthnr 
Ibao an ethno^rapbiail ipplicstieu. Hamilton 
nantiooa thai tb« greater pan of Halwa and 
KhudwwHi formerly eallod Gujarat ;and tbia 
it bora«oiti by Marco Polo, who dtaliogaiabta 

164 S 

the tJaura rare, wo are ignorant ; bnt 
Jufiiun, Stmbo, Ptolemy, and both' 
Arriittta, wi* can tr»ce their way to a 
oocvnl wikh Alexander the Great. 
t^neots of MeiMuder nnd Afiollodohn 
Inud of the X(')*«*' or Sanra, have ^t 
to much diwjuiBition by the learned 
and the auuotalorH ou the Krench Imn*! 
of 8trabo, who liodiug 2v/>»»' couph'il wii 
■ftwtrianr, wtTU for trunbterring tlit- Srrta 
the Indian Son to the Syria and PbrrDiru 
tlwUMlitrniinfau. It wu«, howeTer, aa 
laak Air tlic kingi- of Hurlrin, evpit with 
dcterioritt'd r^muauui of the Phalanx, 
which, no doubt, they drilled their 
Getie auhjectc, to pun Orora Aria and Al 
rhooia. duwD the valley of the lndu«y 
Saurasliira, than lo penetrate lhtTni|^ 
deacrt landii or hoslile cribeii which 
Intervene in their wide march to Syria. 
tb« termi Samstrvoo and SyraatroM^ 
^yod by the ancient aulboritiM to 




Srriii, Wf* l(»Te SnurB*]ilra willmiit 
lion. Gtloucl Tml $nff ilint Hnllinra 

i«U<- K^^tiined liV tliu fuur^ful iutvt<. 

|pn or Sntiniflilrt. Snuiwhtra or Soi-vth, 

" pvfiin^aUuf (luxL-niU t* alinoft cut ofTfi-ucti 

iiMin ianil Uj IwoHvpm. Iti&ultnooC loO 

l4Miu% (Itv ^nie lu breaillb auij contatus 

"_'" '"If) -flUNri- niilf9. It» mriuDUiu 

I'.unlu HilUi-ndiii^in lliesouUi 

.■l,i-^i Liiii;:c ami tbo Ortfium. Tbe lofty 

bo) J tnoum ot OiiTinrovirtwJliKibpaiifieiit 

:n*M of •luria^urti (o'ltl Tort) miit a Uiivl 

Boulli, rallt'il ihf G«-r, wfitoli ^ii-i-trJipp 

«U«e eui ami west, aod 30 miles uortli 

auudi aud rousi^u of ridi^es and Iiiild 

with •leo-*e foivi-ti', irees ami jangle> 

fall of «iiDti«t iii»i>cpi^til)t« ruioesfcs 

forages liavB givtfu ehelttir to rolibere, 

laws aad the Agtiom a setU of wild 

lea reputed lo bec-Aiiuiliala. Duiini; the 

-"■'• -v-atMry in Ji. )>. 770, Wullubliipiir, 

' Wulleh which had the mo«t bvi|. 

i> n-iiit in lodiB, fi'll brfori? an pt-upiitiu 

n liie QorUi. supposed by Mount Stuart 

■'rp-iana uuder Naosharwiiii 

iin'l Tod lo bb S«ylIiianR, 

li} (uitiiliL-t Huili'jrity u>be Indo-Bnclrianc, 

lbs iolijiliiliiDts flod ni)d founded avxv 

in Alalwftii- Tbo old Icaiplt* of Soinitnifi 

m [faa dcy of Deu^rmuo. .VlaJunuod left 

i, 00 h'K exfH'ililwo a^JRKt it in 

X. D. 1024, hia nameroua army Kas 

:pMite4 by crowds of votaDteens the 

of tbeyoulh of Torkistati. Ajmlr and 

want felt bt:fore bim. Advnii>;iuG: npoa 

until, fflT two dayn, Ills roont devoted fol- 

3 «rere h«ii*;r) headloog beck by the 

r of the Rjijpoot« fighlin^ fur hparth 

aitsT. On tlm 3rd dny, Mahmood led 

tatiout ebmrge ia penoo, five tbouiiaud 

Hj dnd nod tlie day was won. 

be «biern) the sbritie ol' Sotn-lawara, 

babeM m ?up«rb e<lifi<M; uf bowu stone, ha 

roof iupporled by pillitra curioasly 

ani iH Willi precious stooes. lu tbe 

1 to wbiiJi no pxti'rna) light priie* 
tod wUieb trta itluiaioaled only l^ a 

p aupeailed from lbt< cvuln! by a K^'d^o 

nprcarrd the fymlwl of Sora-lewara — 

Huoe cybudrr wbt':b i-ow muu feet in 

it abnre the floor of the tprnfiln and 

ted six feet below it. Two frn^eota 

tfoa object uf idoliUa'ouH worship were at 

I kin^t order broken off, that one toifibi 

tbrown at the tlireehbotd of the public 

Mfoe aad the other at tlie court gata uf 

town paUce of Gbuni. Other fragmeau 

■mttckI to graoe the holy cities of 

uul Hediua, While Mahmoot) v/h^ 

•nplojcd a crowd of bral)maiiB offered 

nssoaa if thu kiog wvuld deaiet 

1«9 ! 

from forllior mutiliition. Atnlimitd hesitntfd ; 
but nfiiT o mnmentM paUBe, be exrlaimed 
that lie would Iw kiiowu by poBietiLy not na 
ilie idol feller but as tlie " deslrojer." The 
work of defiiniclion then conliout'd aud was 
ntwarded by tin* ilisi-iivpry in the vaiilta briow 
rhe adytum of uDiold treasure*. Tbu« fell 
Somiiiith. Its gales were lakvu to the m<i«qim 
of (jliazni frcnn which tbi-y were removed 
when Uie Urilish Indian army retired from 
the oecufMiiiuii of (hat vouniry in 1H43, and 
Lord Kllfuboroiiyh, Goveriior-Gcueral, iMtied 
a ProcalRmltoii, to the IViuvesaod Cliiefp, and 
People of India, "My Brittliemandmy Friends 
he mud, our %'icLorioue army bears tbo gates 
of Uiy teinplif of Soiniiaulh in triumph from 
AffshsitiHtiiu, and the deMiH>iU-d tomb of cqIuu 
Mahmoud looktf upoQ the niioti of GUu^nee. 
The itifult of 8O0 years in at lant avenged. 
Tlie frtite« of the temple of Somoauth, bo 
\oofi the uiemorial of your humiliatiMi, are 
becomo the proudetit record of your uatioaal 
glory— the pi'oof of your euperiority in arms 
over the natiuuK beyond the Indux, To yon, 
Princes aud Chiefs of Sirhintl, ofKajwurm, 
uf Mulvra, and Guzeral, I sliidl commit Uiia 
glorionsi irophy of succes-ifnl war. Yon will, 
youibclven, with all honour, trausmil the gates 
nf bandal-wood through your respet^'tive ter- 
ritories, to the restored temple of Somiieuth. 
The Chief of Sirhiud ahall be informed 
ttt what lime our victorious army will lirfet 
deliver ihe j^ates of the temple iuto their 
guardianship, at Uio foot of the bridge of the 
Sutlej. My Urotbere and my Friende.— Ibave 
ever ittUt-d with confidence upou year attach- 
meut to the Btiti&h Government. You see 
how worthy it prove* itself of your love, when, 
iTgiirditig your honour as ita own, itexerlathe 
power of its anus to restore to you the gates 
of the temple of Somnuuth, so luiig the me- 
morial of your subjection to the Affghaos. 
For myvelf, identified with you in iiitorett 
and in feeling, I regard with all your own en- 
thusiasm the high acbiovementa of that heroic 
army, rcflccttug alike immoilal huuour upon 
my native and upon my adopted country. 
To preserve and to improve the happy 
union of uur Iwu couulriets uevuiiDary an it ia 
to the welfare of both, is tlie congtant object 
of my Lhougbtf. Upon that union depends 
the serurity of every ally, as well as of every 
!subject,of the Briiiah Government, from the 
minericK whereby, iu former Limes, India was 
aAlicted ; through that alone ha» our army 
now waved ita iriumphAut standarda over the 
niioH of Ghuzneo, nud planted them upon the 
Bala Ilisttar of Cabul. May that good Pro- 
videueo, which has hitherto so manifeatly 
protected me, still eztond to mo its favonr, 
that I may w nso the power now tutruated 
I 165 





I. lAIMl TArl" ■'■■!■ ^' < 

iMtvOoM ll flf j». ■, , ; . 

doti(Bta. JU^ fU.i' 

IbnonHft cmj*. JU 4 -vJi' — ki . 

Cuon amlKiliisontf. /'tiw-l.. . ii». 

tkunaiKrelntU. Urag ..juuMa. 

IrlCifVl'l:^ 'rl'ly .Alti'l^ 

Cirel*tn]rB otilhani I, *?•■<(« M*rfiit, Run>M4&. 

t^ni.l-n iiii'itiulil, (Jriiy ... .( <-'Iii n-fhlnA, 

Kill ' ' iiotA. (I'ntiv 

Oti ' -*. C;r«|f.... I. tVcn. 

|[r ■-■ ■ ■,' 

bmUi. '•><« ',>i,. 

I ll 11 r^- ; I ■■ 'iTj ...,,..,,,,.., , I - 4 1 It . 

"111. ■- -i.. 

^H with 

to my tiBQil«, ns i>> ivlvntire yoar pro9p«t'ity 
11(1(1 sefiiir your lm)i|>ii](v.K li^ |itai:tiig llto 
union of oar iwo rntinirica aytoa f'oiituiations 
vrliifli may Tpa\ler it e((!rtml." — 

Th«* rnnhdtuoiiiitiB who liiul ouiy fiuiuivl a [Hir- 
tul ftiittioriiy oTcr ihe I'eshwu, iht' liaikwiir, 
milt Uip IGijpiits fil' KntliAwnr, wtre nutxeeilet) 
by Iho MHlicattas in 17<>i^, who rotiltl only r<>l> 
Icct (be rcTcnuo hy ntt'Ai)a of irtxips, io toulk* 
giri Of circuits, liuc, in IKLU, Colunel Alex- 
ander Walker, Uu)|i Ri'Vtilooi nt llio Gutk- 
war'B court, wos Mfi lo annrijie fnr piiymeiil 
to llu! Gaikwnr (roiu tlic l(H)|iut CttiRtsofB 
corlnia ttxnil sum np eii/onitritir-s. Wh^u the 
lV«<iiwn WAN overilutJivii in 1^17, tlieBritisIi 
sucocnicd Umt pow<?ria tlir cbicffffinirol, Tlio 
jiTOff' i*evr-atie-« Mivo^tlimatiMlat a million nttr- 
linCihittout of thai £ l(K),0<}[) i» pniil tutannuvl 
tribute in ihe proporiion of luv^tliirdi; to ihe 
Brilihli GuTvrnmcnt vid oni>-tkird to tho 
Uiiikwar. ThnjHipiilRlioii 'i% IJtmillionit, Tlie 
tribulai'ies are (.-Ailed L«lukdai-«, of whom 
iht!rc nt-o 2'24, nud each of whom )M>8&e8Be» 
oxc)iit>ivo JHrtsdlftion io tiin owu diHlrint, and 
only Uic Gra>>«iauuii Mul GiiuiKiHare allowud 
to litigato with thrir rutiui; (-liiprit. Tlicoo 
are sprung citbttr from cadot^ of the ruling 
Irilku ant from proprietor* uf Inudx which 
thfty have oripinnlly M^ized and now defend 
with ft) I llie pinverijiiil icrniM'tily nfilie R^putf 
frorly pivps and lukc» lito for arros. The 
ici)mi iftlnkdnra arc ibfir lli;;hnH«»(>» iJie 
NaWHb of JuuHgai'li, — ttifr •lam nl' Nutunag'* 
pir. aud tlie Rawal of Bhowiinp;^ar. dI-o ibe 
It^na of Porebaodor, tlio Raj of Dmngdra 
uud Ihe Tbakur of Murvt. .Tutiafcnrh, tJie rao<it 
fauportul is held by a de«r(<nilaal. of Slier 
Khan, Babi, u tuoldier of fortune who seized 
it in iho funeral noarrby whirh preceded the ' 
suliTerhioii of ihe MokIiiiU. Spo InwriptioiiB, I 

KaliiyawHr, KhcuHor, Krishna, Mewar, Sio. . 'J*»'»''» iimo'toiw. Om Gamfrn. 

tcmoii.— CuHHiitghatn's Annent flfotf. of "■ ^*^Usv4^VmnitMm. 

p. 233 i ToiTd 'rraprlt,pp.'2o2~6S. Ibmi«. rtrngF 

SA^InK^:. tin* low rt«u« of the Punjab/ H;a;^u™-,«7iiiv;>;^.:S?tf*«^^ 

are Uic Suurvo. Bmii-ia nnd llnrui. 

SAUKIA. the l.ixard Urdt^r of RcpiileB, 
which uatiiraliHtsarntDge ns under: 

TOK ORKKH op LlZAftlift— Satbia. 
1. CrocndileB — CromdlltdK. 
Water L'lzanls — Vaniiiidtc. 
Land Liieardu— Lnrertida). 
Cordylcs— ZnniiridK. 
8k in kit — Siiincidn!. 
A-fftntind' — Acnnliadidflf. 
Sand Lirtrd" — Si'ptidr. 


,,.. .1 ^ 1 inii a«. 

Hr'E-ll. MalMrUl 

r**««ill, Onf ' ... I ir. >>i'tii.))«iBfbrni 

tiOu*". A^"«(W riiidl».Ciiy*» 

iitai'is»«pli>U, (rn|f. I '•yiL 

li«iiiilloiiH. Ortiff 1.. 1 ..t^e*. 

Paoid ban t*ciA. 6ntv 

t*citnri». ('rag D««Mii. iMfau. 

Havlvrntfr. Otir II*dc»]T 

ftialUilt. (I'rav PaD]*ti> 

Bainjcvr tMuta, Gr^. Oftntic*. ItvnMj. FMB 

llitntttt*. ftr»f^ NvpaaL MnnlaMlii 

elli«tl. lirav ............. ..Kl>ln» l(lt*r. 

dhoDuoka, 'iron Kp[wk, Amuk. 

Pbti r "tenia m Bi«gMwplutuBi, 

tfratt.... ChlM. r«f|j. 

riL riTMh.w*!^ Twrtfat-Trlowy«MK 

Eayi^unmtnA, SdUvff- DlndiMaJi. Hkkllb iMp 

crrliMkraiiii. timg ('cjtuu. 

ritula. Ptttr*..,. Gn*. 

TrioiiTX ■iBMils. irc4in»-....rhina.chBUB, rnnMW 

ftiRfP'tleuf, 0»r riui(r4 , Tr^unz. 

JaTkiiloiu. Sdmtiqg. -O^BtM, DtwaB. rreut 

flnutai, Gra^ Mam. OimUjJK. 

RUhf liniia. .■Cftircffv 8Iii8*)>or*. rcBWif. 

uunt)i*«1. OmV' 

Chltra Indln. Oiiiy HtnitM, UAlayui I'loJaHb. 

IV. Ukrta* TvnlM-ChrkMldv. 
OWMntoilnMa, «M-JUah....UoMta oTA E. A«la. 

Cliclvnte Tirol*. /loM. .Oouu „ 

('■rrtt* mumimm. L. CoaiK .. 

DtngatocbriTS ooriMM, £....('uuu 

Taa Onia or I.izAan«- 8Asau- 

I. CrmKidltM -OOCwUlldia. 

CrMOdilupMliuUI*, £Mf,...Oiii(ii«, rmlanla of 

iiRiMafU. SdlMbt ^ubOaabola. 

PWU4W, AiAncU: AIlHrMi. 

|Kmil(MTl*iint. iTnw PAn4l<-k«rty. 


ML \M)A Lltanb-I 

'ftrhrdromii* MKlinnlu. fl.Rwiiooa. 

nvTi-IIOMlU. athr .'tnulhrtn riiliia. 

(vptHitriMUliB, (7(>r. Nortltrrn i.'liiaa. 

Cabnia IvMhraaattil ilW<d.....(''ir<'aMiH]*L 

I Dphiop* UriloaL Hfflk. Mb«tr. 

AMalAMtUtyfau eaMorii. O^ 'Stamnmietax. 

oLIcbanauiB, ArA l^oaaogr. 

IV. OtfAyU»^Zo»m\Am. 
Piew u JapaagWMJUa, <7nir ...Rhacjn. 

V. SklRk*-8t1nH<l«. 

TrspMaphflnM mlerateplit ''-.(^hanaboam. 

corhia'CltimtaRlt, Ow Coahlachiju. 

avfiiia titMnah, Oly. .Hrrnl. 

EarrapM (AlBMMda. Orati tauaa. 

tiiimot»K 'f^tB Trom AfctaaaUtaa |i 

noBtlenla. f.tJtr- Rlkklm 

Dlira«Ma. tlr«M MalaraB Pawmnla 

inkouUrliu. Klvih Kungpan? 

trilliTraiiii. <:rnf CvtiMht. 

Mab<uiiU|iu>ui:iac«la, SJyM.. Hooaknuit. 

chtlWIlM". '■'r-ic CtitBlk 

BaeaUU, Bi)ik, 




taMtu. «»r.....llcllglierri«i. 
wa. OtMr. Blmataru. 

our Slkklm. 

Otkr NinKpo. 

hnnr Chins. 

k ear. Tll*t. 

Biwtk Hinapore, Wucenbad. 

trn SikWm. 

nau, Mtlaart.... C^ioit. 

ile(tlca,£. P«naDK, SLuD, Hongkong. 

>,etkr 8faun. 

i, Gtkr. Hongkone. 

ntn. Grair.. NelloTe. Ilenrn). 

11, Orwg Pfnlnsnlaof India. 

■, M. Fenlnanla of ludia. 

m.etkr Gambola. 

BftffriL Graf BengaL 

Incata. Grog 

I laaoaUeta, .Verr- Coromandel. 

VI. Araniiads— Acontladidte. 

tyaidi. Kdaart,... Co\ottibo. 

toBll Omjr Ceylon. 

t3rla, Orar Cejlon. 

riL Sand LlKards— S«p>Mk. 
balm tridactjlos, 6. Af^-banUUn. 
lit QKko~G«ckotidc. 

;atns. Baud PromSoaUiernlDdU to China. 

?^mL Penang. 

Graf Prince of WaW IiUnd. 

vM.If. 4 O- Malayan Peninsula, Ceylon. 

\.D tfB China. CbDMn.' 

Is, CMT. Northern China. 

atas, Glhr. Chlkiang. 

n bonutocepbalnm, 

lU. Penang, Sineapore. 

'Iwtriednn.Daud. Ceylon. Penfniinla of India. 

«./>. 4 B. From CaylOD to China. 

f.'rtr. Deccan. 

,D. & B. Frora CerloD to Siam. 

altll. D. if B Hadraa. 

IS, Jerd TellloheriT. 

>. 4 B. Penang, Bom b«ir< Ceylon. 

«raBioni. fiIirfA....HergnL 

roali. D. <t B Penang, Ceylon. 

. Otkr Fcnang. 

iiDaebD«iderl,^taw.CeTlr>n, Bengal, Aasam, Slam, 

andamannisa, Aty.Aodaman lalanda. 
4ylDi triednu, Gr. .Ceylon. 

is. Gray Penang, Singapore. 

I, eUir Ceylon. 

OS, Kfta^rt Ceylon. 

nslB. Jerdon Bangalore. 

Gray Ndlghenica. 

icna, Jerdon. Malabar. 

I. Jerdan Malabar. 

Df ia nilir. D«ccan, 

na. Blfth Honlmein. 

t« faccioiatnn, Ai^k. Snbathoa 
ylna bonieraeia. «.. Borneo. 

nthr. Sinaapore. 

m,D.4 B. Benpal. 

■nbida. BlulH Andaman Islands. 

rl*bardinckii,Gray.PeoloBa]a of India. 

IX. A games— Again idw. 

lana, /. Penang. Sintrapore. 

Ids. Sthr. Philippine Islands. 

iiis. A'uAI. Timor. 

II. Gtltr Monieo, 

toa, KvJU. .laTa. 

tas. Grag. Siam. Penang, Tenasscrim. 

eraN Wifgm Uantllu. 

ieri, D. (fB. Peninsula Of India. 

tfasdatnc. Grog Penani.''' 

«ms, Gl^^. Siam, Tenasaerim. 

>pogon, iloie Java. 

IstDS. Glhr. Pbillppine Ifllsnda. 

I, iMud. Amboyna, CdebM. 

as, Gthr. Borneo. 

i* blvittata. ffie^in. .Ceylon. 

halus smtalui, /. Ceylon. 

ora atoddartU, Gnaf.Ceylon. 

III. Gthr Ceylon. 

. Ottr. Ceylon. 

eeylanira. Offers:.. .Ceylon. 

rarlcgata, i7niv....Sikkiin. 

inis. Or Fonnota. 

naia, IlaitoKeU Loochoo. 

mdletriana,C'HV.....Weatem India. 

G«r. Madras, Ceylon. 

-BSgrandla, Grav.. ..Rangoon, 
eetacristatdlai JTuUMalayan, Peninsula. 
td[na.GMr Gambols. 

D, 4 B. .Pondicnerry. 



Calotea Tovloolor, Dtaid. Ccjhm, Continent of India. 

nemoricola, Jerd Ndlgberriea. 

mystaoeuB, Z>. if B. Pegn, Slam, Hergni, Cerlon. 

ruuxli, y>. 4 ^• 

Dnhlontaolius. .Werr Ceylon, Sonthem India. 

pl«tycep«,/J/v(ft Cherra. PnnlL 

nlgrilabris, Pettn Ceylon. 

emnis. Gray Mergui. 

maria, Grag Himalayas. 

itslea liortfeliili, Grog. Neitgherriea, Cejlon. 

Orkxralolea minor, Graf Himalayas. 

Acantbosaara armata, Gray.. Eastern India. 

capra, Gthr. Chartaboum. 

ooronata, Glhr. CUartaiwum. 

Orioliaris ellioti, Gthr iSlkliira. 

Tisris tiara subcrisuta, Blgth-Povl Blair. 
fhysiKDathus cocliinehiiiiio 

sis. Cut) Cnehln-cbtna. 

meniaiier, Gthr Chartaboum. 

I.iulepis euttutas, Cur. t^tern India, ChlnA. 

I'rumiaBlix bardwickii, Groy.Hlndostan. 

Charasia dorsalis. Gray Southern India. 

Stellio tutieniulBtiia, Gray.. . .Upper Hludostan, Himalaya. 
1'rapeluK megalonvx, GtAi*....Af'ghanUtan. 
PhrrnocpphaluB tickelli, Gr..Af|{banlstBa- 

osudlToIvulus. Pall Tibet. 



Chamsleo vnlgaris, Daud. . . . Penin. of India, Ceylon. 

SAURUKACE^ Lindi. an order of 
plants compriiiiiig, 1 Geo., 1 Sp., of HouC- 

Nepaul, at the summit of the Wallan Choon 
pass, at an elevation of 16,748 feet, above 
the sea, the plants gathered by Dr. Hooker 
near the top of the pans were species of 
Composite, grass, and Areuaria ; the most 
curious was Saussurea gosBypiua, which 
forms great clubs of the softest white wool, 
six inches to a foot high, its flowers and 
leaves seeming QDiformly clothed with the 
warmest fur that nature can deviiie. Gener- 
ally speaking, the alpine plants of the Hima- 
laya are quite unprovided with any special 
protection of this kind ; it is the prevalence 
and conspicuous nature of the exceptions 
that mislead, and induce the careless observer 
to generalise hastily from solitary instances ; 
for the prevailing alpine genera of the Hima- 
laya, Arenarias, primroses, saxifrages, fumi- 
tories, Ranunculi, gentians, grasses, sedges, 
&c., have almost uniformly naked foliage. — 
Hooker^ Him. Journ. Vol. i, p. 225. 

mountain rnnge wliirh divide the Nerbudda 
from the Taptee valleyp, extending from 21" 
nud 22°, nnd 73' 40' to 78-, when it becomes 
confounded with the Vindhya. The average 
elevation, supposed 2,500 feet: Aseerghur 
hiU fort, 1,200 feet. They form the nortliem 
ba3<! of the Deccan table-land. The sonthcrn 
declivity towards Taptee, is abrupt ; N. to- 
wai'd.s Nerbudda, gentle. The mountains 
rise into peaks. 

S.VUVADY MARAM, Ta-m. A timber 
of Coiinbatore, Dr. If'ight. 

SAUVIRA, Sans. Sulphiirct of Antimony. 

SAUVIRA,orSophira district inW. India. 
I SAVA, or Savch, a town in Persia lying 
' between the towns of Kazvin and Ispahau. 

S 167 



SAVU ISLAND, ii» S E. point h is 

lO* 3r S. long., 122*0" K . xml » 13 

Savu anil Rotti, aro amaJI IftlandA ta 
weat oC Timor, riuI vvvy renin rkitlil* 
posmK-ingfl liaD<lKOi»enir'C, with good fa 

Thb ift luppoccJ to U tlic andcnt Salm. 
whence the lliree tnagi UMjk tlivir deiMHuic 
wImoi tliey proceedwl to ailore tho infant 
JeeuA at UtHhlebem. 

SAVA, fIJfiit SOD of TtBtna. llwr aiiccsLnr 
of lilt) Bulla, a Surya V»ii« raro of Rajput*. 

t^AVAl, a Hah v( I^ukv Tliuli*»a|i curW i n*sCDil)liiit{ in tunny rli>uiu-(«Tietice, 
with thr neho of the palm irro. protlunsl Ity mlxLure of tlie bin>lno cr 

SAVANOBU, or &inor«-, tt« chief » o wiili tlie Malay. TUvy are nturtniuiy tl: 
pathan wlin«> nnceslar, iu 17^* wa» oiin nf rruoi llm Timuix*fteor Papuan ram ■■ 
the throo pmliaii malimnedaiiH who cunnpii'- im ulu«fd in the vre»ii*i'n nthrr t 
eij afjNiiiot Nasnir •TiMi^. i-axt^ni tliviKimi of ihi* Ai'ihiprkfTn.— 

SAV'AHA, Sfo In«mplioii». tarr. Vot. ii, yi. 277, Sta KoUi. S 

SAVAliA. m .Suar, (lis Stmrl of Plinjr, Timor taut. 
■n<] Hatianr- ofPtoltfrny. SAW A. Tb« Kariani;, tlis Sawn, lb* 

SAVARA S.VKA, BCfoMiH}: lo Mauu, one j and tho Chonj,', are wiW aii'l mij;;fni«jry r 
of Iheouti^iutlr niiliury li'iWfL 'J'hu (.'liina in a tXw fii'nt mul f^oninl l»L*itii; th>' •»!»(? 
IM allodvil to by aucii?nL SniiAi-rit wrilri-9, | but itihaUiL vnriiku<( {wrLicni nf the H 
u iIwvlllDfC ou the extreme ^n^l, but tnrih«r dominiytis. The Ka, n term Hliob, 
tula Jnilia tlinn at ptvveii I, and Mr. Iluulrr, Sintni-ac Iniicniice oiMinii N)av<% but 
(p. 38) fouKiJt^rH that llio nbonginnl t-ar-**» of i ralle«l by tlit- HHintM/jkiifS I'a-nouf;, in 
tliu trantciu |M<niu!iul», Bumiah mul India mouutaiuH of Lao. l>urik>tiii(; U|Mni 
north of the VinJhyn ran^te dfiivcd Uieir < The Chon^r, a more indn<fnon« ami 
«}«wch from a sotirco cointnoii to tl>oniielve& pooplu tlian tliu u-tX ut lliin clasi*, iohal 


Bud tlifl Chinefw^. 

SAVARV KKKRAY.Tam. Ureens, whirJi 
f;i-ow in <hr Kouttii-m parto uf tlie pcuinKula 
and aw cnlou by the |a»»plo. — Ai/itite't Mat. 
,»U, p. 236. 

SAVK,<:ii». Samolti, Tw.. There ere 
^wo aorta of tliiii grain, via., Uari Save and 
lejjase. Poor people dm tliom in food — 

SAVEL KUKUNUU. SivtiH. Cionamoo. 

SAVENDRUO. iuUt. 12'.W'?X.. Iodk- 

7T' IG' £. in Myi<ore, W. of Uiuj^alora a 

bill HMt'wn 4,002 feet above the sea, 6'. T.S. 

SAVI,<;i:k.,Hiki>. Mact-armii, Veraniolli. 

8AV1 CUINA WAKI, Hind Panicnm 


SAVIKELA i:*HErTi;, T«.. Piwii-ria 
fttiida. L.i tr. ^ A., l,SO«i /£., t, 6B3. 
rSina., nyo. of Prasiiriue. 

SAVITIIKK RIVER, risen in thcweateni 
Ohautft, iu hit. 18*17' long. 73* 27' mns 
B. E, ioto ladian Oomd. — Leogtii 70 m. 
SAVITRl. wife of Satjavat.a. 
SAVITKI a wunl ill ilie (Jactri inauli'am 
ingtboauD. See Gayatii, Surya,llln- 
Zouar. or Zennaar. 
bAVITKI VKATA.a fwt oWcrvod by 
rJiioJoo womnn, about tho 1<kb June. On thie 
lioD timy wor«]iip the Indian fig tree, to 
I ihera from widowhood. 
SAVON, Vk. Soap. 
8AV0RKA, It. Unltwt. 
SAVORY. Salun-ja liorU-n^is "ml S. nwo* 
taua. aromatic haitia, now (allco mto dieiue, 
oaeil to llarour toup*, Ac 


htlly 4Hniutry un tbn (ui^lotn iiid« of 1 
of Siam, between ih« clcvenlli anj 
dt)^rr;i;ft nf Norlli latiludv. Tho 
a diininuuve rai.-o of aava(^ n«tp-iM», A\ 
in the innuncainouH r»-^ifHin i)ftba 
Pouiu&ula.— Croir/tfrd, JCmtwug^, p, 

8AWA, HjtLAr^ artitiuially \r\ 

HAWAII, I'oktca fawan tind karhi .ai 
lltNl) of Maltan, are termn UM'd ol iiidigv 
certain ulnges of niaiiufAetnn!. 

SAWAIj, lll^n. PournogetoQ 
alt)o Amariinlui* anajilaiw. 

.SAWAI.I, IIi%u. Alnuax;». alao 
gclou enimiiiouff. 

SAWANK, lliKii. Opli^iutfnum 
lareum ; alto thf wild apivU-* of 
coloitiim, uM-il uu fa«l ilay* by binUoua. 

SAWAN mull, made many .^laU 


SAWARA. KM India. 
SAWFISH, spocirn of Priatti, aee Fbfaift. 
SAWIQUr. Hce ICyaiiB. 
SAWIL KOUI, Taw. Rubia cordtfe 
SAWITE, ^<M* Kyau, 
SAWN AN, lIiKi). Fraxtoua Boribmdfc 

NHt«D. Ota. 

KurwiilUM, OcL, Hran. 


S«cb*. It. 

Implomcnlx of ratiooa ''• 
wiNjd, irnu, and oCkcr hn 

SA^^-LKAV^;I> centaury, 

Cealaaree btlian.'—Atfui. 
S 168 

rU, Malay. Anrtjor. 

U^ A rircr ucar ranUi or Poorati in 


iBt Malat. a Tcrjr boiatiful >0(] 

[of Jbvb : die colour reBeoibltfii (but 

jTj bul Uic grain is etu>M.'r. atid it is 

: Its citicf tuo U for baoiUea 

iAarpenters and oilier orlifioerB, 

IbeTT, especially for iho leeth of the 

'mills, and other purposes wliere a 

idunble wood is iwiuin-d. Od ac- 

pcarci^, it t» qaifonnly cut down 

iWfore it itrnve« at tho neccsnary 

nnet work. Forcets of it grow 

U of Bali, oppo»it« Uie Jarau abore, 

ie brougbi over hy boaUoods for 

BktpiA, Jhelcm. 

Fitlial tv&t iiliuln, Kanmrji 
Shai'TQclii, CiiBSJUi. 

Kurfcutar dhupMb, ,, 
UftDpKtndc, ,, 





,VA, a geoua of moUuw^ 

CENAiNTlIK, the Wbeat«ar 
Aaia, plains of L*pi>cr lotliB, N. 
e regions, tirceDlaod ! migntoiy. 
wveral otber iDdiau Wlualenns 
icfa lire dilFerpnt from ihoee of Eu- 
tiog S. Icucomcia ; butS. stapaziua 
io ludia by S. atro(;iil&ri^ and S. 
S' Icucuroidos (opistliolcuca of 
J which occurs likewiM in N. E. 
Bi^iA ; Jerdon. 


ffflk. I p. •rfvnliar, Hodyinn. 

Steluliiitatoer, Gta 

Sah»ara-k«hU((or, ,, 

8albUiMl«M, Ir. 

ZomfMBiJi, n 

SUUiipolo, „ 
AihTi IcMDpa iwIiiMlutTaL. 

Ailanl lu^pa jitU, ., 


Hool«, Fa. 

mrl in Rossis, Germany, Fmnce, 
lt«l/, Sm/rua. Japan, tbe De;:cao, 

of the Gangett, tbe RtouotaJDs of 

tdnMao. Senega), and Soatb Africa 

d. In?lind, and Scotland. Jer- 

of tho gcnac Saxicolo, S. 

B. picatttt S- Icucomela, end S. 

'rrJen, Vol. ii, p. 121 ; SngU$h 
,iin, p 687. 

FUAGACE^, DC. The Saxi- 
be of plants comprising 8 Gcn., 84 
TO,, 6 Hydnngia ; 1 Ciamitis ; 1 
; 21 Saxifrapi ; 1 ClirysoBpIcniura ; 
hi c 1 Aftilbc ; 2 Vablis. These 
k gcfloi of flowering plants arc most- 
m of Britain with white, yellow, or 
rm, t^ ombrosa, the Louduu prido, 
y flower, the species are easily cul- 
froni scett in any garden soil. — 

t» filand. S':^- Sftxifraga (•teoopylb. 

Uu i pari. I'Mia. ' tury-liMtr, Kmo. 

So named from its namerous tlircud-ltke 
•loloiis, iu which and ita general appcaninoo 
it closely rosimiblcs llto Saxifrnga tlagellaris 
of Melville Islind. 

roiM kha^iHun. 

Sli)h.ha.vttl, Can). I Kgo-|>uh-sbih-t*'ka. Caw. 

This acrid pl&iit (;roW8 near mhUt ; it ba^ 
small yellow flowers, it u recommended in 
all diseases of the 6«nEoa and great oriQccs of 
tho body ; it acta as an omctie and diaphoretic. 
SATA, HtHD^ PiiKs. Shade, a sha^w. 
A Aliadfi, a ghost. 

.SAY\, Xam. Hodyotos umbellata. —/««., 
SAYA, Mahr. Toetona grandiR. 
SAYA DK MALHA, ti «r<*ap of Madre- 
poriu itdond^, H. E. of the Middires, Ftt/uier. 
SAYA ELLK. Tam. Salvia IJcngaleoaiaw 
SAYAN, or Snyarouial, Sufuu. llcdyotoa 
umliellata.^ — Lam., It. Br. 

SAYANA ACHARV'A, u man of high 
statiOD and a deservedly celebrated schoLir, 
who wrote a commentary of the Vpdas. Uo, , 
waij brought up at the courl of Vira Bukt 
Raya, raja of Vijianapger In the 14th cen- 
tury of our era. See Madlmira, Veda. 
SAYANAN, see Sayaua, Vedaa. 
SAYAWEU— ? lledyotis urol^ellata. 
SAYEK, Abas. JLitci-ally, Imvelling : 
but iu Iho fiscal Byatem of India, applied to tlio 
inn^it duties teviod on goods pBf<stng from 
one district or one territory to anoibcr. It 
was finally aliolislied iu 1834, 1837 and 1844 
in tbe three prcsictencica of Beugnl, Bombay 
and Madras. Tho transit duties ioHadi 
alone nmouuted to £3lO,OrX) storling a year. 

SAYJBU£{D,Hlxp. Silk cords, with gold 
or silver tassels, fur fastcuing tbe bedding or 
mattrafts to the bedstead. 

SAYT^ Dux. Tambara, Maiat. Cypri- 
' no3, speties. 

, SAYL Kl'NDE, Tam. Cyprinas, tpeeiei. 
of Caludiuiu csculentum. Saymbu kire aro 
tlie greens. 

SAYMI-KI-PIIALLI, HiKD. Lablab vol- 

SA YND, Bkhc, UiKD. Euphorbia nivaliu. 
Cb'ttpal wnd in the prickly fjear. 

SAYNDI, IliKi*. Thejuicnor toddy of tho 
AaXk icw : Tail ifl lUc sap of the Tar or palmyra 
tree, Uorasstta flnbelliforrais ; :Narelli is from'' 
the narel or cocotinot tree, oocos nndffira, 



SATNDI KA .THAR. DuK. Etato sj)- 

SAVyn-KA DOOUn, DcK. Niirtt flli'u, 
[IiMu. l-*ii|>)ioTSiiim. j 

SATUK ICALADI, Malat. Sayoris Ibc 
t;<Micric Icrm IVir vcgi-iatile-s. Kalitili is ihe | 
Arum i;>iftornoxljurgh with a largo leaf 
aiiil nil L'tliMi- rnnt. It grows hi maiohy | 
prouiij find is nuiclt ub«(1 by ihe CliiDKso for 
CouJ for tlitrir |>ij;»- — Jour, Ind. Arc/t,y Ho. 
11, Kn/. V. 

MAY WIAN, llisi.. VcrmicoUi whicli Uie 
unliveti usually pr<-|iaro bolwocu the haiuls 
inEtcul of ueiufT d pnwjt. Sftywcfuii-ka-tukliU, 
a boanl for making fttywct-an on. VcrmicfHi 
is niH) pn-pnrctl l>y being t-un through siovo 
holes into hot water- 

SAYVID MAJID, see Bomal, Beer-tit- 


S AZANKI, UiwD., Pbhtf. ' Tho BliDgor,' 
Urtica, iprcui. 

SAZPOSn. I!ixi\ LftTfiteracachcmirinnB. 

SBANG.TA, HiM>., Tut. Mo&s tea, n aub- 
BtituU> fur ix'aI ten. 

SCABEABD. For tbew, the people of 
the V.*sl ladies £ct a great Tftluo upon the 
akin of A Hall tvhiclt in ri>u^h(T than a senU 
skill. UiiOQ the buck of tbc 6sh there are six 
littJo balc«<, an'] KnnvUiuce eight, f^iMnewbAt 
elcmted, with anollivr id the micldle, in the 
rorm of a ruftc. TItvy make Hcabbajidi! for 
Bwords of the skin ; and the mort! Lliose holeg 
grow La in Lhn form of a roic, the higher value 
Uiey pat ujioii tbcni ; Tareiiiier tiaJ aeei) 
itfu thouHiiid crowns piTcn for a skin. — Ta- 
vcrnier'n Tr/ipel», pfi. 121- 152. 


(lowering |p!aiits, with the mwji of honey, are 

Lvcll Hilnpti'd fur rruninenliug llic llowcr gat* 

Hen, tluy nro propiiijutt'il by ftw«l, and grow 

"ily in auy gootl *oi!, iho seed may Ix* 

in pTiLi at thi; close of tho nuDR, and 

If I Innu removed when ii few inchea high. 

SCABRITA 8CABRA, KoA/., alsoScab- 
rita triflcira, L, Mant. S>ym. of NycUiothci 

jjp . "'■"•SCITLA. 8PC CollinFin. 

S« \ UKr.A-MUDAGUM, Ainii. 

8C,i,\ i.n.ACE^K, LiwIL An order nf 
plaut^ of I tieii, and 3 .■pericA. 
IbHi I. ' - Mol I 8«i»»U UmimIs Kottf 

A 'iliiralcd Id g&rdcus, with dark 


yi \ TACCADA. Boxh. 

S. toccada and S. ktcuit^ii %row iu Ceylon 
nil on the flboroB of the taliindtof iho Eaitem 

SCAI-<A1UA, a geDuii of tnolluscf. 

SOALlfc^ of CuttAck. the fibre of ngiguUc 


twining plant, iHimraon tliron^hoot the fo 
jungleis of iho province. It U uh<<I f<>i 
Offc, and itt madu jtitu twiue tor raat't 
»ud rooting pnrpoiiea. 

Jul*, llimi. I KMbkuI, 

The fakir's dl^h, made of a half sea- 
nniil »hp|l : speaking of a ehild of tial 
imii'nlago the phraw i», fakir-ke>.jhDhi^1 
lukra koti dnifl, wlio threw the portioa ' 
tliL- fnkir'i i-rallup 

SCALPING. Abbe Uomeiiich rrfi 
conversation betwceu two warriors. \t' 
chief who hfieuke In Mahtu-lolia? 
Scalp which hangff from the bit nf my 
nniiwered thu Sch(>ypnnR. The lu-alp fiihl 
to Uiu extreuiity of u pole, ia plated ii 
coDqueror's cabin : auU on day^ of 
battle, in froot of the cabin. Tho chi 
pend it to their hori<e*sbridleii. Scnli 
pmclico that originated io High 
coatom Asia. The words of the F^i 
History are as follows : — " Of the 
enemy a ScyOii&n ^i-ndit down, be qt 
blood ; he- CRnnei) the headii of all 
bnH alaiu io batllo lr> thr king ; for wl 
has broRgbt a iTcad, he is entitled to A 
oftlio booty that maybe taken — Dot 
wife t to ^kin tho hrnd, he makes 
ctilar iiiei»ion rrf>ra car to nr, and 
laying hulil of the crown «luiki-^uut thaj 
afUtr turaping otl tho Ib^ib with au ox^ 
bo rumpleii il betweeti bi» haiidt, aitd 
Ihufl "ul'ti'Ui.'d the akin, inaktu um» uf 
tiupkiu ; liu nppendi it to tlKf bridle of 
horve he ridei>, and prides himKclf on 
for tliD Scylhiun that lias moo^t uf tbi 
napkins ia aOjudgod the bust mnn, &( 
Tlicy qIdo Ufe the ckutU for driukiitg 
The uutlcr-lyiiig ideas were doubt) 
natural wi.-^h Iu preH>rvo n mpmoiial of 
focmuu done to ilcnib ; nml at the i!<nm#J 
to duliououL' hie hati-ful rurpse by mi 
Puitltiou luid lrt\diliuii i(';:Liltitt- llit* 
of tlie bnnmn frame pivfi-rred. S<-hIi 
ceocmlly but falwly AUppuMnl to be 
linrly AtTtfriiwu [wiu'tiir, Tlir Ahd 
Din ' "^eveii Vea' 'ji ll*'hiJ<-nca 

(Jri.: lis of Nortli Amoni-A, 

quotUB the deoUvaiv of the nucii-nl ( '.^i 
the capillo« el cutvm Jrtmbini of ili^ 
of the Vinigoch-s and tltn uniuilM of Flvd 
wbiiJi prove that the Auglo-^xoD* auJ 
Fmnka alill fti«lped aliuut x. o. 879. 
SCAMiU^NKIC, Fr. Scamnoojr. 

Raa«inon«f. Fn, I ttcwnnonM. 

BkuuBonion, Gtx. | B i ciw aw ri , 

S 170 


found iu tliubatur- [■ffritlin ; it istlio 
' ConvoWuluH tt-auimonio, a oatlvo 
tb« luerant, noJ Gnzeruti antl is 
pluitwhcQ (IKe^i. Tbe acftmmony 
oecon in friigfni.*iiLs, volumiuous, 
spootfT, (Vwblc, polvenileut, wiih 
re of 'ttlacki^i f;rey, but covered 
powJcr rMnlling t'rotn iJie rcciprocnl 
B of Uu) pieces, *li|!l)tiy tniiia[>nreii( 
■II llmkcs, Mrliicli iwcoiiic white nod 

R— "'—f«r w!tfTi niI<lioil with a wet 
. utstew^uk, acri<l, 

T (jri*yi>Ii wlitte. 

i)i ofk-n mlullpr- 
■ •f li eimilar kind, 
and eaiib. (ifKid 

chaik, Miiitl 
MOfists of rei)in 60, gum 3, ex- 
r. lUJ'l earthy ami Vf^etoltc iiiiptirilil-s 
r lOO. Tlio moot abiiiidaDt liiirvcsl 
unmoajr is !u Siuyttia and Aleppo. 
~ scTrral modes of collection, winch 
coTFf^pondtiig oommcrciAl varic- 
r^ilie rout Keiug laid \mi\i 
f, and shclU Bit] pliii:t>d 
receive tiie juice as it 
«. Tbit 9ub&«i(iici>tty Uiickviis in the 
Tbo drug coUect«d Id t]iii« mode is 
•liel) eemmmony. Ttii> mt^'uvb ia small 
I oiiiBrn. sometimes smootb, of red- 
n wliiU*h grey colour ; of vttxy fiive- 
jrllowtah and tmir-tnuieparcol, in thin 
dlMgrecaUe taste and xtaell ; on 
betmni'!' adhesive. Instead of 
lesvci of ihc rliL-siiut tix'O aroaomo* 
a«d a flftttened bcammouy ofgood 
llectcd. If tilt' rwJte l* cut in sac- 
^ens the scammony in iufi^iiDr, hut 
It ii> dried eitlicr over a bIow 
Uie nun, and Lhr^n muuldetl into 
of a whitiih cotoiir. Thia 
rare iu vunnnvrt'e. Lasttyi an 
Spared from ihe exi>rc««Hl juii-c 
jU aiid ^^Uilks, this ia mouldei) into 
of Mni'k, viireons aud leAinona 

^kgiHfie« Uic pur:.'utiv«. Several old 

^BD08C«ltcd"di»grvdiutii'' {iiat(HjCtOtr,) 

Bhiro of ccanimony with sulphnr and 
IK, ami are now no longer lined. — 
amfilkNcasy. pp. 500, 501. Bee ConvoU 

■ Vpdafl. 
^. ■[.:-. X L03LABIA, Lomaria scuq- 

^■r*- hVrun. 

EfDINAVIA. Amoiigflt Iho Arian 
.Tbo wrnt to the north-we9t> there ia no 
r that the Saxons con- 
n Mcrilicea after their 
tL id UrLu; OrilBin, 1>ut in thfir own 
I iotHMlatifm of vaptivra in bououv of 
WM by 00 mcaoa uucommoo. Tlie 



great temple at Upsal, in Sweden, appcnrs to 
ha?e been especially dedicated to Odin, Thor 
aud Frea, !(« periixlical feativaift were acr 
companied by different degrees of conyiviality 
and license, in which human Bacrificec ivcre 
rarely wanting, varied in their nnoaber and 
T&lae by the euppoaed exigency. In some 
cases oven i-oyal Hood waa (!C'le«led that Ibo 
imagined tinger of the gods might he appc-aned. 
In Scandinavia, the aatJiority of the priest 
wan Diaeb grcAter tburi it wottld np[K«r to 
bave been among ths Aoglo-Saxons. It was 
tia word, ofleD, which determined where the 
needed victim» i^hoiild Im found. It wRa hts 
hand that inflicteil the wound, and his voice 
which f^aid, "I Ecitd thee Odin," declaring Uie 
object of the sacrifice to be that the gods 
might be propitiated, that there might Iw a 
fruitful season or a successful war. In no 
point does resemblance more attach between 
ibo ancient German and Scandinavian tribefs 
and the martial Kujpoot or ancient Gcto, 
than in their delicacy towards females. S«e 
India, Sacrifice, Smwcrtt, Tug. 

SCANS0R1--S, an order of birds of the 
class, Aves comprising, 

Order I. — Scaomrca. 

Fam. PaittaoMliD. 

S'ih Fam, Caottdwo, 2 geo.,* ap., via., I Calfp* 
loHi^nciis, 4 Cicattia. 

Sut,.Pam, PJttftoniB, PaiTota, 3 mo., 13 ep., rifc, 
I CoraovpuB, 2 T:inygnfttbii«, U) I^ucomi*. 

jFafr.Aim. PUlyvureiuie, Qrouod I'krJu«tc,8g«D., 
8"ip., TJa.. 1 Ai>ro«iiict«», 2 Platycwoua. 

Svb-Jhm. Lufiiiua, Lotie*, 4 gta., 1 tubf en. and 
13«p,, Tit. 

Section l, tfittgne ualJllataenUd. 

2 Eclectua, 3 Loriculua. 

5m«mxm a, toitgtuJttamenUd, 

S L<oriuB. 4 Ko8, 1 TiichogloMiui. 

SCAKDO. the chief town ofBaIti, is7,25i" 
feet above the sea. Seo lacardo, Sbigar. 

SCAKIDvE, n family of innects of the 
order Homoptem which may be ahowa w 
under : 

OttDEit Umaoptaia £«tr. 

Pan. CicadtdiD, IVcdrC. 
Pnndiit^a, Am. ^Sert. 

Ciouda, tiina. 
Fam. Pulgorida^ Sc^attm. 

Hotinuii, An. A Sen. 

Pyrcipa, ^n. 

Aphacna, Quer. 

EUdipl«ni, Spin, 
Pam. Cuiidm, WJk 

RiirybraohyB, tfun*. 

Cixius. Lur. 
Fan. InidtD,im. 
t[«in[spha!rius, Scianm. 
Fam. I>erblcljev ScAawm. 

ThrMta, WtttM. 

D«rl». Pabr. 
Pan. FhX^i)ie,Sckaa». 

FlatnldN, Ohuk 


PoeciipolCTU, Latr. 
Finn. Hvinbrnvido), Wit. 

Oxytbacbit, Germ, 

OntPotuR, Fahr. 
Pan. Coruuntdai, Ltnet 

Ccrsopin, Pabr. 

l'iyv\ui.lA.p. ftHd-Serv^ 
Pam. lVtt»KMiiiidn', Wli. 

TettigoDia, Latr. 
Fam, SariDD, Wtk. 

Lodra, Ftbr, 

Gypoi>&, Guar. 
Pim. lu^idM^ WUl 

Aooeoiiluiliia, ffvar. 
Fmh, F*f Uidse, Xdff. 

PsyUa, aof. 
Pam. Cooeidr, £eaoA. 

LocADiiini, Jilig. 

SCARITID.^ a family of coleoptoroira 
insects boloogtcg to the section Gcodeffaaga, 

S 17i 


wiiicli comwpojidi to tbo Cnrabua aait Cicin- 
■Iclo of Linna^qs. Siii^nnii uiiikta is met wiUi 
in Nq»I and vnrious imrUi of lad\» : n »pooi- 
mcD from ^'^y[>U i^ «^'^ Lbo Mir-xaoto, U eo 
cxooediogly Hlikc iii eizc and sculpture, that 
it ii very difficult Lo distiogui^ij. Tbe Scari- 
UdvicabouuJ iu luLb hctuiAphorea. Sapteruts 
of Iwlia in reprc<ieut«'d hy Oxyetofna» ia tbc 
BnuLl^, aud iu AfrlCB by AcaulbostiolU. 
[oriu and Clivioa will, perlmpa, he found iu 
Dth the Old and New World ; the latter, in- 

od, is commoa to all Uimporalares ; ibo 

Dcr mny cvenlunlly occur iu Europe, jier- 

ips in Sicily.— i/o^, Ai.L. J.,Juiif ISiO, 


SCARLET, isa coloar forbidden to maho- 
icdanH, but DitiDy of Uiem wunr it. 

Ulcro<lciidroD squanialutD. 

SCARLET CLOVER, Eno. Trifolium 

SCARLET IXOBA. Eno. Ixoini cocci- 
ina, Linn. 

cocviaouin . 

SCAVENGER. Ito lowwt cImb of rac- 
niitld iu briii^b ladia, ttre ibo scavengers. 
Tboy profess mabome^liiriJMm and bimluism. 
Thoy aroslylod LaMl<>^i, Itnlil-khor, Mehtar } 
the woaicn aro Blylc^l Laicbw, or l^ikslii 
fraa tlt^ biui1i>i>;,'o^lih-sii Tjiltt-lmico. 

8CAVI0LA t011ELL\, a kUucous green 
plant of (bu EantL^ni ArRliipfln^u, 




SCH.WALOS, Sp. SbawU. 

SCHEOUDII, Rrs. Acorns. 


SCHELESO, Sasb. Iron, 

SCUELK. Rug. Silk. 


SCMEM'PABITl? Ualkal. 

SCUENA, or KaroDA— ? Amorr 



Maleal. Strychnoe colubrina, 


DUID intlicum. 

SCHETTI ? Malkai,. Ixora « 


BCIIIEFER, Okb. Slate. 

SCI1ILPAD, Gr.R. Torloiae ahcU* 

SCIHNKEN, Ger. Hans. 

Bufh., Syn. of Icica iodica, M*. ^ ,4^ > 
uf Cnnaiium pylveitro. Oarttt. 

SCHINUS NIARA, //. B.. also 8. 
ria, //. B. Icica indica, IF. ^ A. 

SCniTELU, Rlteedr. Seaoiuum orieni 

SCHIZAN'DKEiE, Bl., o famUy fif 

his I 

I ^ 

I AtIo 

A fninily of planta, 
cotDprieioi; 3 genera tad four spccii^K, viz., 1 ; comprii'int* KadsurajapoDicati)uii.^ ofH 
Lepidttsiattltys ; 2 Scepu uud I Ilymi-nofar' i Ktuiseya uud Japan : also Sptucroatmia 
dia, nf tlic Kliassyfl aad Btirmnb mounltiin?. piuqiiini u[«l .S. [;raridif1onini nf Nepal, 

SCEll'UE, tbo Cb'hari of tbe biuJoo 
nilcra, a long rod with an iron spike oo 
(t, often placed before llm gruli, or llirotie. 
**Cbhari muzboot I'tm." his rod wa.s tilrotig, 
b a fomibtr ptuiwc, which mi^bt tie rcndcrvd 
hia Hoptre is Ann.— IbtTi Rajtunhau^ Vol, 
I. p. 410. 

SCEURA MARINA. Fi>rtt. Syn. of 
Avlceauia tomeutosa, Linn. 

SCUADA-VELL Malkal. Asparagus 

SCUADIDA-CALLI, Maleau Eupbor- 
bia anitquonitn. 

nui gnuBtaifolius, in niuking cordage. Tht' 
geoeric Datno is derived Cium " ic^aof," a 
cord, pUutti. 

8C11AFKAN, Ri^s. Saffron. 

SCUAURXM, Run. Scbogria, Okk. Sha- 

SCHAKERI-SnORA. ]Iixi>. Cucurilla 

SCUALEN. Gitm. Kbiiwls. 

SCUANGA-CCSPI / Clitorcn tcraak-a. 

172 S 

oneoflbu Suropliularinea^ a gonua of| 
showy iinDuaU, colours of tbe flowen i 
Eon, white luid variegated, and 
grown und irwitrtl na tlie Scahitia, — i 

ODO uf Uio Crucirenc, a singular plant 
corioualy cut |)etab, and u strong; tu] 
root, aud should bo grown and potted 
tliC EAcbsiRhnlteia. — HiHdelL 

SCHLAGKNTWEIT, thrw) l<nni«d 
tberH, Herman, RobiTi tiiid Adolpbo, who y 
omployod from (li« year 1 V55, to i-rpori oa ' 
pbyiical gM^rapby of ludia. Tbey 
ed aud pnliliflla'd a vant amount of li 
tivo. Adolpliv tbo yuuugest was mi 
at Saabgar by Ita fanatic rulor. Wiii-1 
it was generally thought for aoine time, 
Im bad been betrayed by bis lerrmnu ; 
that be bad fulluu in a battle between tbo I 
neeu uod Tartars, under Uie walbt of 
of Ynrcaiid. Sudi however waa dc 
COM, tbe bunenled pbiloeoplier wa« rot 
suddenly and almost witliout cxoaw 




Mr. T, It. Thornton permmMy 

Mamd, M. A. SdilagtntweifV iltiw 

1^ «iui rvTurwiHl thv rorrvHpuiKtciU'C 

the labjpct frcm die I*aiijiil> S&ci-cui*i«r, 

I hM» rDllaioi) nl«», wiUi (treat pains tl>c cvi- 

' uf il>e itiroc Bervanu, Msibomcil Amin, 

nod Murnil, atnl x*^! Dr. Smith to 

. oa Uie «kull which tiic latter nsscrtod 

)i«odir«(l tnm a Toorkeo barber «b that 

BHmlenHl mau, hut which Dr. Smith 

belocigcd to B DAlive of die country. 

itweit tiavio)* aiTiveil At Sagcit, 

lo proceed U\ KokutiJ via Tarcouil, 

wil^a llw contioos of Chicefc Tnrtary, 

bail hut lati-ty been couquereil ri-om 

cdcfttJab by the Kokandeso. Uia ^er- 

diseuaded him from makiog ibo ot- 

baeauite of tlio d istii rbod ^iato of 

latrj. He however diil not listtii to 

atiboof'h he ii{ipi>aTA to liavol>ceii fully 

tiaot of the [«riU and dangcrH iiwailing 

if be prooeieded. Ue alludes to tlie 

ility of hifi daitJi in a proniiwiory 

ich he gave to Marnd, fur 3.000 Ra, 

iDt of 300 Siktow or "whiio fur 

'*ai>d which in die event of death was 

payabto from the treasury at Kaugrik. 

llbo aent Imck Ids papers &nd hi^ heitvy 

*e r\i Ladakh. These were received 

furwarded ti:t his faniily in Germauy. 

aareh from Sa^t* all his horees were 

Hi* ierraota managed to rccovvv 

■Dd the rcffi were nruawai-dK olimined 

•ppHealtoQ to a minur chief named Hnji, 

I Kar^lik. TIii« mnn was ono of Wali 

'» adherent's and whs eured by the tm- 

■ uf a rathiiT aevcre sabre cut. Hits 

ccedeil to take an invoutory of Iho traveller's 
|iro|)«rty. llisariui^ were a)»o demiindrd. and 
.'iiirrendured. He was ihoo compolli'd tuKO la- 
WuH-Kliau's camp, and on i-emouittniliiijj: aji- 
I>ear8 toliave been Kunmiarily iwheadcd with 
a sword. ThU waa about the SGtb Annual 1 jW7. 
Tho promiMory Dote given toMumd, thoJew, 
hfld been sanctioned by the PanjsbgoTei'umeut, 
Murad, with the other servout^, wore iwized, 
they were boou released, tul he being a dew 
had to luni muhomedan before he could accom- 
plish bid freedom. Mahoiue^l Amiu wool lo 
Kukaud. where he is still residing. 

5CHLkIGKL,l<'it. A>Sauurit scholar who, 
in 1N04, published an essay ou the Innjjuoge 
und wisdom of the Indians. 

SCHLEGEL, A. W. ron, a Sanscrit 
scbobr, who in 182.1 puMishcd au edition and 
Latin version of the Uag&Tad Gita, and la 
1820-38 two volumes of the Rjuunynua, with 
a irant^lfttion of the first. 

SCULEICIIEUA, species, In Tcoaseerimf 
tho fruit of a epccios of tJiis tree i-eseinbte» Uio 
wild rambulan in evorytbinf!: except lliat it 
iscovered with prickles half ou inch long. It 
IB mrely seen iu market but would bo a valc- 
ablc addition to the doMirt. The tree growft; 
amnag the hills of Tavoy. There are foui 
ttpccies of Bchlcicbcra in Burmuh, alt uudetor^ 
mined, viz. : 

K)ct uiuuk. BiliM. I TlialcA (wu ui gti*n,Bea»> 

', ^ llion ky«t inouV, „ | „ ., ,. Iitote Icam, ,, 

Roxb. ; fV.^ A. 

UelioovoL trijugft, Jo**., DC. I 
StttdmuiDM ., Sprc»g. 


jtao I 

[tntiiuJc wad fcrvput, aiider ita influencu he ^^"i 
[Mml to manifest his friendship for tlie|Sf™ri 
|i^b, by putting; the borse-thicves to death 
pordoDetl them reluctantly on the en- 
Itnaty iif the man they Iind injured. At the 
Iteenf M. Sehlagentweit's journey, Yarcnnd 
i in force by a Syiid, cliieflain 
■te predatory bard* with whom 
Hao« are euntinaally at war, uamed 
or Xnllal-KhuD. Soon nOur reanh- 
ak^t I)il-Khan met with a sevcro 
HttD the Cbiue-e forctin, and waa 
Ion-tin-. A. StddHgeiitwi-il (lulling 
fdimppointed in tht« diruclion look the 
KMhttioc) of ffoitig to K(u>hgnr, at that time 
( by anotlier Syud chieftain, named 
jd. This man wRf» po«<*epM'd of con- 
•.ficiariir power on the borders, and was 
t^ the title of Peer or Saiot. On 
near Uie camp of (his redoubtable 
Mt 0or BrarcUer piudied hJa tents at Uio 
oe of a coRH and wnt forward Maho- 
Amiu lo notify his advent. In a little 
■ penoQ cnnie over who forthwith pro- 

173 i 

Pnvu tnkratn, 


Pu nmntrji. 

■ ( 









¥«Lia LiurikA. 


Kola - kuiMuonuw, 


tiliuatuh „ 



Sagnri mai.'n, Cxv. 
GoMain. Of KiiiBKOM. 

KMOom b. U A U B. 

KooaooBibli, ,. 

Jamoo, lUn. 

CohRffua. StHGtL 

^mltuJ kon. „ 

This tree ^rows in the warmer paiu of 
Ccylou. up to an elevation of 2,000 feel ; it 
(irows, also, iu Coimbatorei is commfin iu 
CaiiBi-a and Sundu, though most so below the 
ghats where it reaches the eizo of a largo trco ; 
it is not uncommon in tlic Dundcle fore^it and 
iu tlie fniVAta of the South Ko»kan,and in com- 
mon in those of ibc North Konkan ; it i» eaid 
to Iw very ahundiuit in the Godavery forests, 
two trees in the Oanjiim dliilricl nro termed 
Koosoomoo, tho Kola koosoomo anil Ghuu- 
tiah kooBOomo, tlic former of which abounds 
and is larger ond more UKcfnl tlian the latter 
which is not so common, (but that eillicr of 
these are the R. trrjugii requires coDlinnatiou.) 
It grows iu all the valleys aud outer 
ranges of Kumaon. It occurs tsrelft wUd, 



in Uio Siwnlik tmrt ap bi llio Dciia, | of Cochtn-Cbitu, mi the banks or rWor*. 
au(l oil the co^tcru verge or tbu Puujn'x It I IcAveA are used tis rR(K[iIasin!f iu conin^KiOL 
nLLHiimmi extreme iK^ighl of oO feet with a | — Don. Dichtamydtotit' plants ) 
circmnrprt'iice of 'IJ lei-l. The height from Flora Mcitica in Knit. Cj/e. 

the ground to tiio iiilcnfc-liou of ihe tint 
bruucli is 9 fecil. It prnducox a red, strong, 
hinl uid Itcnvy viqo*\, which in used to ninlce 
peelloa, spokfa for bandy wheels itad other 
|iurpoM« whero mach strengtb in Htnall upaoe 
is required, aud u crushors for ^ugHr, rice aod 
oil milltt, scrvw nillcrs for tugar mills, cotton 
pi-cesea, &c, and the axletreoB of bandies and 
ploughs ; the f>eedi^ jield ati oil which is 
tt86d for bamiQg, auil f^'om the youn^ bmnchtM 
a OOdMdentblo (juuniity of lac is gathered, 
which, in Goujaiu, U in requMt amoag native 
jewvUer^. It ii otiu of the betivievt woods 
koowD in Burmaii, where it n curnmou in the 
phiiiu a» well as on tho hilU, and is there 
uwd for cart wliecls, iho teelh of harrows. 

the postlcA tif oil inillts &c., <&c. A cubic ';>. S4I. 

trce,t!rowe iu tho Amhagamowa di-trirl 
CVjrluu ml an elevation (pf 1 ,000 to 2,000 f^t- 
Eh. Ft. Xryl., i, p. S6. 

OrottnipUe samLt, Xmb. Oar. PL 
Raklialuhulkajhar.Hlifu. I Tnntin, Tl 

Kom obvllu, Tku I T«»ntlke, 

Taulika, „ I Tuft)ik«. 

A i^lriiggltDg shruls or small tre«. wfi 
tcrnate lunvoA. It grows in the peniuiiita 
India and Bengal. Timber very aniail. Ii 
fruit is eaten by the imliveH. Iu root is 
tu diarrhoea by ilie Tiling phy^iciaun. 
small led rii>o berries are eaten, and 
atitriiigeut root i^ employed to vherk 
rhoea.— y otgt. ; M, S. J, R. ; O' Shu ugkt 

foot there wni(;li9 lbs. "0. The trunk of a 
full-grown tree ou good soil attaiod an aver- 
age leut'tb to lhi3 fiiHl branch of 2o feiit, and 
jtB average girlli measured at ti feet from the 
ground IB 12 feet. 0'Shaughne»»y says tho 
oil from Uie 9w<.U in edible. Tho bark is 
iLitrtngcnt and is used rubl>ed up with oil by 
tho natires to cui-c iho iIcIl' — Drs. Itcxb., 
I'oii/t, Wight, Gthsan^'f Brandis ; Thicaitct, 
Captain Macdonold, p. 58 : ytajor Pear- 
son ; Mr. Thumpson ; Cal. Cat. Ex. 1862 ; 
Mr, Hhotie. 

SCIH.OPU. Kii9. Hats. 
SCHLOSSKU, Gkr. Locks. 
SCHMACK, Geb. Sumach. 
SCH.MALZ, Ger. Sraalt. 
SCHMKLZ, Gkr. Kiiame). 

&C*HMIDELIA, a genus of plaiila of the 
order Sapiudnceie ita species kuowu to occur 
iu the E. Indies are : 


tomUj tiC. renin. 

tadw, BvnnL 
■tlloM, n'ljltiCltltUgonK. 

aeiiatiDAln. TAr., fVrltiB. 
•poTCtiat, /tiT*,. .Sflhct. 

small treoof Ualugaran, in Ceylon, on the banks 
of fitruam^t, at nn rlnvaliun of 2,000 to 3,000 
feet.— TAw. En. Pi Zcyl, p. 55. 

A tutuaU tree, a Variety of which grows at 
Ainbnghmowa and Illuidoou districts of 
Ceylon, up to an elevatloti of 3,000 feet, 
nnoLher Vaiioty grows in tho Cootral Pro- 
Tin<:o, at an ehiviition of 2,000 to 5,000 fuet. 
— rAw. En. PI. Zftft., p. 55. 

g, ,,,,■■■■.■. 

bllt I' 

', |^ilom>, •innil ]w;iuU. 
- i ^vhile. It ii u tuitivo 


SCHO, Tkr, Arengtt sacchorifem, 
Gomuti tree- — LabiU. 


Sa bslOQ, BtJRM. I Ta yii kbtau menU, 


SCHOENEX. DcT- Sbnc-. 

SCUOKOLAD, Bl-s. fschkolatc. Gi 

SCHOLASTIKOS, the ThehMii. tr--"-! 
iu ludin, a few ycar^ berure Uiu 
mifutiunm-y Fa lliiin, and was dd'i •< : < 
prisoner for six months in tlit> pfp[H'i >! "i,-.: i* 
ofMahibar. .Somo account uf his jonrovy w 
given by PallaJius. 

SCHOOL, EsG. A term em' 
south-sea wltnlo fisheries furu !>Ij . 

SCHOlilGENAM— ? Tragiu ii.vJi 

SCHORL, or bhick lourni»lin*>, i» 
AliidijrR, in great abundnnct', uIm> in t\%. 
near tlie mouth of Tavoy livcr on 
side, and also at Ifac foot ot' the ca^teru i 
tains, near the bead-wstcrs of tbo 
gyaiue, uorlli-eiuit at Maulmaiu. Iti 
loealitics iu Tciias»eniu, tho crysl 
numerous, and in Tavoy tbfly are lar|%] 
but not BO handsome as seen in 
tipecimens. Green Tourmaline, ri.< 
distinguished by tlie eyo ri*oni beryl. 
tieratr.lid^ quavlz, but tonnnulinu is sc 
by quarts. While juwvls of an 
quality are often ofTered for ^alc in Mai 
under the nameorCeylon diamonds, 
are usually made from green Umi 
VVhilv fouvmnline, is a raro miiifioJ, l>ut 
green variety being common, tlie jvwi-ilcr* I 
L'xp^uiln^ it to heat expel its colour ami 
iMjtroraes wh:(o. — Mamn. 

SClIOrr and Eudlicher, auOiors of 
lotemata bolani^a. 

S 17* 



ADAMBOE, Malkal. 


-- , uro, 

Ki:s. Spelter. 
.... -VLBENS, &it£. Syn. of 
lancum, J^tn. 

Ucv. KXU. Malnili, TU. 

llun>. Mttltaduo «licttu. ,. 

Tau. lltik)in<n.TCL.,o(UicNkiU 

^e CimbcT itee, a natire of the 
f tbc mouDbunouit pa rid of tliu 
Miry oircara, tliG Nidk-malUu range, 
iglial mountains, tbo Tfaoll ghat 
ewnjy, Jowor, Ihe Centra] Pro- 
iJ tbo Hnia mounlainii, w«t of tlio 
lU wooA u uf a grey or ycltowieh 
try clo»o graiu, heavy and durable. 
lb efflployc'il by woArerg for beams 
oaoy otbCT parpoaei« of llteir looms. 
1 not lo bi' linM^ 10 warp or bend : 
n-rrmiTnirndod by Buxtmrgli B# a 
. iu ibe scales of mathc- 
H. i-.— Rojh. Fl.Ind., Vol. 

i CaptatH Beddomt' t J/r. Latham ; 
MaSS, ; Major I'carson. 
B-FEnRKN.GEK. Writinjj pens. 
IIKTKI, KCB. Brusbe*. 
HKTINA, R(Jf. lS^i^Uc•8. 
. Gkr. Sboes. 

CilWAnZl::, GXR. ]lla<;king. 
'AJS, iinuit-J fniro ihe Scbul, 
.•cupiisl ii, us u-e learn froin 

BU VALLI ? Mal. Vitia 

TDA tana ? Mal. Caryotaureoa. 

'LR, SpOU|rr<. 

ri'LFKER, GuL Black 


;f£u Gkr. Sniphar. 

:FEL ANTIMON, Ger. Sul- 


tLEl'SEN. Gn. Pyrites. 

^Lr-SAL'BE, Gke. Sulphuric 

Sulpbiuo of Iron. 
>iilpbure-l of Troii- 
llphiite of Copper. 
While vinnol, Snlphnte of Ziuc 

■-'elsaubes natron, G«r. 


and Z. A trf« ofJapnii. 

S(;IAUA1M'A, It. J«!«p. 

SCIvENA, u ■;kiiu» «if tifbt's : S. sqaila 
(maigrc of the French, and tmihritin of iba 
Rotnaos), &c IK fouud in tiie MeUitcrrBiiesiii. 
S. poma or Boln jwina of Biirliiiiian it>?cmblfii 
the " maigvcV but lina a sliigijlur uaiarory 
blndiler. Wlieu twelve or (tftt'cn inrhiv long, 
it \» enJIcd whiting at Cii!<riittii. und funiiybes 
a tight and £aIuliriou« diet. Jt i* caught ju 
great abuodiiuco at lb*.- mouth'' iif iht! Ganges, 
but never a^ci^nds higher than the tide. 


Allm, Ar., IUxu., Pbb. I Sdtnui, S<ii<mxU, It. 

rfdenco, V*. I SoienoiM. luT. 

Kuut, Kc&Btniae, Cbb. | Cieaci*, Srtv. 

Tbe ecieaces have been uriungeil a^ under : 

Clas8itl<vtory Slucociw, Botaiiv mid j^oobfgy. 

Chcinicol Sciences, Cbetnistry, Mioeralogyf 
Electro Oiemi-Hiiy. 

Scionccs wbivh couaidtT ImkIicb iiccordiiij , 
to the elemeuls of whicb llu'y are rnmp'i^^cd 
nro chemistry which atliilyM'ii ili(<m, and mi> 
oeralogy whicli clansLlici them witb a view to 
their auiily^ii'. 

S(^i<MiL-c^ wliicli attend to tlie 8friio(tirp, the 
eymmctry and the fuH<'ti«nH of living brings 
are Anatomy: ComifAiativc Anniotoy ; Uor- 
pliology ; Biology. 

Palttiiolopy 'm the pasthistoFy of Uic world 
by studying tbe causes of change, amougtsi 
which vre may esiM-i^inlly notii-e Geology or 
Uiu History of ihe malarial EarUi ; aud Kth- 
nogmpby or GtosuoJogy, the History of Lan- 

Falroatology is itio history of creatures 
uow found fossil. 

DeduotioB oblaiuf) coiie«queucu» from prio- 


liiiluclion is the inftrcncc of a true theory 
from pbt-Homeiia by philosopbiail ijiigacity : 
Deduction of consccjuenceB from hypolhoBM 
by direct reaAouing. 

I^giodcfiiice the meibod&ofBtrict reasoning. 

At School, boys sliould learn Arithoiotic 
and MeriBUl-atiOH, i. e., the practical rules of 
finding, from Iho nec^scary data, the ai'cas of 
triangles, pyramids, oyliudois, spheres. 

Malhcmatica uro Jisciptinal itodiw : Ma- 
Ibematics are of two kinds, Analytic and Geo- 
metric. The portions of Matheniaticst tbat 
may most properly be added to Elementary 
Geology are Solid Geometiy (in llth and 
I2lh books of Euclid) Conic Sections ; Me- 
chanics ; HydroatflticB, Optica and Astronomy. 

Geometiy sets out ftom cpriain fixed prin- 
ciples, viz.: Axioms and Definitions. Tbc 
Iflt fiix hooka of Euclid contain the esECntial 
portion of Goomelry, and is n portion of Ma- 
1 175 



Mecbnoii-s is a branch of Malticriintic». 
Mcclianics, Hy(lrosIntic*8,«pi>Hreni Ar^trotiomy, 
mill t)))iic^ ara Uie four hrancfaes of pl)iloM>|>hy. 

Mi'ii^iiintioti u liio Rules for dclermiiiJiig 
(lie mngtiitiKlt^t ill numherii, of Im^N), epaccfl 
niid solids, uuder given oonditioas. 

Algcbni is lliu patculalion of ntimericnl 
qiieclioDB by eymbolB. 

The Algvtira of Curve?, is the calculnUoQ 
of (ho properties of curves hj the Gyinlmls of 
ihclr co^rilinat^e. 

The DilTereatiul Calculus, is the calcula- 
tion of thti propcriiee of carres by the Hym- 
rhoU of tlicir changes of Euch quuitities. 

SCIGI.fs Kr. Rye 

8CILLA, Lat., aUo Cipollo Marina, It. 

SCILLAf a genua of plants of Oie family 

LiliJiceas, of the South of Eui-opp, and North 

lFHi-s, aud two rpciiies S. coromandeliatiR, 

fJtoxfK, nud S. iudica, Rorb., are uatires of 

[iidia, the former ou saud hills on the Coro- 

mdel Codi't, and B. indit-a on the wiuly 
Bhorea of both Coiicaoit. ftfi i-oot m bitter iiud 
aauHMUs like timt of squill. — Voigt. 



Indian muUI. 

N*urrivuri|Kjum, Tah. 
AJavI t«Ua-giulda,TKL 



Kmnulrva. .. 


This plant occurs on iho sea-ahoret) of tho 
Indian Pcnitisulii ; leaves nnmerou^, radical, 
sab-biAirioas, cubiform, uoaily dat., smooth 
on both iti(l«.% six to eighteen inrliefl long. 
Wlieu in blossom, the plant tit enUrelj desti- 
tute of leaves : tho bulbs are round, white, 
tho Hize of an orange ; inodorous, ncflrly 
tailelosft, and devoid of any nK-diijtiMl pro 
per(ie8 bat ponsihly tbiH may have proceeded 
from their having been collected from au uii- 
favoarnblo locality, or at the improper i^eaBOD, 
as few pl»Qi9 »rc so much influenced by 
climate and circuinftAiicea as the ^uitl, lu- 
Mauccfl being known on tho Spnni^i const of 
iiii being quite inert in one locality, while as 
active as usual at the distance of n few miles. 
It Is already extensively uwd in place of tlio 
offiehial yfXtiiW.— O'Shaughnegtytp. 663. 


nqdaea nwrittnus StUk. 
OrnMi»ialan nariti- 

This EoropeoD plant furnishes tho aquill 
QHcd us mcdiciae. It is UKcd as a diuretic but 
thore is every reason to i(up(xi»c tlint the 
Kast Indian fipccics, S. coroiuandcliana and 
S. indicA poMH^is the ^nnie medirinal qunliLies. 

SCIXClD^i; the Skiaks, a family of wp- 
tito of the order 8auria or Itsards and sub- 
chuK UepttUo i the faoiUy nay be tlius chown : 

^rQ|<UoiiltfiruaiMDrul0[>w,t7fAr. CbuUl-oum. 
-•'';- rhhiflrfi. 0>«- -• Codua-cIiuM<- 


a nidlk. (a) B. U. 
UkiL AaaB. 

Aiipiia bnrdmr'rri, Rlf, 
Ku|in-|>c«i:liin«*riiiLi, liray. 
,1 rurMCcDs, £«Mi«. 

t, mantiooln, Otkr. 

„ oUvMH!!!*, <7ray. 

„ nuculiiriiM, £/jMA. 

„ tnh'nnUifl, f?TW)f. 
lktatiotttac)iiJulTilirii!!ttt, iHtf. 

„ duuviuii, Vrujr. 

„ ro&Qubtta, Blyth, 
RumwM biliiMutuf, Or. 

„ bimaUyADua, Otkr. 

„ Kblegclii, Otlr, 

H modratuA, GOtr. 

„ rtiuvcaii, Omy. 

,, Lulacccosis, f/f^r. 

„ [onno«us. Blyth. 

Eumecot indieiia, Graf/. 


From ASsJiaa 


U ftUyiui IV&iaaakk^ 






MlraiK>r«v Wa 


Uiprobuwiwi*, itlaart, ... Cojrlun. 
cluUdda*, Ir. ... Praang, SI&Bt, 

„ msoenati, OMr. ... Biani. 

„ Uiwriagii, Gtkr, .. HaagkoK 

„ AlU'puiu-uttu, <7rny. ... N«Uut*. Sucfsl 

K lunlvrivLu, Ofay, ... rctunmU of ln&, 

^ puiietntnH, K. ... Peiiiiuida >4 lufthi 

„ i«>'di(TtjrItiB, (Mlkr. ... OamlnJM. 

Ilagiiii vustuarrii, Grtiy. .,, pimgHti 

Cknoicla Ifnutto, (iraif, 
„ angu{«m«Ianoitict», Jfnr. CorvmaodtL 

Ber Adds, Eurylcpis. 

Potboa officinidia, Jlcaft. I Gaj pvopul, 
Grows in Cidicnt, Bengal, BonDah, 

China. It is cultivated lor its fruit, which h 

cut into traniivcrM pieces and dried, and ii 

used racdiriiially. — Voigt. 

SCINDAHSUS, a gpnos of plnnU of 1l« 

family Araceie, section Ctdleae. 

fi^atciu, SekoU., PtmHog and Slnfspcwft. 
ilecuniTiu, ScJuAL, Sylbet. 

oaiuliuu- r Fcaaiig. 

gUneui, UdtoU., Pu«>, K«|)al« Khaaiffa. 
poopla, Smiil,, SyiheL 
pcmivi, SehotL, Conmikadel, BmA Cod» 
pinDklut. ScAott., HalATaoa. 

SCINDAPSi:S,5cA««. Agmiuor 
of the order Aracciu, sect. (^lle», SuIworL 
tallinn. The following ore Eut I 
spocies : 

Caud&tUH— t PoDBOg. 

■ deoumvuB, HcAjM, Sylbrt. 
fflguHeoM, ScImU, P«naii^ 
^soeiu, SdMt, Khaaijra, Paras. N< 
ondnalia. SduUt kU Britlih India, 
pecpU, EnJt, Syuwl. 
pcrtuaus, ScMt, Contnandol, SoDth 
pinQ:iti6duB, Ragb. 
vLnnatu", Sckott, Mal»yftn«. 


Potboa uffidnUU, Kogb. 
Ofldnal ■dndkpaaa, Kxa. I AU UjiUJl 
QsJ pipal, Kxna., Btso. (hij% fintJUt 
Ounati|Hli, MAJ.KAU | 

Thi.i percnolal plant ^tows at 
in Bengal, (Jio Konghir mounliunit, 
Mautmutn, Cochln-CbiDo, iis dricil fniit 
UKed in (he»c countries oicdiuiiinllv, and it i 

8 176 


IttTiKn! for ihin purpnw ni Mltlimiiore. — 

i^ I'aijftf i^taiou. It'. Jc. 


I lloUtU in»nTati>, DUutJU. 
i^wJDt- OD Lim Cora- 
ri ilio We'-torn coftsl 
.-UP. Thf |H-ri«arp is 
Liixd ntaliiL-s." — liozb^ Voigt. 
couutry on tlie lower part of 
lit* riVfT. See Siiiil'li. 
tNDTAII, ibc iTguI tiili) usually |{ivt!o 
ibe MaLi&tta aovei'tiif^ wlioic eapi:nl is 
raljor. aixt who hu iliu Irllu orMuliniiiJEili. 
idiaii was dofcatcd by Genpi-al Gofldnrd 
itlie ii\h Apiil I78<). Tlie territorica over 
thr nifiharajali Sciiiiiinli rulcH form 
.of trbat the Briti^ t^rm CcdU'sI ludia. 
oxicat is 8..1IH ^qual'e mite?, with a 
of STo.WO and on aiinDft! revenue 
1,000. See Ceuii'.-il luJia, Owallor. 
tNDl.MI, tlic raling litlu of a hiodoo 
<ifhc>£« ca[iiial is Gwatior. A war 
Jadeil wilh .Sciiidiah on Uie 30lh 
1603. The Contingent of Scindiah, 
rlDOO cavalry, was anan$red for by the 
IvofGwalinr ol Novt-mhor 1SI7. 

OMnf tlii^ Cyperacctit gronre lu IlcDgal. 

Ivribftr, BebC. 
A pkt' ..!. 

6ClRi'' nu» of ptiiDta bclougiug to 

lonUr Cy[>oia(^K. 

fiaBPrS CAr.Sl7LA.BiS. 

Th«> Kdpe i> grown in Kiang-nan and 
li, 10 ClitiiB, fur making niau and Iani|>- 
fttr the latter pitrpObO, tho couBunip- 
enormous, tho ChioeBe wnich the 
'tlieflowtr like anuff of lamps and 
]d draw oroioouA coDctuHionii from 
• ipppBraoco. Tho tttalkri aro Rleamcd ami 
fT:ti'lfl peeled off, lenviiig the ceutnd 
whiiili is used as a tent in surgery, 
■u a plUau or menstruum for other 
; \i» Mi\\f9 are given (o children to 
It tiutn crying at nIehL 
SCniPfS Di:UIL'S,'i?orJ. lis root ie 
IumI W (ho Tilioa people for food. 


lidts B'yh. A plant of Hciigal. 
KIKPLS KYSOOR, Soxb. Keebnr, 
KQ. A plant of Uvn^l. 


\l^ Cnix. , \Vftt«:r ch«inat, Gko. 

IMdge baa an edible rout, osed aa food 

[NEjE, fl. Br. An order of eu- 

plaut«, U> fvbich EUcb aud Liadley 


apply Ihe nnmo /.iiigilvcraceie. It comprises 
tho Kabt ludian giKUcia, 

ZlnKflicr, lfleltlui>^ rbaaiDeria, 

CiirrtOinA, Hnljcbinia, COKtui, 

K«'mi>fcra. OaitiocUiliu, KcaoDot, 

Anioinunii Ko4tolo|)ibQi, 

The order formerly embraced the Maran- 
taci'B!, with 1 anther- ralvp, and tlie Zin- 
piboraccB: with 2 anther- ml ves. The separa- 
tioii of these orders is uow f;eiierally recog- 
n^-'cd. Hciliunines arc abundunt on th« 
Klia^sia hills and extremely beautiful ; Dr. 
IldokiT collected ihiny-sevcnkiDdB. The hal 
of the Ivepchn in Sikkira is made of lenvea of 
ODO of the Scilaminea), placed betwocu two 
thin pIat(!Sof bamboo work. 

SC1UR1T)j3C, a family of mammals of 
which pcveral genera and niftuy Hp«ciei« occur 
in tlie flast ImlieK. Tho Sciuridie. tieluug to 
theorder H od en tia— Molar teeth simple, witli 
tutwrculous crowns ; Btg uLutc, four below, 
on each Bide ; Ibe lower incisors very 
much compressed. Toea long, armed M*ith 
Hitarp claws, four on the anterior and live 
on the posterior fe«t : thumb very abort. 
Tail long and tufted. Cheek-pouchca in some. 
In others tho ekiu of the sides extended 
between tho anterior and posterity' limba. 
The geogmpbic range of the seiurida! is very ' 
wide both in the Old and ^ew World. UTicy 
have been divided by some autliora iulo two 
principal group*) : — 

A. — Squirrels with free Hmbft, tiz., Tamiiu, 
Sciurns, Maeroius and Auisonyx. 

B.— Squirtelif with their LJoiba invested in 
the eikin of the sidcfi, viz., Pleromys and 

Tamiae or Ground Squirrels a:-e found in 
Europe, Asia, and North America. TamiaB 
[mlmarum is the Mustela africana of Clu- 
HiuF, SeiiiruK pntmamm of LinuKus, and 
Le palraisto of BufTou. The genua SciunisJ 
or True Squirrels have a slight depressioB 
of the frontal boocs, and a veiy idigbt posterior 
projection of the same ; profile of the faco^ 
very nejiily plraighf ; cranial cavity as lonj^ 
as two-thiniB of the face. Xo rheek-pouche«J 
Tail dislicltoua. The East Indian genera ant' 
species arc as nmler i— 

Fow.— SciCRio*, or Squirrels. 

SciuruH malabaricus, Schiittz. 
S. musimos, Bi'.'/fA., /fortf. | Jftogli sUhn. Htva. 

Malabar Squirrel of Malabar, Wynaad, 
Neilgherriec, Travancorc. 

Sciurus maJiimua, Schr., Ell,, Btjf. 

KatHerral. Bsso. | Kiimt, Ht 

]l»u, lUtuphar. ., Komleog, KoL. 

I'«[-«4nii, 0(WD. \ Bet-udkM, IfeL, 

Red Squirrel of Central laditu 
S 177 



SduTus clpliiaitouci, Stfket. 

Kc*-»DnilR. C,\n. I tthukrov 

U«J H4ulmil(i( BoinlMiy. | 

Wij^kun GbuC8, Muliibar, Molmboloiilivrur. 

S«iiinis miwniniidi.w, Hottya. 
S. Uwilar. VAT. In^iem, \ %. nmnUina JtcLtllamd. 
Banf., BigtL \ 

BhltiKiliBtii, runt. I L«-hj«k, Z>II>. 

lUuk Tlill d<iulrtrl. Exo. | 

S. £. Xiimititi^'a, Nepal, SikkiiD, Assam, 

SciuruB DiacnniniJS Far»t, Bijffh, Hon/., 

A. ccylniuTitia, SotUt. | Orinlod Hill SfjuEml. Km. 
Ccjriau S, India. 

SciuniB (.-phippiura. Mutter, Donwo. 
Scionislokn::' V ^;, mvtA. 

S. Mill . McUlland. 

Kl'-n.r> I KOli, l.KT. 

(1 gray I Killi-tIoi;<|An, „ 

K:«a, I LoJiri«, ' Net. 

b. K. lltQiatftyfl, Neptii, tsikklru, llboldU. 

Bciurufl lokrtoiJtis //W//., Jtlijth. 

^H. K. Ilinuilaj-o, Npiinul, Silckim, Uliotau. 
8duroB AsumoDffii* Mchell,, S^lliet, 
Scioros ferragiDOQ.s F- Cuv., N. h. Iiwlia. 
Sciurna crythi<r-up, PuUnt, N. E. ludia. 
Sciiiruu tryllmii^iiali'r, litt/t/i, N. E. India. 
■ 8«iuniB hyiHLTtliius Hlvifi, N. E. India. 
■ Bciarus ckry'^ouotuei, BlylKfUi. K. Inilin. 
■ Bciurus liv(»cryUirii«, h. (iroj)'. N. K. India. 
Hh'ciurua phuji-ei, Jilytii, N. K. Iiulia. 
VScitiniti iilntit'onii, Ititfth^ S. V., Iiitlin, 
*Sciurn8ntro«lw-«nli», iimy. X. K. ludia. 
Bciurus |;ialii)iirum, Gm., Bt^ EH, 
H. iM'tticilUtiia. Lntrh. 
B* - - 




Peninsula of India. 

SciaruB tristrintu?, Wattrhauim, 
fi. ti&UiiBrum, W'l B 
8. brarliH, Laford. 

Suiped JiiokIo 


8. kclurti, layard. 
squirrel of Ctiylou and 

f onio'iuln of luilia. 

Bciunu laj-arili, Uli/ifi, Travanoorc Strip- 
ed Sqaii-ral ofCeylou. Tiiivaiicoro. 

Sduruii suliliiivati; . Blyth. 

8. J>l— Brti, (/<r(>uV I ■ ■tni>cd M|uirr«1. 

CejIoD, foreab of S. India, IVava&cons 

Sciurut iKsignia, Horaf, Java. 

Sciuru* McOlclIitudi, llort/., Bl$fih. Hod, 
& diikhtirs, ii'jrlA [ S, pnmtxirtoni. B/y«JL 

SimU HiRoUyfl witdrteJ. I KoUi K&nrlin. txr. 

H. E. ludta, Uimalaya, t>ikkiin» Uholas, 


Snunu bartwi, fi'jrfA, Tcnaftterloi, 
Sdonu plaolaiii, JUorgf,, Java. 

178 ! 


Soluroft beidmoroi, /J/y., Mcrgal, 
Sciurua curopi£u»>, LinN. 

Centra) Aein, Kuropc>. 
Plerocnyfi |ictaui-if)ia, Pnlla*, Bi^ 

r. jiiiiHi'iictuii, mi. 1 r. mi* 

ltru«riiil}iiig*f|uitn<1.Rl«<i. I 1'Kni.chjllMi, 
I'akvA, Miihr. uf ClFUT. | Orai iif KoL 

toi-oali! or Cojluii, |wtii)i&ula \A 
Central India. 

Pierom78iDDn]iitai,/i. Geof.,Ja 

V. 4lt.iv«nitrr, t'my. 

N. W. Himaluyn iit 6,000 lo I0,( 
PteroQiys magnlRcus, lltfltf,, Bly. 

r. cIli /AKJp^ I Kciitri>('i«nit ■<{ 

bed! .• tqulr. I lti;uiii. 

S- 1- 1 .tlnya», ^t![tal (o Bbot 

sya Hills A^cnm HilU. 

Ptvromys citiprasccns, W^th, But 
I'tcroinjrB uitilIu^ Ctoff., Mabiy puuii 
PleromyB elegaa^ 1>. Mulhr, .' 
Pteifimyfi |diilippeu^ie>, <»V«_y, i 
bciuropu-niacanicepB, F Cur^dra^, i 
ft, fti'Dci, Ittfdy, 

Nvpnl, Stkkitn. 

SeiuroplpRiR fimbriulus, '■ '" 'A. 
V. Iracliii, <iri>i'. | Omy ■ iH 

N. W. Iliiiialuyn, Sinilu lu K . 
Kcitiropttnis Uilx-n, ISli/th. Ai- 
&ciarop[«rui* nll>'>ui}j:pr, ffod., iil^iA. 

S. tuiubuUi. dray. 
ri«ln ; Piyu, Ujitrr. I Klilin. 

BInck and wbiw flying tquirrtl of 
to BLotan. 

SciuToptcms tUIcmuiis Blj/tA. 

S. M^itfft, Wallrr. | Hiurj-footod R^Dfl 

BlioUiu, Sikkim, A&dam at 3,(K>0 
Sciui-opleruB fusco-mptlliH, Jtrd^^ 

Biii»]l IViiVDiicori) flying ■qntnoL ^M 
Tra van core. ^M 

Sriurnpti-iiiit layiirdi, A>f , Biyih, Cq 
SciuRiptciua s|>udi(X'u», Bttfth. Anrai 
SciuropCei-us pbuyn-i, Blj/tA, I 


Sciui'upUtriu Mgilta, Linn, Afalsyw 
Soiutiiptvru.1 bonlivldii, If'atetk, 


Suiuruptcruti Kcnilwrliis, ff "' 'TnUj 
Sub-Fam. ArrtoinydiDii . : -, 

Oen. Arctomya bobac, Ac/i.. ii'/.v-. f 
A. ciiidAltM, /flc^., 

A. UbcUnuD, liody. 
A. liinuUayiuiii^ i/acCji. 
BUbl, Baor. 

Lria, KABtm. 

Cliu, Lap. 

Tib«t Marmot, Wht'to marmot 
ntpp, CViiirnI A<ia, Snriwj Uioula' 
mire u* Sikkim nt 12 to 16,000 

Arctumys bcmacbalaiiiis Jlody. 

A. liboUuiu, ff'wtg. 
Boot. I fttmmiaaB, 

Pol mixntioiVt 






N, W. HimnlujmsBtHto 10,00(1 nloveii upppr lip ; small blunt cniu ; two 

! wins at Uie utmost corner of each eye, with 
Uie (WintAl booes very mncb i hairs growiug out of them ; neck sliort. 
bpntwbut litllecloDgnted ; a • Lougtb, from Doae to Iml, 18 inches ; tail» 
between the cranium nnJ the la inches, (Pennant.) It iohabita Java and 
'inti. No oheek-pourheH. Ttit | utlit-rs of the ladian ielands. It leaps from 
^e« of Sumatni, India^ Africa, | tree to tree as if it flow ; aud will cai^h hold 
riua. I uf ihu boughs with its (ail. It ililF(.-n< iii h'izq. 

. tlie posterior part of the oasal Nluuhotfih-euribea it under the oamo of tbo 
a I1III5 coDvi^K ( tho iVonlal bones , fl)'iiit;-csi, and saye the back is black. Ur. 

iy ilrpTvwspil in Ibf^ir middlu uiul rising 

iltr nf' ■ ■ : the pirfterior porta of 

id il I H«ti!il)ly to curve diiwu- 

i>Ue of the pbrietAl ^ones ; 

«•• . .il, only holf Uio leopih of 

'Itie tpecira sro iialiTCS uf Abia, 

itsi'tn': ibe Iliillppioe Ieland« and Javu. 

I Uf, tho B|)eQie» difTer from Pto- 

ij- -: ;; the anterior |«rt of ihe profile 

of the licji'i atrnl^bt tu the middle of the 
l>naL*s where it Utkos a ciirviid direr- 
much archwJ, without any inter- 
d^prei^iou. Occiput projcvtiug ; 
Umra elongated ; and the cnpffcity of 
ibiota comprixio^ thtee-fiftbs of the 
I of lite brad. The sfH^cicg are fouud 
I Asia and North Araeiica. 
L&iaropCiit UK idboiiiifcr, Ilodyton^ J, A. S; 
8c. TumhnlU, (irmj. l>. Z. S. 1 S37, 
I.JI. U„«. 1. J. OS. Iiilmhita K«pal, 
Loutaii, and cumtnim iit Uarjuotin^. 
arotilt-ms hnttori, filt/th. A spcciot 
d to Sciuropli-i'Uft nmbrintus, 
!i larger was liguiwl by fSir 
• ilio Moo*h-i- bolder of the 
''-'" of Nyrnw, nnd identitie^l 
■i;-fox of llie trADftlation of 
< .w:i:''\i~ (p. 1-16.) A length of 2 
a«-i[;m-i) to it, whL'i-eai> it h dotibtoil 
exfuniuaLiuit uf .■e;'tTal siwcimeu-*) if 
iliriatus would over exceed 19 iui:ht« 
MS. The colour of the upper parl« 
il«l n'= pale fulvi'stmil iitliy lnuwn, 
-. tflil hn-od ui)il iMinhy, and 
Wii I -!i iimli'i' piiil>', d>dl white 

;iniiu!^ iiinrj^iii Uy ihe niemtifauc 
If verili<.-d it might luuk m iSc. 

"- '■■ h-"'^p-», jec Seiuriifl. 

Rr Mt, {Jrny, M. N. FI. 

. ->i, iKiia Hindu. luhabits tlie 

kyn. The colour of tliu upper 

•ocics resembles that of an Eng- 

T U 

optvius Inyardii, Kchart, has a 


■rns SBRitIa, Linn. 

.iinu* Vi I Km, 

\a~Vm.-, I.- . , jjti. 

fqalnd luu a anall zoaodoL head ; 


HfirHticId, ill his * 2oulo<;ical Researches in 
Javn,' descrihes two flyiug-gqoiiTels (Plcro- 
mys geoiborhin nod I*. Icpidut*), both iioctur- 
nut in their luibit.s, nearly npprr)ncliing to St 
sa^itin. lie deiseribes the 6rt^t as living on 
fruits ; tlio second na found in tlio closest 
Javanese forosls, where the height of Iho 
trees aud the luxuriance of the foliage effectu- 
ully conceal iL Ho enuniiTates 16 species of 
Sciuri, 4 of which were first described by 
liimKelf. These do not iocludo the flyiug< 
Sftiuropt<?nis tumbnlh", see Seiurus. 
Sciuropteriis villo^us, BtylK n. ». referred 
to Sc. eagitta in Mr. Walker's Catalogue of 
Assameso mainuialia. 

Sciurus, the wiuirrcl, of which BCveral 
5pocie» iiiLul>it India Proper, Ceylon, Aflsam, 
and tho whole cawU-ni coast of the Bay of 
HeoKal down to the Stmtts of MalacciL {J. A, 
/,., XV i, ^<fJS, c^ sev) There are no Sciuri 
iDOve ditiicult to undertnnd flinn the group 
i?xemplifii-d hy Sc. modestus, Miiller. Sc. 
lokrinh and Sc lokroido", Hodtjt. Sc. prisen- 
jwctuB, Blyth^ (xvi, 873), and of which Sc. 
chiyHouotuis is ouo of the species best distin- 
guished from the resL Three specioieus from 
Duijeeling difler from all other example.-! of 
Sc. lokr«iid(w previou;<ly seen by Mr. BIytb, 
from th»t aud other Incalitiefs "u having tlio 
thighs cxtclually of a bright ft'rraginous 
colour : in other mspi'cts Llieyaro quite similar 
to ordinary iudividuaU of the species. Five 
spenirR inhabit L'eylon. 

Siiurus Blrodorsnli*, Cray. Mr. Blyth 
h& no doubt now tliiit this Tenawwrim species 
was righrly idcinlifii-'d, and that Mr. Clray's 
habitat of Bootan in en-otifous. A iliird 
:>pecimcn is inlermediati' in its colouring lo 
tho two formerly dewrribed, having the umlar 
parts muuli lighter ferruginous than in tlio 
one, and coiutidL-nibly darker tlmn in the other. 
Sciurus l>aibci, Biyth. A small Htriped 
squirrel of Bormnh, common in -Mcrgui. 

Sciurus tiordmorei, Hlyih, A small striped 
squirrel of Bunnnh and TeuasKcrinj. 
nearly one-half larger than Sc. palmaram : 
the prevalent colour grizzled black and 
golden fulvous with an obscure jmiIc ccn- 
iral dorsal streak, flunVe<l by a blackish l-nudt 
this ugain by a conapiououa ycllowisli-whito 

8 17» 


90waim MAXiMva 

lino rrora Iho thoultlt^r Ui tlie croup ; then 

blflckish ngniii, with a eecoud Inli-iiit wliituU 

tmtiil ; trolow ii^uiri iluFiky ; ami (hi* uuikr- 

jHirls ycllowisli-wliiic, pnHiiig In rvrnigiiioiis i 

towards tlic vi'ut ntii) uiitlertx-iiili lliu ulK I 

Head tinijcii Avith lunugiiiout* : uiiO I'loin 

whul I'cmuiuu of tlie biL»i- of tliu luil in the squirrel of the Miilayaii Potiiufulii. 

Fperlinrii, Uiis would wi'in lu rvAfiuble iu Sciurue laynrdi, Itl'///i, n. s. Sit 

coUturUi^ ihiit of Sc. liiyni-di. LcDgth of S. utriitiim nnd K. bvodici, hut Ui« 

Suiurus ctiiT'Miuotus, Blt/th^ 


SciuniArphipfitum, Mutter, Sc JM 
Sctirelcr, vnr., Troni Itonitia. 

Sviuruft griMjopi-ctMs, necSciuni*. 

Sciuvuf in»it;ni'i, Il'>rf, A ^mall 

hmd-ro>ti fniui beel tu tip of clawn 1| incli. 
KodetKiul tti-Af^i deep uniugc-lirowii. Tlib 

vtfty Uiucli dai'kcr, ue«i-ly ma iu Sc. tr 
(vel. Delrawrtj,) but iticliniu); moro lo 
rhau to fulvous except ou the liMid nod 
luwer pNi't« ftrruitinous, pnlcr ou tlus 
middle of Iho bnck ni^rcsvl'Ut with a 
uo:itra«liii(C nnn'ow bright light fuWoiu 
ill (lie iiiidiJIt', rcacliiiig from bet 
pliouKlera lo ricsr tlic tnllt and an oi 


epccics iidmbilH the riioiiug]ret.-n district. 

SciuniR bicolor, Sparrman, Btj/tA. So. 
Teuncuii. La>/arii. (J. A. S., xvi, 870) 
Mr. BIfth mentions »ix «|KH;ie8 ftom 
the Tenn?!icriin pmviacc.", common ; but 
the pale Malayan Tsricty docs not appc-itr 
to havo trccn hitherto ub^jrved, though lliu | slrjpu un ^itliur iiidp, barely tvnchiitp 
|«Ic Mtiliiynn vHtiety of Hyloltatcn hir in Ihcro j i-roup. Tuil reiTUgiiioiw dlong iis «'u 
coismou. I!t5«niblcs iu sizo and culotiring butra bruudtj inaixiual with black and 
the cciinmoii lat^t- n[M'rie» uf Lh? whole i.'iist«!i'ii with wliitiT'li, bt-«idca wlurh la ano' 
const of llto Jluy of IVngid, tixa')>t that tlic ' narrow blnclc baud on each hair t 
caudal haira arc always largely lipped with ItnRi-, i-bicAy mmju as tliu tail is view 
white, save at tlie baav and ibe cxirmnc tip 
of the tail, thpreis no black niou9lai;hiul mark 
Dor black border benmlli the eyCt but a Inrgo 
triaogulnr patch of black behind it and reacb- 
iuK upwordi) to the car, sIbo a runty sput at 
tho bate of the car po^leriorly, and (lit) auricii) 
ii wclM'ringfd with hair, though lesh copious 
ly than in Sc. purjiurvuH, — Hnully tUvm is 
uiuch rnorct fukout whitti tipob tho iiinbf, 
leavinit ouly tho toc8 of the font and bind 
liniba liUuJi, In the coraiiioa &e. bifclor, Uic 
IKjalerior limbs arc wholly blm-k cxierually, 
and tlic aulerior ant wbnlly black bcliiiid, sud 
more or lc%4 externally. lu thu Cojlon 
■quirrcl boilt fofti mill hind liinba ati* fulvous- 
white all round for tho lower half, the oxtrts 
mitin or toes atone bl.M-k. Thl^ ruca baa 
accordingly quit4.> uh guod a claim t^) bo die- 
ttnguiHhoil hy a »eparntc uam(> ns either of 
tho otI)«r large raccti of S. E. Asia i and 
it IB iutCTiMtiii}; to know tjiat it co'extats iu 
UoyloD with Sc. mm-rourufi, though iu u 
diflcrvut region, thn two n«vpr infringing on 
each olhcr'K ti.Tritory. It bIm attAin>i a much 
larger lizc than Sc nuicnmruA, being that of 
So. purpura UB pod Sc. bicoloi : and it is 
wholly roiiimcti in its range to iha Kacdian 
country and Ihu inoro elevated diBtricls guue- 
rally »f Uic ii-lund. 

Sciunift brodioi, BtytJk. Di-liutniiKhed by 
il!t having a vtry long pencil tuft Vi^ iu< 
ehea) at ilk« cxin:inl^ of tite tail, (|uitc 
diOercnt from wbiit i» ever neon in He. 
triBtriaius : beneath iho tail, to near iti» ti{>, 
ferruginouii. Acconliu^ loMr. Layard, ** thi« 

ppecifj. in cnoGncd tn thf t*Dlmyra-lrc0 district, j sooietiRiv-i d««pvuing int<) block, tan 
from rntlam to Jaffna. IJow much ftirlbcr covciW with long tufted haJrv, aod bnuh 
rotuil the cout is not knowii." ' from the luuj^r pari, of each ear it 

180 S ISO 


nbova ; tip blnck, fonntng a (K!nril-lutl3 
long. This hnndsumc spc«-ie« i* bel 
be peculiar to tlic upland diFlricta of 

Scitiruft lokriiih, see tJciunis. 

Sciurus lokroidt'e, eco Sciurus. 

Sciui'us macrourtiidcs, Hodgt. A 
Bquirrcl, abounda throughout the 
countries niid Mulnyan [xfuinaula, M)d 
ward to tJic All^aIn Hills ttii<l thiMO of.' 
and^^upal. It luu a pole Taricty iu th 
yan pcitiusula. 

.Sciurus raacrouru8,/'or«/cr, 'llic- 
Urgo squirivl of tlu> western diftii 
also met with in Travniicon^un<i 
buuriiig di»tri(;l» of contliieuul India 
extremely tame, cbietly perlmps 
fur ila itiugularly loud and hanh voiof, 
deed, the voice would RiH-m t^i be an 
criterion of ipeciffcal dlitlinciiou un< 
Soiurida. This unimul Larrie* ita 
inme pttculiar luimuer, curled round on 
f^ide, rut ut observable in Sc. purpurtnu 
Kc. bicolor, nnd duubtlven all uthrra of 
Minic group. 

SciuruB 'raaximup, the Malabar 
IJppiT parts and extcnud wirfnco 
limba bright clio<;olatc-browii, which 
tenuiuuleu abruptly, auJ is joiut-d 
|mlQ yclU>«i>b-bivwu on tlie under 
(are-armH, and mt«ruul surface of the 
Front of the forp-lcgs, neck, throat, 
bead between titc cars lighter in 
broail dorkcr patch na the mt of 
part of the head oxteodn from tho I 
Uie middle of tho noM). Hack and a 






BCLESOrnJU stipitatttii. 


■pp-bruwu pasM3<i auwtiwarJ'^ nn<] : oPplnoK wUh 1 flp. of Sclenrntlmn, of do im- 
m nu (ililiqiic itirt-^Miiin. Wlii^kora poriuui-o. 
"■ J l.lauk. Ckwit incui vwi Hud SCLERIA UTHOSPEUMA, fKttid. 

of U« witw-iar Uii.mb. biwd, a uiali. iWi, | Sciipo. Whwrponou^ Lim^. 

•od fl-iwr.«i. Iftil .l,*t,cbou8, the A .wipe r,f CoyloD, the peoiusula of India 

apMudiu^ widely towards the fxlivioity, i ^yj Bcneal 

cltoeolatc-hrown at iliu bus?, black in 

' " - -.nd cliefiiut ill tho exlieuio lliii-d o » -a n • 

A sed^o or Ci7loij, pouiDHulaoriiidiii, Bea- 
f!,»l Kud Nc|>al. 

SCl.KKIKJE, iW#. A MotiMi of tint 
CypciACfO! or »«*dgfs, two Bpccius of Scleria 
uuiuir iu'Hriti.'^li India, Mie n very loiig sedge, 
grtiw^ by llio wnlcr in the river Soonnab 
ucar Syllittaad is oM'd for itml'-biiig : boat- 
\sy»<h of il lire i-oUcclcd for lh« Cnlcutlo niitr- 
fcct, ilfo inmieni-e raftit of bamboo 100 foot 
loHg. — fiiiokir'* //im.Jiiur., I'at, \\, p. 327. 


rrdiunlv. Fuu;-!. 

ph.v,«i. Jtlyff,, A Burmon SCLERnSTVLIS ATALANTIOIDES, 

LimouiAblloroUris/'A^ I Amwi-nita, Tei. 

This atutttl tr«e or «hrub oau of ibe Citra- 
tico) i« fouud iu Hut Circuit. Ita woiid is 
yellow, and is always verj einall, but is 
very LunI mid migbt be uwd as a BubKLilulo 
for l>QX. — Roxb., Vuigt, Cnptain Btiidom<: 


ii aliaul 33 inches, of wliirh the 
!-a-'i:rc* miher more Uiaa oue-lialf. Il 
ttatiT* of (lit* MaiiUiar eo«at. Sumiemt 
ra to iuTc bc>-ti t1ic l)i<iL xiH>I(it>ii>t who 
'•d ihii ridily colijured Hjitn iL'!-, the 
t of Uu) truo HjuirreU. It bautit^ 
f palm fires, and is Biated to by very 
y Juice of the cuoon-niil, no 
i>l piu-tof llii' niUv In ca|>- 
, it ih taaiu nud fiunilini ; but il tik-a 
till upon muni eulH^tAPcca that ronie 
I ib power and sboold be guordt^d 
pliiy i-Ei, Blfflh. A B uroiase 

mw pyffcryLhnis (?) U, Gtoffroy^ 
TVnftwwiin. A Burracfta squirrul : a 
mi nrieiy of Sc. lokioidus. 
■mi oAeuiT Vig. and Sot*. Sc. 
A Dttmareit, i» a htrgtr N^uirrel 
f& lilpfiiini». It itiliflbit^ lliu Malayan 
Mia. It '\f* black nhorc, dc^cp ruf'o-fer- 

ma btduw and ou the feet : a very broad j Sclenwtyli* anottiaoa, Wtj/ht It. 

lateral band fnuii iiiiiiitb to hiiunc) 
Itn^oTer the oui^iOe of the tlii^h, and 
nr less greyiab fi-om fhoek to shoulder : 
ft MMDewbat duller black than th« back, 
linJe rnfeMeut at tip. 
ns rediinitus, Vander Boon. Sc. 

lUrt- /: -! 'qoirrel of Borneo. 

*L Gra^, jHobably a 

t I'l -"-, rruiiTiiiini. 

rm iristnatiis, WaterlwHae. This would 
Mp bo the rot"! cuinnion sjiecii's of PaU 
^BTcI in Ccyluii ; and lUeix^ is no 
^■MfeWcuu Niu^buli'ti« t<pL><;iin(-iiH and 
Hf^^urfKJ in tlic vicinity of .Mittna- 
6f tlie former i» nnuuikabSv foi- 
ls strou^femiuiuou- tinge on ihc upper 
rdwhead. Mr. Layurd mentioue thut 
MBba i i to ltB be got a new Suiurus like 
niantra, only the hrnd is much redder, 
Dttr nflbe back and belly mote blended, 
le aoiioal nllogelhur smaller. This 
y rq>lac«« alt Uic small ::>ciuri in tliat 
f tho country ; tht^y aro first seen at 
He, and ho suppoocd extend i-ouud to 
••Ilee." — Bljfdt,Journ. Brni/. At. Soe., 
«Ti, pp. 871, H73, S7I, 1001. 1272; 
34 J [ C<U. Joura. jVo/. Iliat., Vol. 

AVONIC. fpe Sanskrit. 
JilILl5TUACE.a; LindL Au order 

IUmkxi ccyUnic*, yl rn. PiS-,p- ". (S2<,) e. p. 11 J6. 
Vncca-nftora-siiM, .^is<;h. 

A plant of the warmer parts of CVylon, not 
nui-oninion. — 'f'hte. En. I'l. Xe^l., p. 4B. 

TAw. A I'mall and not common tree, grow- 
ing in Cnylon, at an elevation of 4,(KX) feet 
and upwards.— 7'Atr. En. PI. Zrt/l., p. 46. 

el Curr. 

Pntlu Kilt or Pulta Manga, Tam., from 
pntln, a wbite-unt hill, and manga, a mango ; 
and Kui, truita. Mail Maoj^a, Tau., from mail, 
Jiy, like ^liekif, IcMves, &c., and ninngu, a 
mango, neither the siibslnnc*, nor its name i* 
fiimiliur to the mitives of tho Cniuatle, to 
be arcnuiilcd for by the great dryness of 
the climate and ihc absence of the moU- 
tnre luid hf-at bo uectwwiry for fungoid 
gTowili»- On the western coast, where it 
rniiitf for al leusl six monllis in tlie year, it ia 
occanionally to be met witli iu dark creviees* 
and in tlic recesses of rocks and caves, als* 
iu old and dc^eftod aut-hilln, and rre<|uonlljr 
after tho insei'Li have be<"ome winged : ihcjr 
am found only iu the peripheral mid more 
eapcrlicial cnvernii, springing from their roof, 
oei:asio)iatly from the floor, neror from the 
cells occu|iicd by the auts. Some grow with 
loug stnlki*, otbors are Mssile ; in lliosc haviti 






ntalk-s they call iu a few be tracnl beuoaib 
Uie «oit, wlitle the ses-ino ones neeni niiiiply 
to lie oTer llie tmil. It attains it« greutealT 
perfecUitD during, or iui medial cly nflrr, llie 
niDt. Thtif uke on a rariel/ of Ibnuti, b«ing 
oral, otilim^, pyrirurtn, trrvgularly t-uuinl, ^. 
The vxlvrnnl rind is blnnk and sljffhtly 
wi'iiiklpJ ; on cutting toto ii, ih& inUTior is 
IVviiiul to bo while ami pilliy, and in uoiniHilTtl 
by the natives to the kernel of a tender cocoa- 
ouL It \» Uii'leleB8 atid jnodorous. Tlio 
Malayulum VyibimtH iM'Iii'ru il to Ito innnu- 
fiiLaun-d by tbo iusix-ta lli(;inwIvt;B. by n kind 
of nccrrlivc (noci's-S mid Uiat »unk(.-e iirr wry 
foiii] of it aikI ilevnur it [fix-odny. .Sntik«* 
uUnitntTit colit.-i-t Uk' I'liUii Mungii tind take it 
round for Kale, and they givi,* out tlinl thvy 
ikoup n 8Up|]ly always lui hund with which 
to fcod ttirir siuikcs. Tho Vythians (.-n^prly 
seek it, and nso ic lu a rumody Id cholera, 
syphilid, uiid a variety of other diacawit. In 
vltol<.^ni it iH pr(Mcrib[.>d u* u »|iecilir, by rub- 
bing it up with a llttlo water mid flteb giu- 
p*r-juiL-v or country armck ; nnd thu doae is 
rept-atf^l aner every motion or act of vomit- 
ing, Il is uot coinmouly fnund tii whito-ant 

otlier Indian kiodiHoae Cifilliuaga M>lil 
liodgiiuo, in peculiar to tlia IlininUya,! 
this »pectcs tti« deai^nalioD 'SoIitAry 
ihould bo reatricUHl. It is r«idily kuowa 
white belly andyellowi^h legs — Mringii h 
sirai^hter and tnoro acumiuatod tlian 
other, and the up(>er plumage more mil 
speckled, with tho pate linear markii 
tJiD buck nnvruwer, nud tlie tail bImi Ic 
Aremgo measqromcot 12^ inche* bjr 
expatuo of wiuga ; ctoeod wiug 6^ 
nnd tail 3 i»c)ic*i. Weight 5 lo 6 
even more. The other, G. msk 
lIod|{M>a, should be diBlingui*hed 
WixmI Suipe, and is more of a Wc 
lu appuarauee aud babiUi, lliuogh k< 
to llie Dutskii'ta of tlm jungle. 
princi|Mlly n Himalayim Bpoctni, it 
mre ia die Nilgiris and it has bean 
witli in variouf pnrta of the coantrffl 
once in the Calcutta provisioii-bBZar. 
8|iecios liBH blue legs, and Uio andi 
nro uniformly bsrred thrDUf>bout ; ibe i 
colouriu^ dark, and tbo inm'kinf*« bolil 
wings mom trawed and rounded thoit ISl 
other, and the tail ehorior. Il ia only 

JiiIIh, hut in met with in one out of every! remnrks Mr. UodjL^son, iu tho hauiibi 

tw«nty or tliirty ou tbo wpnutd coaat and 
CuitnlMlore district. — /Jr. Jolin Shartf. 

SCOI.OPACIII.K, a family of Uirds of 
tlir order Graliftiorc* or Wndcr*. compridiog 
16 genera aud 33 apcc'ics lu under : 

1 Ibidorbyuouis 
4 Totnuua, 
3 Aetitii), 
6 Trincn, 

1 Tereki^ 

2 I.imot^, 

2 NumcniuHi 

1 KuriDot^yneus, 

1 CaliJuK, 
L PhilomuphuB, 
I Klreiwilan, 
1 PlulniopUH, 
I Scolopnx, 
I Mnrruhninphu^ 
t) GallluBgo, 
I KbyochfMi. 

This fNinily of bird* t« iatcrcfiling to tho 
Indiao «porbimen, from ttio cinMirnDtaDee of 
ill speciM being Urgolv sought after for 
■muenooL Tbu W(K>dco«!k i^ rverywhero 
vecy aearee on the plalaii of India, but hae now 
md then been net witli near Calcutta : it ia 
fouDtl oti the NeilgherrioK, aud uccnHionntly on 
(be plaha of the pcniuiulu. 8umu incline to 
tlieoploioa that Woodcocks may not ho ao rara 
beiug comnooly overlooked In their juoi;lo- 
luunta. The Wo(>dcork« Mcn nt tbe dinnor- 
taldo arc generally tirecnehankt) (TolamiA 
ploitii] aod oeculooally ihc filuck-iailcd 
Gndvit (LlmoH vgocephala)— bird« of very 
dUTerenC SoolopaetMHia geaem. Two distiuct 
•pwdes in tlw Himalaya ara commonly con- 
fcanded ttnder tho oame 'Solitary Snipe,' and 
both ara vrry different from tho Oallinago 
major of Eumpo and N'ortlir-ru A«lu, whii'h lum 
oot bcca obaorvod ia tho l-^t ludloi. Of tho 

182 : 

Woodoock, witii thiMdilVurence in il« 
that it is Bveree to tliL> iulcrior uf 
Length 12^ incheH by 18 in e]C|inii«eof 
eloeed wing 5^ iDcbo» ; and uul 2^ 
Woigbc 5} to 6| oz. aud upwards. 

The ' Grai>« Snipe* also knowo as th* 
tailed Suipo (G. sutnora)* ia dislJuguiA 
A duilor plumage than the common 
niipo, aud e»pevially by tho curiout 
pin-featbem uu either nido uf ilk tail ; 
AK the olhorhaa a fan-shaped tail^ al 
difforont in form. Tbe pin-tailed ts tba 
rnuu Snipe of tlie Mulny countrie*, bo' 
of Au^trulia, as has been alalcd ; thu A 
liau (6. BU!>lndi9) Ix^ing a much larger 
with inlermoliatc form of tail, as to 
Solitary and Wood Snipes of Ilritiah 
In It«ngal it in tJic mr>fe nbundiint • 
early and late in the M.'tx»ou, as the e 
or Britiab Snipe ih during tbe h< 
the eotd woatlier ; but so i-nrly a* on 
30lb August, one catne from ihu batar 
bundle of piu-tadcd flDip4<M, nod Kubteq 
the pin-taile*l only, in cootideraltio abaoi 
Nothiug is more i-nny than ta dialingvi 
two specie* by tho shape of tbo tall, 
pruct!»cd eye will generally tell them 
Ant giaooo ; yot very few aporlamen la 
are aware of the diflereooe. « 

TUc littlo Jock Suipo, C gnllhwl^' 
much later in ita arrival, thoogli DonMBA 
Aj^cied of fmnll Wuden arrivo from Uh 
brc4.'ding-liaantii bcforo the ODd of Aof^oi 
Tbo Jack isnipo has a tail qoilo difliM«&l ttvm 



Iy t>f tU\i nilii'i- ; lu liriUutocy of 

f llu; nlJirr- ; lU linllutOCy of * ' 'iftli^r. 

oxocUall III.: rL'*U i- ..,......; I'i«i..nK 'it. 

a email »uJ dintiiicl upccies of > Myi-wiiiiiK-, loelftiuL 

in thv Mnlnynn ArcJupclugo, ibe 
tuiiu of Ilor^tioltl. 

M tik u i>ur«il), Tki.. 

Uoit ulitii, Tam. 

y ml Itkn •)> -f jrniu-. Witutii. 

'oudcM-k, ideiiticuJ witli the British, 
ten obUuDfid in ihe Touat^^H^riiu pii>- 
} it MtHiuutl" iu the Ditnalnjrn, ifl leoH 
iQ io lUf- Nfiltrtiei'iicw, aud is touftider- 
rmre bird iu tbo mouDtniiif) urC'cyluii 
),Jicm\»y villi; it i-i nM to b« far from 

i*AX, a t.Huu9 vl' birda of the 

ciJir aiid Kub-fumily Scolo* 
ipe^ : tlio Ea«t Intliuu gtiieiu 
wiitcli niv lui tiuilvr : 
galiiniilii, I.tnn., Si/fies, Jerdon, 

Snipe : it breeds iu Uio Northern 

• ; U is fouud in mcwt ytnrla uf Indiiif in 
ltd vcalher cooiiDR later niul di^pariiiig 

• Uun ibe couiniim Mii[* ; it in^fors 
jTerU, lying fMj close aad is diffi- 

beiig»tounf,LtiMt., S^kejtJerd,, 

R. plcto, Oray- 

.-^iiipe, iit a penu&oeot resident 
[of IniJin, hretnliiig in Juue atid 
marshy f^und, but i» rouod 
It Africa, Itritiflh Iiidin, Ce^loD, 
'and !>outbtTD China. 

rn-^ticolu, Linn, Jerd., Blyth. 
K Oo^d, I Tti9 Woodcock. 






^^■r' DaJc. UMncin. 

W^t^^ £kg. 8un-k«kTa. of Kntnkou. 

^^ " IJlom-rokVif, Norwuy, 

Butto: Kivei(«iil, ,. 

Moflisiuk &w. 

I Woodcock, is ■ wiat«r vitiilaDt to the 

plrvAwd wooded regions uf ludioi all 

r«a^ of the soatb of India, 

r -varoT, Pulnry and Neilgberry 

^■1 tlie I'liiunlayK HounlninR, niid ts 
Dy ncBu iu (lie plaint of tbo Penin- 
aad Beigali at Madras, KuUad^bi 
plofMX BaturatK. Uorrf., Java. 

IrWood Suipo ur solitary anipe, ia rare 
« oocaf ioiudly found ou the Himalaya, 
^Brriea. Coorg. Wyniuid, Ceylou, also 
t'SitianiDpore dittrict bbtow Uurdwar. 
Jlia^o Kutopaciontt, B<tnap, 
llHCa, L, Sf., Jcr. | 8. bitrfca, /^tk., Bonap. 

k Bno. 

"^ UCT. 


'' -^ 

Cwnn«n mipe. BVQ. 

Bvcwtin", IWaiMAn, Fa. 
Cb«vre%iiluiit, „ 

Wat* ra at t> , FLtlf . 

Bbwkft i iifaank, 


TJie common suijic, brccdit iu tbe uorthorn 
i<egiuiis but lis u wiuter vialtaDl tu ludin, 
arriving, in BTnall nnmlien^, In the N. of Ilidtn 
i-arly iu August, nod Iu numbers by tliu end 
of Sfpu^mber and ibruu^li October ; tlivy nre 
occa5ionally *wti in the CalcutUi market early 
ill Aut:ui>t, and in tbal uf Madnu. by the S'tlh 
of ihnt moitth. In Upper Iturmflh, Dr. 
Jerdon noticed ttietn towni-ds the middle of 
t>nd n\ July. l)i'. Adain^ sayn it brepd'^ iheiv, 
which l>r. Jerdon doulrts. They frequent 
marelies, ri«e with a hiitKiuf; call, fly ii[;iiiimt 
the wind and ocvaeionally alight io a ploughed 

Gallinngo golildrio, JTodijton, Blylh, 
The HimaUyu Sobury Solpc, 

Found Oil yet only in Uie Uimnbiya, in 
winiur up to 3,000 to 6,000 feet, but pro- 
Imblji' belongs to 'Pibut. 

Galinago etenura, Temm. 

S. nlliooKD, Jrrd. I 8. bicUrnB, liod^. 

3. uut«rars., Hudijt. \ 8. borafieldii, Qraf. 

Ths Pm-uile4l Anip«>. 

Tins tto closely resemblrs Ibe common snipe 
that flportemen and even naturalisU oftvn 
iniBlake it. — Jerdtm oh Bird* of India ; 
Uorsfield If Moore Cat. ; TAe Indian Field. 

SCOLOVENURIUM. Many of the Filieos 
or Kerns are etill uited in medicine in India. 
The rhizoroeJi, or dried leavea of Scolopcn- 
driom, are Kitd under tbo altered name, Inkoo* 
iikundrioou. Those of Folypodium are called 
bulookuiiboon. Tbo A.^plenium rndiatum, 
mobrpiinfelive, or peacock's fHti, is employed 
by the natives probaMy as an flUlhelniiDtic. — 
O^ Hhaughtiesttf. See Feiii». 


^ pecUiuitui, Can. \ S. uigioipvnilo*, OotIr. 

A plant of Europe, cultivated io the East 

nito, one of the mackerel tribe, iuhabibt iho 
ijouthcru eeait, and is often irnught by hook 
and line- It:* flesh revcinbteii raw beef and 
when cooVcd in not invilinj;. 

core in in length from 3 lo G feet, is an inhabi- 
tant of tbe Huuthern seas, the back is bright 
purple with a golden tint : eyes targe and 
silvury, belly ftilrcry, with a play of iridesceoC 
colours. — Voigt, 427 ; Bennett, p. 22. 

SCOMBKID^, ft family of fishes of the 
BCclinn Acanthopteiygii, of which the com- 
mon mackerel may be regarded as a type : 
tlie Tunny, Sword-fi^b, Doiy, Boar-fiah, 
Pilot-Qahcs and tbe King-fiBh, also belong to 
ibMt- \ tills grou]>. The body U generally covered 

S 183 



rtth nniill M-nle^ : Uic fail h mnttWy vory > ii* t>ttt4^rftni1 ^nb-itronintirntx] i«cnti(iili 
«m(-i*rtil iiikI «!eo|il^' rlcft : iu must of tin- UUiniacliio uml tonic, It U ^iwu iu ■ 
f<pt_-oies Uin pcctornl finn are long, onrruw, ' infuKioii tn llic qtinntity of half a (<« ' 

mill poiuicd i (lie iJorMil Hqs sre two ia 
number, tlic foivniOBt of Uiem l>cii>g coni- 
,jKM«d of bonjr rajs ; the hinder doninl ia 
^~ ueQjr Mipported by foft r>ys buiI is oflea 
divided into niiraeroiiti eniMll l>d!>e tiiui. TUcy 
ail) prtivided with iiumeroua rieca, &nd tbcK 
arc oflt'ii united in clusLei'S. The Swoixl-lish, 
Xi|>hin» ^Ib'liii^ /.infKrtif, i» It) inhnbilnut of 
tJii' Meditorrniifuti ami Attaiilat', iH)i;tt»ioiiallv 
visitiik^ tlio BhiiAli coasl It mcaHurfJt from 
10 to \0 feat iu Icu^lli. Il" lio<)y h lengthy 
lUid covci-cd with iiiiuiile sealer, llin sword 
forming tlii'ee*ienthH of iu length. On its 
Ack it heara n itingle long elevated dorsal fin; 
Ihcro aro no rantntl fins. The (ail i^ keeled. 
The lower jaw U rfiarp ; the mouth witiioot 
Iceth. The u|t(M.'r part of the £t^h is bluish- 
black merging into hilver below. The uword- 
fitih u Mid to uiutck the whale, wounding it 
with its benlt. There ni^> many wtrlUnutheii- 
ticalod instauccs of the planks of ithipe being 
I>crforalcil hy the upper jaw of tliis powerful 
creaLure, which, ii has bt^en Huppos«d,,oc- 
CMionolly sttuckfl tJiu hulls of »hipfl by mistake 
">r the whale. Speeimeus of ships' (imlter 
fDctrsicd by ita aword nre preserved in many 

in the course of the dny.—AiM, MmC 
V. H9. ' 


Bclriiik ]jrtalU, P»f. 
SlioUr na]«ibMi]{.1^>t»>AU. I Lant. Tmnt, 
Nnn-IrM, KJttfiUc Tl 

LlMiidnnr*. ,, | 

C'ommon in waslo (tmuuil to rurta 
Cheuah huRin Hvim 6,Hi}() t to 9,.1(M) fa 
ZiHi"kar anil Spili, and to 16,000 
Thil>et, and apparently found (i| 
Trans-Indus, in tile plain*, and perbiips il 
plunt iu one place m-nv Liihoi-e. In thaj 
the leaves are applie<l to hnila, and 
Miid to 'm pobon, tlm month nwellin);; 
tlteir touch, nnd the head and tlirnat 
afi«ctcd wbeu (hey are cat«n. A man 
poisonoualy nflf-eled by ^<iliui;; tivt 
gnUiered in the I>a]inn> hnhiint, nod 
of Ijihou), whvu at Li> in Ib67, at 
it« uiireutic t-fleeUt for two or three dayi^^ 
ofiia leaves having Ijccn gathered by 
witli his sag or greens. At tlie eunietit 
COD linrdly be very |H]i«onona to all animi^ 
iu Lahoul tliey ate browB«d by cauIgw] 
Chrislisoo »liitfft that this has the >«ni4 
perty of dilating the pnpils as Belladc 

laseuroe. Tby XIphias h nicntivmed by i Dr. Stevnrt, l^weU's llnHil-book. 

[Arislntlf! (' Hial Anitn,' viii, !•)), who notices 

IB fact ofits striking vl-sbcU. The young fish 

it^diO ho good entiug. When very young 

IflE^ is eovered with email lubercloe, 

rhleh diiappear bcftirc ii Jicinicii) the length of 

'ihroe ft^ot. Naturalidts arrange iho tiuuUy 

Bcombrido! na undor : 

FiUT OKOcr. -Sooalirinik 
1'^ Sconbvr, t ^^ Tb^vnaua, | ft rvkmrt. 

12 Auxi». I « ("Tf-iuTi,, I 1 NsqonttM, 

2 lll*wt«, I U> ' I I llnti>|>tan. 

8«v>si> ' ■' 'DiciRit. 

1 Noptutnr UM*. I 1 :■. ( t IMUviii*. 

1 until <' ' itiiia. 

ZtUi I -l l.jti.u>. 1 T »roMaia. 

Fotmm Oftour.— StrcmiM«inA. 
I BtnmiKlpiu, I 3 C-<iutioh>|>hui. 

Kirrn Cnntr.— Oorjpb«nin». 
Ourn>b»>w< I 4 Hnrn*. | t TM»elci, 

1 Aiunnlk, I 1 &l«l> I 1 I^mprli. 

— Eng. Ct/c. 

SCOPAIUA DUrXriS, ^«Pi. Native of 
evirry part of ilic world within the truplei, 
common in India, particularly nenr the »:a. — 

Voitjt, p. .i(vr. 

S'COPK, It, Brooms. 

KCOriMKKA CLOHOSA. a erah of 
Korva, ijuickly biJek itself io iho motsl sand. 
— Adam*. 


Ti^cIbIU muUaLv Pfrx > Ma1»kMvnBk]r, TaM. 

This lias a small white root, about the third 
part of an inch in diameter, the bark of wliicli 







Owl* uf Hurope, Aaia Minor, N. Africa i 
grutoi-y. f u ludia replaced by affined 
more cspeciidly Sc. bakkamaoiia (Iho 
suutn Gt ponnuUi of HudgtiaD) which i 
be genenilty diOuscd all orer tJte 
Sc Aldrovanili if laid to be from N«i 
Tibet refers doubUew to a grey e\ 
ijifi bakkamrrna. 

SCOUPiOX, K»c., Fk. 

Xuihdkn, Aaia. 

Ai^nlA, Anuyst. Aa . 

Tiiucn-liich, L'rji.i. 

Oknb, ilaa, 

Tbo Bcctrpioa i;* ono of iha 
eigbt*lcggcU,air>breathb)g,artioulatiT i 
comiuHsiDg notes spidet^ acorpiuiu. 
scorpiuD baa a curved Bting at ihcattd-i 
n tail. If iho sharp )K)int nt* tbo tiiii|| 
cut off, tho auimnl canoot wound or 
SeorpiooB Inhabit the boC tout 
of l)Olh licmi->pberes, livo on tfae i:rij<u]4 
coDccjJ thcmBt'lveti under Btou«a auiJ,ot 
subKtAUn>a, moateommmily In niliia, dark 
co<il plaii«a, and ufi«n id bouM*. 
iua with eoQsiderabla swiflaeaa, curviaK 
(ail over tlte back— ihis they cso tutW 
avcry direction, and um for the purpoaac^ 
attack nod defcaco- ^Vith their tvnn 
MlMVorioui imwctccn which tlivjr ftoij 
having piercoJ ihom witlx their altog. 

S 1&4 


alnrlj fontl nf tho eggs of f.[>iOCTs , 
Tho wouuil DcfiiaioucJ \>y Uio 
id to the soatliem jmrts of Kuropo 
iropxo»), LI liut usuully «langcruua ; 
lii^ to Ur* fx)N>iimciiU) of Dr. 
I upon bbnecir, the »ting oteomo 
»{Hidei [>ii>(luce« nerlous uud 
omt the olJor l)io uiiimRl 
Uy liQ tbo {M>i>i4>ii. Tbo 
aru lilts valutite alkali, 
u<cU exi<:rnnlly bikI iiitcrniUly, 
tly, i|>eaicuBu iu furm of ii (Mste. 
•carpiouii ant proUiiRcil nt varioan 
»ytl an cnrriotl Uy ihv parent for 
^11 upou hrr Imrl;, (turiut; which 
fct hsiToe her retreat. The iwio 
Uie »corpioD*a «ttDg seems to 
o|HMi the lviaperaia«at of ihu 
Moy other cnuso ; sonio BuOt-riug 
aj, occaftoualljr termiiutiug iu 
lila oUicrs become oaly slightly 
I The favoarite remedy now id the 
is tliB " whiskey cuic," which, 
h0 fonn of arrftck, cumbitiuJ in tbi; 
|*oor]>toii «tiag with a poultice of 
), was known for tlic last fifty 
Iritish soltlier iu India. Uutbue 
tbc great btiuik Hcorpiuu of 
large aa a tittle cmy^fi^b, its 
looa a little iuflamiualiou, Iu tomo 
Dekban scorpions are very du- 
Often ploiuff, Uriog id holes about 
tlmuiul4-'r. On oae occusion, the 
: Gor-Nuddi, uscxl a« a porai^c 
Uie PooDa Horse, was found 
ITory ilireclioD with Ecorpiou holes ; 
■ foot of grouod hut had one of 
tD overy cue wnn a ecoi-pioti. It 
cQBious sight, perhaps oot rare 
jough uuseeo or uaaoticed. The 
tJie ground near, to cnuso a few 
sHinl lo falliiowu oD tlie fcorpion, 
.it woutil appear at its o|iL'niti^, and 
tend of a lieer horn wu tliru^t below 
ita rdtreal : tbey ivure ibea tied 
iQil inadu to GgUt. It is enid tliat 
if aurroutidtsl by Hre so as lo bo 
escnpiug, stiDgH itself lo death, 
(tts seem to have bceu comtnoa in 
aad Mesopotamia, as in Kumbcrs, 
JoeUua, xr, 3 : Jadges, i, 3G : I, 
T, Z.—£ng. C^e. ; Burton, the 
ScihiJi, p. I ^3. 
ION bflDKK. Species nf the 
BOt\e» or loori^iou spidei's^ occur io 
Tartar/ und ia the Ilimutayu. 
Taraniuloidcs Bing>^ricti«ia (or 
tla of Pallas), and the Scor- 
loion OQ tbo steppes, are Uie 
(Phalaugium amuDidea of 
Ut t ar Of a ujngeuer coiumou 

2se & 


in AfTgliftuisuu, was thero mistaken for tlti 
' THrautuk' by KIphiostoDO. Both, but mar« 
cspocially tlio Ualeodea (or ^Ipugn), uru 
cek'brated for their bites, reputed u> \>o eu- 
vumt-d ; but this is oow denied by uatumli&ts, 
TliiH very formidable and most voracious 'Tiger 
ofthu Spider chuu,' ia a terriblo pest in some 
parts, aii especially on ttte Astraknii »l'.'Pl>tV| 
whereiCsbite ismuch dreaded by thoKrilmuka,! 
who DHllttthe'lilHek widow' (belbuseaocltArra). 
Thtjy liartKHir chiefly underthe tufts of worm- 
wood, aud about tliebouus which are always to 
beifouDduearaKalniuk babjlatioo, and ui&uaL 
tbo mouth of the det>erled nests of tlu: bpcr- 
mophilus cilitlus, where tliey colK-cl a sort 
of bod of leaves. A Kalmuk liad l>ecti bit- 
ten OQ the back in his bed, by ouu of thcao 
creatures. Tlie Iwck was swollen to » 
considerable distance round tiie part, and 
water trickled fmm his mouth. A tiuiint'n 
body becomes exceedingly swollen by tli 
bile of one of tlwse poisonous B[udora. 
ecem to suffer most from these spiders, because 
they are most addicted lo lying ou the ground, 
linleodes vorax, Uutloit, au extremely 
voracious spider of Northern India, which 
feedd at uigUt on beetles, tlies, aud even largtj 
lizards, somclimcH gorging itself to Biich • 
degree ns to become almost unable to more 
and remaining torpid and motionless for about 
a fortaight. A sparrow^ as also a inu»>k- 
rat (Sorex indicus) put along with it were 
killed by iU This Galeodcs vorax was seen 
to attack a young sparrow half-grown, 
anil Heizu it by the tliigh, which it sawed 
through, then caught the bird by the 
tiiruat, and put an end to its sufTcrings by 
cutting ofl' its brad. Dr. Baddeley coiiftiipd 
one of tbcM] spiders under u glus wall-shade 
with two youug musk-rats <Sorvx indicue), 
ItoUi of which it destroyed. Neither in tJie 
iuDlouce of the bird, of the lizard, or the 
mt^, did the galoodes devour itA prey al'ter 
killing it. Capt. T. Hutton, iu tho elcvciitb 
volinno of tlie Asiatic Society's Journal, 
makes meution of a lizard bitten by one Iwing 
allowed to escape, with only a scvci-o wound 
on the sitlo ; aud as it lived for some days 
before being permitted to run off, tlie bite of 
the Galeodes would not appear to be poisou- 
oiis. — Gtuse, pp. 237-8. ; Tett*. BkeU:lusof 
Nat. liisf., Ceylon, p. 470 ; Capt. Uutlott, in 
Jour. As. Soc. of lien.. Vol. xi, Ftirt ii,|>. 860. 
SCORFION,TAILL1=:.SS, three Hpecies of 
the tailless scorpions have been noticed in 
Ceylon, all witli ibu common characteristics 
of being uocturoal. very active, very miuute^ 
of a pale-chesnut colour, and each armed with 
a crnb-like claw. Tiiey are 

Chalifvr litroniiQ, r<Diji. I Ch. scaroidei, ZZ'tria. 
„ oblongui^ „ 1 




Tlio lattpr Rpecies has cc^Uitily bo4>ii in- 
troduced from E)uro]iti, io Diilcli or I'tH-lu- 
rocM books. — Tenmi}>i'sfikcUhe$ of the Kitt. 
Jtist. of Cryhn, ;». 47fi. 

Cili'iiH limonum. Risso. T^-mon P«>!. 

it b an aauual rrom tltti Soutli of Europe, it 
elioulil ho dowti either in b(><lf, lirtuiil-riu^t, or 
pUtlloil i>ut in riiwi! fil n ')i»luDc<,' of a loot 
ftpart, lias a lun^' uilky-juiceO root, growii 
witlmutanjrtlilllculty uftorUie miiii*. Tim mot. 
when boiled mid drcswd is ratlicr a delicate 
TCgotubto. It comes to perft^f^Lioti in tliree or 
four moiitlis. Snlsafy — is the blai'k Scorio- 
ii«ni, and requires Ibe same trealrneat. In 
Cliiua, ibo M«h<ntc>n-toi)g, is n species of 
Scononem, cnIM vifMtnt.|^M8, its root it 
eaten m a vef^taXik.—Jaffrrt^ ; SmitH. 

/v. Cmv. 'rills VC17 Mnntl l>Jit occurs rn 
Ceylon, not mucii tar^'vr llinu tlm liiintbU! W. 
uJ of a gloiisy tdnck colour, it is hoinctiineK to 
te Men about Coloinl>o. — Tennent't Ukrtches 
of the Nnturnt /tiiton/ of Cei/lon, p. 20. 

SCOUftlNG-LKAVKS oFtht- A(3i:-n a»- 
pera of Gbinn, aro used for cluaoing puwtpr 

SCOURING KUS}I of Chios, Actaui apt- 


T'i:uani, ,t 

cbo l'aiiiiiiutj.4 oUoratis- 

KUdfin Itnili. Ksc 

UmbrFllft trrw, - 

Vmoi of MAuritim, Fa. 
Kocira, UlJn>. 

TUo screw piuo, 
RimuH of boliiuiMlp. gruws in MndngnNcnr, 
Ilourlion, lUtt Mnn^tilI^ (.Vylon, in tbc 
reniiitula of Indin, Uumiatt and Malnyann, 
being very cjomtnnn aloiifi the nen cniuit. 'I'ho 
IvttVM are ilf>c<I for makitigninl?, Knakctx and 
hats I Ibora aro cxu-iifivu ni.tiiiirnrtorirH of 
tli«Ba arUoIca at Putimt, Cndtlnlorc ornl 
SCTertl other localitiffo. Tlic fibre of ibe luar 
la wliit^, Bofl^ and pulpy, but iKwseased of 
liltio fCrongtb. It nppiiirB Io be* a fi;ood m*- 
teruil for tlie preparation of paper !jut ill 
SMiti'd for roi->tjigi<. I'hii atirial rootti are tniich 
u«cd aa cuono brutdiva for wbiie-wa.>liitig 
houses, when beaten wiUi a mallut tiuiy ojmhi 
0(11 !ikf n soft bruab.— Af, £. J. ft. 

SfKKW I'LAtJT or Scit!W-Tn», lldlc. 


SCKtPTURF*, a term in use in llie Knj>1iidt 
laapiaitc lo ila&igiMl* Um mcred books of ibo 
r0bri«tiaii reilgJMi. It \% from Ihn Laiui ecriptiini, 
ritin^', atK) {■ alio applied lu tbb boiy hoctkfi 
nf ilip liitnlnos the Vedau, ami Ibo furaoaa, 
Ihn iioinc* u[ the aacTcd books of tbd hindoo 
ligion. Veda ia ilmrcd froni Tvdali coo* 
ci«d retti, ho konw^, one of di« rerba 
commooly aacd in Banacrit and from 

18ti i 

which ecTfiral worJi are deriv*-! of eqi 
rrequeut ocnurrfnoe, as vidya, I 
riJivan, n learned man, Ac. This vcr 
liaH l>ceit prrsorvod iti Gre4*k, Latl. 
Ati;;lo-S]ixoit, nsSaks., vidntili ; GaKKK,i 
ta, Lat., Tident ; Amau-SAxuN, witoa ; 
KKoMfiti, wit. Tlie 5a<Tcd bookii «/ 
cliristinu religion arc dcsifinntcd tbc OM 
New Testament, or, collectively, !b« flJ* 
Lho Old Tcslampiit incnb'utes n 
and givea n history of tlio Hi.'bif w - 
two (Iiou^ihI ypara, to 11, r. 500, Tbo 
TeBliiincut ^ivctf n bietory of John 
Jeaus, tlio Christ, ibo Me»i>iuli or anoJa 
of hie teactiiiigis lii.^ doctrtiirs anJ tlxua 
tii? dieciplea. In Rritich India, tbv fnlln 
of (IcHUfi Cbmt aro n roti))xirati%-rlr 
atiml)cr, the bulk of tbc pOf>plc bnving 
copied himliii^in : tbeiv arc few binldhi 
Rmnll iiumbcT of Jain*, nitd abont Kcvqi 
millious of nuliomcdana. The picrntli 
gifUt amoag Aryan aiid nou-Arynu 
and Chiuu#u at pi-cwnt, i* o cpirri-w 
Uio mo>t varitMl kiiiJ. I( i!> laid dowii 
<iun)odn I'onmiia ami otJu'r bluiloo nrrh 
tliat, on Uiu (•pcurrcnce of n denlb, tbo 
other liL'ir of Ihc ilrci'aMHl mu^l oHIt 
offerings, and that if ho neglect in do m 
spirit pn«8(x into tbo etalv of P'MIn. 
after the foiirlh lump liaa >Kvn «tle^^dt 
obM?(|uicB proceed do further, for 
if any cnuao occur to pixivcnl Cf 
— the apirit, it is t)«lievc>l| remains ■ I 
Similarly, if oix lurupAonly W oflrrvd, 
spirit reiniiinH a pivl. Fur iwitlvr day* 
aoul, it Ih Bup[>f»i>eH, is foalt-d ud lb« eaVQl 
the hounu iu whioh il hiid parl<<d froa 
human body. At suum*!, ibrivfore, Dm) 
pui>»ioimlu relatives pluci- op<>n Ibo nto( 
its Kiib^itsnco a vea-Hil of water iitid aO' 
milk. OlbiT aceriiint» Ox Uir* rc*<ii| 
•■otil, diiriii}{ ibtn aiUmiloua pciiud, 
plaoo of tlie fiiiiernl pile ; or at riir^j 
ntiil HODiu mluiil ibat it dwell- nit' ' 
tlie olvciietita of (Ire, air, and Wkter, ._ 
hoimo whicli waa iv* home. One li 
ofTuring elioiild bo made daily, until lim 
dny from the lUy of dcreaw, fur the cfj 
llou of a ml'W Ixwly for lliu prcl. Th«' 
nt the end of tlint time, altatus to the 
the upper joini of a man's tlmmb, 
ttuitb dny a lump eliould be offrrrd 
purpoao of ciili'-fying Ibo hunger aiul 
which tlie prct now l>egina to r«el. 
romriiou piactiix* in (tiMtxerat, at tlrt- pm 
timt', i>i Io make the himp-olH-ring ten Ul 
Oa tbd lentil day. SmJlm must be |V'tfL<ni 
on tlip tenth, cleTeiiUi, IwuH'th, or tliirt«« 
day tueceodiog ihc drccwiv, and aft«rwt 
mootldy on the day of the mnath oa wk 
the death occumd, and jrearty oa ita 


f. SraJha tnu*t he pciTurnieil bosido 
Toir or on Uto Ijonki* of u river. The 
asr chavrx Iim face, atid, lioldiag la bia 
i copper cup co^tAiuiIl^ wuUir, witli 
im auj ftKtfrificial grusa, lie reptsU liie 
Qf I,., —..-(•ujions bitdi patt^rnal aud 
u', <iig wftter ax be repesta ench 

'i nv iKj-ir now rurtus uu iiuiif;e of tlio 
cat wIUi acrificUl gruts, wabIics it^ ami 
it wtUi (lowL-i-9. A limitur i-tprc«eula- 
'' ■ Viftwa DvY, in aUu mtu\v to witaesa 
arlbmtUM of ibv ritu. The Ni'Tincor 
|r« ttn*!*p, iiiuttvrint; o uluutii wliiuli Una 



■r uw 

iHM fetooe ii pUccJ t'C'^ido tliein to A»okti at Giraiu- uiul oilier places. Xbe Ata- 
tut VWnjuo, luiil ilio iliroe are wor- ni»t) itculpiures Mon^' to a pi-rioU of tlircc 
d witli (be Usijttl certiiuiMiteo. Kood ia | tiutidi-c:*! fount talur tliau ibueool' Sanctii, uiJ 
sei befoTA Uiti {{ruan 6t;ui't« nnJ cbo iJiu topes illustrate tlio fAiUi at ibeh' ilule. 
and the beir, B|ii'iuktiii(|; llicni _ lu Ibe Ainraoli oculpturea are liiouwnds of 


make) tbcir god and then woTBbippcd it; 

ua in F:xu<Iuk, ch. xx, 4, tho Egyptians 

wonbipped figure!) of tJio kuo m Its. and of 

the stare aa the other goil-^, as also statues of 

tneu, beaete, birdi) aud fishes ; but Ibo Jews 

were foibiddcu to make the llkcuoEs of 

aoytliiiig in tbc benreus above or ou the 

eorlJi beuealb, io ordei* to bow dowo aod 

wornbip it. (Herodotus, lib. li, 3C.) The 

history of the mDCtetit raocs iu the »oulh 

of Aftia is to be rutid In tlieir ecutptures. 

The sculptures io KsKhmerc, at Suocbi, 

Ueutire!f,A[uraoti,Madiir«, Trii:biuop«)ly,Tan- 

liy bis fiimily priu^l, and i jure, aud MiUiiilMili|mrBiu have oltruct^'d much 

d lo cull the Dtfv and the tioLice,asaltfohuve (hose in ilie cave tcmplKKut 

liewuwwl iiitu tliu figures. A | Fdlui-u, Adjuuta, EIupliHUtu mid the odict« of 

nort, rtrpentM llie t'barm whirh h sup- ]>ricstA and utbor t^igns of a clericAl order 
to di«n>t!w. iliuir iubabitauLH. The grasji fiegregutvd from tho laity nud of an estabtixh- 
>vn tM-Aiic a cow to bo ealeu. The ed ritual. Siuacbi ia illustrative of llio llina- 
srfomied, tlio rc!aiiou< nod tiolt^hbours ysna bnddhist philosophy, 500 years before 

B>loc«w»cd arw ntiU-rUiued, iiud hiuli- ' tlie oldest buddbist book, and AmraoU illus- 
ed according to ihe ineiina of tlie tnitcft tbe Mabayunn philaiophy, 800 ycuvs 
— AVn«r</v on the oritftn of La a- • utter ita promulyjilion. — IWter't Travels, 
t. p 210 ; JiiiM Mala, Hindoo Annals, \ VoL ii. pp. 1.S9-G0-G1. 

SCUTKLLAIUA, B genus of plants of 
tho family Lamiaoeae, section ScutellnncK. 
The Scutellariu, handsome planta when in 
Aower, arc adapted for the front of iKinlers, 
UiB colours arc purple, yellow, tx-d or blue, tbc 
flowers resembling tbe Anttrrbinuni, and may 
be gi-own from M-ed in any good garden soil. 
Wi{;bt gives .Sculelluria rivuUiris and S. 
violatea. S. yltttidubi ia the Ilwang-k'tn of 
Chinii ; itR rooih uitd heed ore used medicinal- 
ly.— IK /«., m<id(U. 

8. cnlclmmki.-itiii, Wall, Peninmla of India. 

r- ,^ , .. , - ... 8- dii^tior, CV</(i„ KhM«y« avA Kf|«1. 

5 Iterortlgnii. * .iinn»pIiiU, 3. indicn, Linn, MalalwilMbwar, China, Japan, 

3 Bontar*, 3 Hachiioia, M-j1mccm. 

fl VrtidcUf.. 1*. a rivuUri*, Wall, NVpal and Cliiia. 

5 I'-^'U". ' fl !'•;*- 8. «widvu«, Bnth., Nepal and Kammm. 

- ^"^"^ * "'-'"'*- scUTIA INDICA, Brogn,, W. S, A. IU. 

ufp. 374-75. 
iUl'lU'LAUlACEvK Und. Tbe fig- 
pAlurftl onk-r of [ilniiln lM.>Ioiiging to 
i group of muuupetalous exogens. 
ibu*tarii(! are very widely dif- 
ir tbo surface of l-lic cnitb, bviiig 
10 nbtilu range uf Himatu lietA-ccn 
■nd tropics. AcbtmoJiL's cocbin- 
[wlten pirklcd, is much estoemedf 
tie of diet- Tho figwcrt tiibo of 
Iti 3ti E, Indian geu., tOtisp., vu. :— 


lit LiitArit, 
1 ADtirrldnum, 
i l'lfr<nUgm^ 
3 Bon tun, 
fl VrtidcUf.. 
t TufrniB, 
S ArtoiMuiA, 
ft 81 rip, 

L'LITL'KES. Notes on tbe 8cul|iiMre8 
likih tmlia arct:<veii nmler tho bundiDgH 
itecture, Autiqnii)(>4, Cave« nnd Iu> 

Ri. 'Dtc MTulplurc* arc iniKjnR-rublc : 
la, dccomled buildings and ttciilp- 
19 have been the prttiei(*al monies by 
1 ibi> various rulen of ibu territories 
dyUsJ UiitiMb India and tlic-ir wtidtliy 
^a Lave adopted lo |>er|K.'luato tlielr 
lir name* and fame, ^Vtdl Lbu 
old, and with Uie biudoo and 
tonints now. Iho art uf (scul)^ 
pilUr of th^ir religion ; the 

RhoiuuuH oircunucUfciiH, /ioxit., tlh. 

„ myrtJitiiB, Burui. 
Couivthiia circ»ni<?iiuM, ffrrffM, 

„ ae^UnicA, //npie. 
Otutrut „ Jiott. 

Gkdix gMu. TU. 

A small struggling shrub, wilb pmati grcra- 
udi yellow Huwcrs, a lutjve of tbe Peninsula 
of India. 

Ola.*tlrus puuiculala, li'itlde, Boxb. 

SCYLAX. Imlia was visited by ScyUx, 
Ctesia:*, Me^'asthcnes to Chamhttgupta, !)ia. 

mnchiLs to Mitraguplii. !^cylnx, b. c 550, 
enry icmpio firsl tuftdo (uud Uill was tbe first Kuropcaa vcho in Wilowu Vq 

187 3 -187 




havr vIsitoJ Inilin. lie WM stitil }ty Dartns ' A&ia, Dlmilnr to ihnse of tbn 
to cxfilf^rr tho Iii<lu9 tuul wroli.' an m-i-outil iirtil {•Afsc^'^cd iticm'rlrM of Bortritt 
of litn jniinicy. Thn tti.'xl lirttluiinti iif IiiiJin tliu bi»t distric-t uf v\nnnniii oillml 
«u Ctenws wbo lived for mmn yrmn nt litem Kiicii««d)b. Of the firvi mi^fntUri 
iIjo PcmilaQ court of Ariaxcrxua Ifnenioti into ludia of the Indu-Scyilii'' Ct 
B. c. 437. Heroilniiix, Iiowuver, foHowptl Tnlislink and A<ii, Uial of ii*>\w 

Seylax a» an luiibority. but it waa not 
until llio cxpcditiuu of Alexander, b. o. 
SST( Ibnta lioily of aide obvpi'vers, tniined in 
tbo M.-tKt«l uf Arintotle, were ablo to ^ive 
BCoamtQ idiws (» Kurope of ihe condtlioa of 
iudia, and of tlic«o nriicm. MepkHiliuuca i» 
fiir tlio nio»<l iiii)Kirlatit. flf lived nl Uie 
court of Chftnilrngiifitn, at FaliliroDin, as nn 
envoy from Seluucus I. According' to liim, 
Iho iniltlniy force uf Cliat>dni<^i)pUi consisted 
of G<)0,000 infantry, 30,iX)OcftTnlry iin.i O.OlH) 
rlcpbfiiit5. ludiu i4i.-t.*ii]8 to hnre hevn known lo 
iho Gpocka otdy a« n connlry, that, by Pca, 
waaU) borcaulieJ by tiieway of ihc Kuplirai«s 
and t)io iVntian Oulf ; nod though Scyliix liud, 
liy tlte ordtT of DariiiE^ dropjHM] down tho 
river Indutt, coottteil Amhia, aod Utvtico 
roactipd tho Red Sea, tJii-i Toyage whb either 
for^joHcu 01' dtBlKjlioved, nml to llie time of 
tho I'tolumie* it •Mrcm^ |irubaldo thai nobody 
iLoui^hl llmt India could l>c reached by ma 
Arom £gy[>it and Kudoxus of Cyzieus in Asia 
Minor ratmo to AU-xandris to pcnuaiJo 
Kuti^oteH In ([ivo him llio cornninDd of a 
Tcsaol for this voyii;;i> uf discovery. A veaael 
wat RiToit him ; nnil ihoii^h ho wai Init liadly 
Utteil out tir roafhutl by eea, a country, which 
be CalUld India, and bruufiht hnck a cargo 
ofsiiicea and precious stones. He wrote lui 
■ccotint of tho coatitd whirh ho visited, 
and it was made use of by i'lin^. But it is 
possible tliat the unknown coootry, called 
ludia^ which Kudoxuu visited, was oa the 
woai ccnftt of Africs, and Abyuliiia wu ofleo 
called India by tiie anciuol«t, and all eost of 
tho Eupliratos wa» ali^o kaown as Himl or 
India.— Prrry*f Birdt Eyt Fiete of india^ 

SCVLLARITS, a genus '>f Crustaceans. S. 
ngoiufl, Edteard*, occurs fit rcmdichL-ny, 
and S. squtmmoauv, Kdwards, at the Mauri* 


SCYPHANTEirS, pretty liitlo yellow 
flowers, (vlii'h rciitiiro the Boino trcatmctitu 
the Loosa. — Rtddrli. 

SCVTMIA, Snca-dwipa, ntso Kiikalait the 
country of iJic Sak«. According to Strabo {lib. 
xi) all the inboH tiut of tho Caspiaa were 
called Soythic. Tho Uobia were Dcxt the 80«: 
tho llauiag(M» aud Saca) moru ciutward ; 
aotl cvwj triho b^d a particular inuoe. AU 
w«r« DomBdio t but, of thc^e uomulaa, the 
bMt known att> tlio Aii, tlio Paaiaai, 
Taohaiiaud8«c£hniniIi. wliotook HicirinArom 
Um Grvckf. 'lliu Sac£ uiaJo inupLiou io 
l«8 & 

Sebeaoagdee (Tak^hac from Ta<.i - 

nix centuries before Christ, Ja tlio 
twticed by the I'ooranns. AIkmjI ibo 
period a grand irruptiuu of ihe fuinr 
cuni{U<!rcd Ania Minor aud evenlnully Si 
navia, mid not long after t)i« A^i artd TadM 
uverturued the Gieek kingdom oi llnrtrin. T 
Romanti fell tbo power of tlic Ati, ihc Cl 
and Cimbri from the Bxlli<r ehorv. C^itu 
Tod 9Upposi-s tticAsiiitid Tarhari to be 
Aswa and Tiiksluc or Toorahka mctsa <A I 
Pi^iiauQS of Sflr-fl-dwifta; tllo Dnine lu be 
Didiyn, one of the 3G roynl K»j|mt tnb 
now extinct, aud ho ^upftoseo t)iv»u to bo 
dcBCendnnis of Buldcvu mid Yndiiihtra, 
lurnctl under diHt'rcnt a|>pvl!att'»>- 
country on t)ie eant is Htill ocrii|r, 
Tiirkoman race. Scythiana had Jiim 
abodes on tbo Amxoe. Aooordinf* to D 
dorus (liook ii) Uicir origin wna frotn a ■ 
gin bom of the eurih, (Klta) of the tk 
of n woman from tho waist upwarda 
below a serpent, (ttymbot of BmUhK 
Ella.) Jupiter had a um by her, xm 
Scytboe, who gave hiaunme lathe m4 
ScythfH had two »>onn, I'lilna aud Vl 
(l}ie nliephvid aud ^nakc-racfff uf tho Ta 
gcneiiUijiy ), who were celebrated fi-r tj 
great ediou}', nod divideil the eouuiric\ 
nations being called after thrni the PaJii 
(Pali) and Nagians. They led their f'-r" 
far as the Nile in Eirypl ao>I b«1 i 
nation*. They enlarged tho empire oi i,.^- 
thiaofl and ae for as iho Mutero oct*iii 
to tho Caspian aud luko MohjIbi. Thry 
AMjria and Meilia, orertumlng the naf 
aod iramptanting the iidialiiiaata lo 
Amxce under the name of Hau 
Tho Scythians luid many ktugn, frooa 
sprung tlio SuL-uis (Sara!t, tlio M 
(Ueu; or .lit) the Ari-a«piiui8 (&svft 
aod many otlirr racM. They 
ayria and Mfdin, ovcrtuniing the 
and tranepLiDtiiig iho inhaliitanta to 
Araxes under tlie naino of Sannv 
tians. Thoao Uibeti wbo iuhabi 
a later periodt that great 
country which lies between 
and Jajuirica, received from lito aa 
the general nainc of Scythiana, and aiv 
known to iMiropeana under that of T 
Though tliiH cuuutry has been iru' 
auce«Miun nf wnrliko tiihoiv thwc '■ 
hahly all been deriTed fhxa oaa atudt 
ihougli koowo utidor ttaajr 




c^lUltl*to^ linve alvrnya t«(yri llio 

tv!ylhiniis of (be Gi'Ofks (iiffcr in 

! «lc^c« firom Uie Tartani of 

lory. Before tim lime of Alex- 

, Trvn^xnniii wiu intutliiUHl Uj > oadoii 

WD liy %ht gcit(?rir oame of Saca : and Hm 

uiil Ma-aJi(j*'in w*Tfl powcrfnl lril>e8 of 

ulioo. Tiic nppcllatioD giveu in the 

of aurltrnt Persia la tlie rnunlry 

i^t^Oxns nn<) tU^iartes is Tumn ; 

tl nucltoo pre na no namca of 

r iritM-= nt Uiin perifwl of their his- 

mrul nil thoH: wlio dwelt bcyooj the 

lit of Tuniif to lliu em^i ninl iiui-lhM-n!<t, 

eonsiilcml fui ti(.>I<.ui^iii)> lo Cliiti and 

tai : wIikIi ctnintrifs way 1)6 gonemlly 

lernt«)aJ to iIiA<igti»li) ihiiC tarj^o Irnct 

ieh is hnowu in niodi'in gei:^riip)i]r ns 

be*« Tartaij. Wo K-aiii fri'in every hi*. 

r, ibsi from iho nit(«t early ngo» to tIm 

aKot, Uh) bumttdes or jmetomt tribes of 

nr^iua haw. Uevn con tint in I ly rlnuiging : 

J Unjf, in their tiini, RuWoed otbcns aud 

o codiiuctlhI tlienievlve«. VVc find itii^m 

improving sod cxt<-n<liri{r their 

ibiuii : Aiid ftt otberf, coni]>^llc'Kl tu leave 

Ir pasture lands to tlio occupalioD of tirrrct- 

nora numeroui honles of Imrbarians ; and 

nap ms llicy i)ru<:i-c!i]oiI into iJic furtile 

Ins of S</Dtltcrri Arfifi, or uf Kumpt', part 

gmU tide of viiiitiice and of mpiuc. 

pniprc«8 of tbo Tartar border is finely 

icriWd in Scripture. Ezekiel, when propbc- 

g of (iog and hi» people, says; — "Tliou 

kit AMcnd, and romc like n storm ; tliou slialt 

like a cluud to cover tlto land ; thou, and all 

Land'-, aii<i mnity ptMipIi*, with iJioe. And 

shall My, I vVA 1(0 up to tlia land of an- 

rillaK*^^ : I will go tu tbcm tJiul arc at 

ih&i dwfll safely, all of tbem dwelling 

liUtuut wjil]»,ttud luiriu<* i:either bars nor 

And ihnu nhnit come from thy plaep, 

of the Dortli parts, thou, and many 

lie with llior, all of them riding upon 

^. h iztait company, nud a mighty nmiy." 

waa u teno iti uRe by the ao- 

t - v.ry indelinitB charactfr, hnt it 

kkf- utidcnilood to muan llic tcn-i- 

1^- - i ,. vi by the rtsideiil, but generally 

1 :ic tribcii who roiimed over (he 

-\? jiuin liic uorth uf tlie Blnck and Caa- 

SoBM, cB^^twant? into the coiintriee now 

M Mongolia nod Tnrtaty. Aaclcot 

litemture further distinguishes 

lato tboao of Kuropc and tbo'^o of 

I the fonoer no supposed to hare oc- 

liiT enuntry from tlie DatiuW to the 

of the IJitilestcr and the Dnicp»cr in 

■ngbboarliood ul' the Don and Hlon<; the 

abom of the Block Sen, Tbo por- 

betweea the Danttl>e and the city of Car- 


cioids «H oalletl Old SeylJiia ; and the pen* 
iuf^iiln (Tanridn) lo the Hurysthonca wiut called 
Little Si^ythia : and in the time of Stmbo, 
Little Seythiu included the conntry as far aa 
the Danube previouitly occupied by the Thra* 
cians. These Europenn Scythi eeem to have 
been colonistin fi-nni A^ia. The Aftiutic Scy- 
thfu arc supposed to bare been the progeut- 
tora of the Turkoman, TnrtJir nml Mongol 
mces now oeeupyiitg llie n'gioHS in ('cntral 
Asia cxteudiug from the Caspiuii and Ai'mI 
Soas, MUttwantB iutii CliitiR. 'I'lie Seythian 
raoea repontedly emerged from ihcir Ai^ialiv 
piaiii.« ill great ma».se«, comjuering t^i tbo vnv.l 
the vref^t nml HOulb, and the Mniitchu TarlJir 
now rales in Cliina, the Turk from OoDSlau- 
tinuple Id tbo xhuiirs of the Persian Gulf and 
to the dourrct) of the Nile and, after rcpculeJ 
iurradst into ihe East Indies, aloug the Indus 
and Giitigt's rivura, tJie duecendiuiis ofTiinnr, 
a Scythian, until the middle of the 19th cen- 
tury held ueAi'ly all the countries now known 
iia Brilinh India. For about I,(K)0 yeai-n, from 
B. c. "00 to A. D. 300, a anccW!5ion of Scy- 
thian Iribc!*, belonging uppareutly to the Kanio 
(aniily as the Uraliuu tribes of Rtm&ia, and 
Fin)<, Lapff »nd HungHrians of Kuropp, burist 
in from tJie daxartcH and swept over all the 
western portion of the Couiiueut of Aeia, 
extending txi India in outs diruetiuii, and to 
Syria and Asia Minor in uiiollier. No doubt 
11)050 left their impress, but except perhaps 
among ths Hruhut IlaluuJi no tmcoa of iheni 
ID India can bd seen. FarghaDA, the nattvo 
Inrritury uf the futhcr of BaUcr, liiw on bulb 
sides of the JaxftrtcR, and is a portion of ancient 
Scythia. The manner* of the Scytbas deacrib- 
ed by IlenHlutuis aro found still to exit^l 
amoogdt their desceodaDts : a pair of slip- 
pent at the wifu^s door is a signal well un- 
deratooil by all Eiinak huBbaadft. The Scy- 
thian kings of Bacti'i& followed ilte Greek 
kin:;s, in adopting tlieir fovnisof inom-y. They 
coined similar pieces with super»cripti<ins 
Hiniilur, and in the F<Biae languages, but 
iit^eribed on th^-m their own uann>s unit 
titles, and varied Ihe emblems nuU devices, 
MnnoH, ». c. 13a, is supposed to have heet> 
a Soythtnu, the head of one of the tribes that 
brnJte tiilo Dnctiiik Iwtvreea loO to MO it. e.^ 
and he tteemti to have held cummuniaaliotl 
with Azc& On the obverse, hits coin contains 
the king with a tridcut, n Tartar war wea|Knir 
setting his foot on n prostrate enemy. 

Azcj., B. c. 130, the grentett of Scythian 
kings, on who6Q coins are Wilingital iuacrip- 
lions, with plain, distinct (Irectc clwrartcr-s 
in Avian, Maharajosa Raja Bajasa Madaliu'n 
Ayaba. The figures on the coins are various. 
FrofioBSor Wtisoo thinks he was bd Ljdiau 

S 189 





klii^% nhuut 50 p. c PrafMSor 
Lk^^gu rogJtrJd liiiii an ■ Sjiciiui Scytlimu, wlio 
coii(|iipri!i] tlio Krihul rulloy in tbu time of 
Uio xt>i.-uiiil MititriiUiur-, lunl tiimlly tle^truycd 
iIh> kini'iUiin of iMriiaiulur uud llui*tu.iiui 
tu Kimiit I2U II. c lit; tiousiilms ho waseuc- , 
cLvUml by Aziluw5. 

Sir II. Glliot &LaUM (p. 409) tlut S<7thun 
imrltariunit frum H'rnt} i;)X|)uI1(hI tlio (JLililokva 
from UiitjiljU>|>iti-a la lliu bi'giniiitiK or tbu 
Kixlli ruiittiry. Tim Viietclii catablUlKtl liiom- 
seWea no tlic IiiJuh iil (Iio Kumt.' time. Tlic 
Aljlvlvtijor l'^(ituUulilcutur Wliilv UuiH,nc<:onl- 
iitj* U) Giumiis, niU'd uii Lint batiks uf llit; Imlup 

hi lii^ tiinp, Aud itic S>ih dyn&sly wui'u ruliug j Cliutii;iz Kbati, is so p|-i)b«)>k>, 
iu SNurniiliUii. |f>li^tik:sl uvitlciicc wouU] iuducL' u» lo 

Aiuoii;; thcinRnysvArms Clmtcanic frntn Uic ; tlicm (u bavu occurred; utitl wra 
culd iL'^iriiu of SiT^tliia, ilii; Turk<i, mye Tiii- [ ftiitii>li«d with die (H'oofit nflorded lu 
thil, (|>. vi.) wert< iiolUio leosUioUil, um tlic Per- of tbu Uaj|iu(<i ccttaiitly did cotne 
hiuii uiiiiuliabi ubuiidiinUy Uiotify, ni wl'II hs tbi.' 
fuiiitiufl HUttior vf the OUiinai) Annals, Taj-ut- 
tuorich Sii'-wli eDi^udi, nud wlmt ^I'cnis co l>c 
iiiKurtvd from bitu iuiJio LeJtiL*ou-i*criiico-Tur- 
ci(!iitii Nimiialiilbib lo i-x|iliiiii ibe word Turk, 
wlicro it U 9*Ui, '* by itiU nnino ktc (!iilM ijiu 
itihabtlmitrt of CbaUi or Cliulcu, (Kibiliiaor 
Grc'kt Tartnry) who iidLubit Uie ICi)|)cluiu 
)ilaiu«. And bdeauMi all of tlicm bnvu fnir 
fftfL"5 Riid Mniik oyos«ii«l cyebrowM, tlicrufore 
Uie l*cr%i.iii |KK)t!f c:)l[ LovvrR nml GuIluniA, by 
cwtniMriaut), Turkri." Itut tliia naroo urKn^f 
chn>'-. (tcculbir to n tribu of the TiirtArr), wu»t 
uTlL-r Ji<ii}{bix-kbai)'H cxpcdLtioo, givuu by th« 
JVmiuua lo tli« wboli! inilinu of Srytliiaiu', 
thoir coiiijuLTOTfl, m «p|K;itr!) by Ibu tusli- 
tnunic^ vi Uio I'^'rainu wriUTrn. Thai*, the 
[K)Gt Swdi, ill llm [ir«.-raL-o of Uia Gutis- 
C&Q or Uosary, oi^cribcs ihe cjhih of hie lcav< 
in;; bis country Cbom-'^Aii to tlii^ ctfccL SIdoo, 
tbttt'ofore, il h iiiaQifci-t, tlio UKinu uf tlic 
Turks was kouwu to all Aniji luo}; lufurc 
Utliiiiaii.iindcbictlyfllti'iljutctl In (bo Scythimi 
tribcd Lbat fulIowiMl Jeuf;bl£-kbati. antl wore 
dit)iei-s(]d uvvr Tuniia uiid At^ia Miuor^ it 
r<;ninina to abuw bow thi^ niiiciu uiino to bo 
•p propria teJ to tbu Otbiaunida], Sulimnu, 
fiUlicr of the Othiiiiiu rm;«, prince uf Ncru, 
trvwlinj; in tins »luj"t of tlic (ircat •Icti^biz- 
kbaOi cnmo fiirlb frtim bin country willi lilty 
ihooMlid roJtowcr.% tho (lower of liicSoytbinn 
yOulb, aiid ovorniti mil only lliu nclcbboiMiii>; 
rvgioRS bat all AcerlM'jaii and Syria, ns far 
u Alopp-x WhoD tlio Dew8 of tho«e coif 
qiient* was brought tu the Torsiau Court, 
lianediNtfly the iiune Turk cotumon to the 
Jongbia-kliau Scythious, wa^ f^iveu ftliio to thia 
unty. Solimaut prince ofNera, in by all Ltio 
hifllonttu of kia nation, and aUo by lh« more I but ftom iiocossity, aud, tbougii <jftOD ui ( 
soconbto chi-ialiaii wrilprs, nlfuiDod to